Three-layer fibrous-porous filtering material

FIELD: filtering materials for liquid and gaseous fluids.

SUBSTANCE: filtering material is made of thermoplastic polymeric fibers. The density of material increases downstream, whereas the diameter of fibers decreases downstream. The inner layer of the material has areas the density of fibers in which is lower than the averaged density of upper layers by a factor of 2-6.

EFFECT: enhanced strength.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the production of filter materials for purification of gases from solids.

There are many different porous materials and products that are used for gas purification. For example, the known filter material described in U.S. patent 4983193 /1/designed for use in filters for purification of gases, for example air from dust. This material is formed by hot pressing and contains fiber, United among themselves by means of binders. The density of the layer from the entrance of the purified stream is between 0.01 and 0.1, and on the output side of the purified gas of 0.05-0.5. Between the input and output sides in the layer there is a continuous density gradient with a uniform distribution of fibers in the cross section. In the manufacture patentable material gas in which particles of the binder passes through the workpiece, which is a tape obtained from the fibers, and the fibers are uniformly distributed in the layer. The velocity of the gas with suspended particles does not exceed 4 m/s In the inlet gas is high, the concentration of the binder, which gradually decreases in the direction of gas with suspended particles. The advantage of the patented material is the gradual change is the density in one layer, contributing to improving the efficiency of air purification and renewal of life by reducing the degree of driving then hold dust.

Known filtering material, as described in Czechoslovakia No. 256824 /2/. This material includes a bearing fiberglass, to one or two sides sewn polyester fiber. The material is subjected to thermal fixing, and impregnation aqueous emulsion polyhydroxyalkane or epoxy resin. The proposed material is characterized by high efficiency filtration and resistance to high temperature.

Known filter described in U.S. Pat. U.S. No. 5030037 /3/. This filter is a porous membrane, one side of which the pore size is significantly greater than the pore size on the opposite side. The product is molded as one piece of a porous polycarbonate, polyethylene or polyamide, and the density of the material from the side surfaces of the larger pores is smaller than that of the surface with smaller pores.

Known multi-layer filter for gas, described in U.S. Pat. USA 6024782 /4/. The filter is formed by a substrate of fibrous material, such as PP or HDPE, which is sequentially applied layers of thermoplastic adhesive and the particles of the adsorbent. The substrate tape is moved in the horizontal direction is covered with a thin layer of molten thermoplastic adhesive, preferably, PP or PE, which remains in a softened state at a temperature of 120-180°With; the adhesive is dispersed through a nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.2-1 mm, Then at the layer of adhesive is applied to the particles of the adsorbent, such as activated carbon with a diameter of 0.05-3 mm Seal structure is a roller that creates a pressure of about 1 kg/cm2. The number of alternating layers of adhesive and the adsorbent can be up to 50. With 9 layers of activated carbon, the content of the adhesive 5±1 wt.% and air velocity 10 cm/s, the impedance of the filter is 40±15 PA. The filter can be used in respirators, devices for cleaning indoor air, car and industrial installations.

Known multilayer filter material (application and 19990931 RB) /5/, consisting of a metal layer with pores and a layer of porous polytetrafluoroethylene, and the first layer it is a perforated metal plate with holes with a diameter less than 2 mm and a ratio of the area of the perforations to the square plate not less than thirty-six percent, and the second fibrous porous polytetrafluoroethylene.

Known filtering material, as described in the USSR № 1360774 /6/. The element includes a layer of otkrytosti plastic material, one surface of which is made wavy, and the filter layer of the fiber is the simple materials moreover, the fibrous layer is located on the wavy surface, which is equipped with an additional layer of otkrytosti plastic with wavy surface facing the layer of fibrous material. This is done with the aim of reducing the average ratio of dust passing through and increase the duration of the work to the limit of resistance.

Known multilayer filter material described in the patent of Russian Federation № 2075330 /8/. The material consists of loose input layer, which consists of coarse fibers, a layer of synthetic fibers of intermediate thickness and packing density and output more dense layer of fine synthetic fibers, bonded with a flat glued or thermally bonded non-woven material, or having melted the outer surface side of the air outlet. Fibrous layers bonded together by bundles of fibers through hypoproteinemia without education through beams and holes from the needles. The input and output layers consist of synthetic fibers of a certain thickness at a certain ratio between the thickness of the fiber input, intermediate and output layers, namely, the diameter of the fibers in the input layer is not more than 45 μm, the diameter of the fibers of the output layer is not less than 10 μm, the intermediate layer consists of fibers with a diameter of 1.5-2.0 times the diameter of the fibers of the output layer and is else the diameter of the fibers in the input layer.

The closest profile to the technical essence and the achieved result is a filter that is described in the patent of Russia № 2182509 /7/. The filter contains the filter area, including at least two spaced layers of thin fibers; each of the at least two layers of thin fibers includes fibers having diameters of not more than 8 μm; each of the said at least two spaced layers of fine fibers has a fiber diameter of not more than 5 μm, and the first layer of the at least two layers of fine fibers having a first efficiency for capture of monodisperse polystyrene latex spheres size 0.78 μm, and the second layer of the at least two layers having your own capture efficiency of monodisperse polystyrene latex spheres size 0.78 μm; the first efficiency is different from the second efficiency; and a cushioning layer of coarse-fibered material, placed between two layers of thin fibers, while the cushioning layer of coarse-fibered material has a fiber diameter of at least 10 μm; and thickness, which separates the first and second layers of thin fibers at a distance of not more than 254 microns. The filter design can be folded structure of a composite material. Folds from 0.6 to 30.5 cm depth, arranged with a density of at least 1-15, sklada the/2,5 see Filter design in this patent may include many additional layers of fine material, each of which is separated from the adjacent layer by a layer of coarse-fibered environment. In the description of this patent is an example of a filter that can metaphorically be seen as a web of stretched between the boards of the fence”. “Board” or coarse fibers provide very porous open area and generally do not interfere with the passage of the air flow through the open space. Thin fibers represent a net stretched across the open space. Since most of the air flow through this material, mostly not delayed coarse fibers, the role of coarse fibers in the capture and inertial compaction of the particles is relatively small. Very fine fibers stretched across the volume through which the primary air flow. These filters use a lot of “fences”, stacked on top of each other, and each fence has a “web” on one side. The result is a multi-layered web of split boards of the fence. Moreover, in the filter created voids, the width of which is determined by the thickness of the coarse fibers of the boards of the fence.

Almost all known filter materials with constant thickness characteristics, and variables in t is m and the filter-prototype don't have drives for dust in areas with low density of packing of fibers. In the filter material, as described in the USSR № 1360774 and patent - prototype (an example of the “web” and “the boards of the fence”) within cavities - cavities, where there are no fiber. These cavities serve as drives dust, but the lack of fiber leads to caking of dust at the wall, opposite the entrance of the purified gas. This leads to a rapid increase in the resistance of the filter and, consequently, reduce its service life.

The purpose of the present invention is robust filtering material with a high dust holding capacity and long life.

The proposed filter material consists of three layers, formed of fibers of thermoplastic polymer, for example polypropylene, polyethylene or other Density of the two outer layers of material and the diameter of the forming fiber is different. Thus, the density of the layer from the entrance of the purified gas is less, and the diameter of the fibers forming the layer is greater than that of the gas outlet. The inner layer of material consists of sparse areas (the density of packing of fibers in which 2-6 times lower than the average density of the outer layers, and thus it is lower than the density of the least dense layer) and located between these areas, and strengthening more expensive than the density of packing of fibers in 2-6 times greater average density of the outer layers and the density of the densest layer. Hardening of the tracks are not in the same plane, and throughout the volume of the inner layer which ensures high durability as this layer and the filter material.

Various characteristics of the outer layers of the material (the diameter of the fibers and the density of their packing) reduce the resistance of the filter, to prevent rapid clogging of the first (input) layer, extend the service life of the filter material.

The presence of sparse areas in the filter increases the dust holding capacity of the filter material, thus reducing its resistance and increasing the service life before reaching the filter limiting resistance.

In contrast to the void areas with low density't give dust cake in one hand and increase, as a result, the resistance of the filter. The dust settles on the fibers of the sparse plot, evenly throughout the volume. Hardening tracks provide the strength of the inner layer and the material.

Examples of the material:

1 - the First layer (from the entrance of the purified gas): the density of packing of fibers - 0.07 g/cm3the diameter of the fibers forming the layer of 25-30 microns. The third layer (the output of the purified gas): density of 0.13 g/cm3the diameter of the fibers is 10 to 15 μm. The second (inner layer): the diameter of the ox is con 8-12 microns, the density of packing of fibers sparse areas - 0.025 g/cm3strengthening tracks - 0.45 g/cm3.

2, the First layer (from the entrance of the purified gas): the density of packing of fibers is 0.05 g/cm3the diameter of the fibers forming the layer of 20-25 μm. The third layer (the output of the purified gas): the density of packing of fibers is 0.2 g/cm3the diameter of the fibers of 10-12 microns. The second (inner layer): the diameter of the fibers 8-10 microns, the density of packing of fibers sparse areas - 0.025 g/cm3strengthening tracks - 0, 55 g/cm3.

Receive such material as follows. On the surface of the drum is fixed volumetric mesh (type “rabica”) with a cell from 10 to 50 mm, the Drum is driven into rotation and reciprocating movement, by means of a jet of hot air on its surface uniformly over the entire area of the grid are drawn fibers of thermoplastic polymer in viscous-fluid condition. At the intersections of the fibers termoskrepleniya with each other. On the edges of the mesh material rests tightly and almost all fiber here brazed to each other at points of contact (thermal bonding of the fibers at the expense of their accumulated heat), thus, forming a hardening of the track. In grid cells fibers lie loosely, adhesions between them is small, i.e. formed sparse areas. The size of the sparse at the of Astrov is determined by the cell size and grid structure and the pressure of the air jet guiding fiber mesh. Upon further application of fiber surface material and the density of packing of the fibers are aligned, and formed the input outer layer. Thus obtained material is removed from the grid, turns to the other side, is fixed on the drum off the grid and on its second side is applied to the fibers of smaller diameter and greater density of packing. Opposite of hardening tracks are formed sparse areas. The thickness of the outer layers and their characteristics (diameter of the fibers and the density of their packing) are determined by the operational requirements of the material.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing (see figure 1, where a - type material top, b - cross section of the material, 1 is the outer layer from the purified gas output, 2 - outer layer from the entrance of the purified gas, 3 - sparse area, 4 - reinforcing path).

The dust holding capacity of the material above and the period of its operation up to the limit resistance greater than that of the material made without areas with lower density. For comparison, the material is taken, in which the inner layer is transitional between the two outer, and its characteristics (density and diameter of the fibers) is the average between the characteristics of the outer layers. Characteristics of the outer layers of the compared materials are the same. P is the iMER use of materials specified in the table (see table).

Table
Material capabilityThe inventive filter materialMaterial made without areas with low density of packing of fibers
Dust holding capacity, g/cm31,851,42
Life, to maxsort., h24001800
A skip factor of dust, %0,100,35

Experiments have shown that if the density of the sparse areas less than 2 times lower than the average density of the outer layers, the significant effect on capacity cannot be obtained, if it is more than 6 times lower than the average density of the outer layers - is sliianie dust at the wall of the sparse plot opposite the gas inlet.

The proposed filter material can be used in air conditioners, kitchen hoods, paint cameras, etc.

Sources of information

1 U.S. Patent No. 4983193 CL 01 D 46/00, Appl. 12.11.80,

publ. 01.02.89.

2 A.S. Czechoslovakia No. 256824 class. D 04 H 1/46, 01 D 39/06, Appl. 10.11.86, publ. 08.01.91.

3 U.S. Patent No. 5030037 CL 65 G 53/38, Appl. 19.12.88, publ. 09.07.91.

4 U.S. Patent No. 6024782, CL 01 D 53/04, Appl. 22.04.98, publ. 15.02.2000.

5 Application No. 19990931 RB, CL B 01 D, Appl 15.10.99, publ. 30.06.01.

6, As the USSR № 1360774, CL 01 D 27/06 Appl. 22.07.86, publ. 23.12.87.

7 RF Patent № 2182509, CL 01 D 27/00, 39/16, 46/00, publ. 20.05.2002.

8 RF Patent № 2075330, CL. 01 D 39/16, publ. 20.03.97.

Three-layer fibrous-porous filter material for removing gaseous media comprising fibers of a thermoplastic polymer containing an outer layer that is placed on the input side of the purified gas, an outer layer that is placed on the exit side of gas to be purified, and an inner layer between them, while the outer layer side of the gas inlet contains fibers with a diameter greater than the fibers of the outer layer on the output side, when the density of the layer on the input side is less than the density of the layer on the output side, and an inner layer of material contains sparse areas, characterized in that the density of packing of fibres in loose sections of the internal layer 2-6 times less than the average density of the outer layers, while the inner layer is between sparse areas are strengthening tracks, having a density of 2-6 times greater than the average density of the outer layers.



 

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