Device for registering electrocardiogram signals

FIELD: medicine; cardiology.

SUBSTANCE: device has amplifier, analog-to-digital converter provided with multiplexer, arithmetic unit, memory unit, digital modem, increment code analyzer, increment codes number counter, switching unit and control unit as well as second memory unit, digital filtration unit and decimation unit. Electrocardiogram signal is registered within frequency-time area. Increase in volume of diagnostic data is provided due to time localization of spectral components of electrocardiogram signal.

EFFECT: widened operational capabilities; improved precision of diagnosing; higher efficiency of treatment.

6 dwg

 

The invention relates to medicine, can be used for registration, analysis and transmission of electrocardiogram (EX).

A device for transmitting EX [1], containing connected in series amplifier, multiplexer, analog-to-digital Converter, an arithmetic device, a buffer memory, a digital modem that implements the transfer method with the storage of the incoming data and transfer it in offline mode with a speed corresponding to the characteristics of the communication channel.

The disadvantages of the known device is that you want a great time employment communication channel for transmission of information and a large buffer memory device for remembering at the transmitting end and the subsequent transfer of large amounts of information, and lack of opportunities to record and analyze the frequency-time characteristics of the FORMER.

Known selected as a prototype device for registration of electrocardiogram [2], contains one United amplifier and analog-to-digital Converter with multiplexer and the arithmetic unit, a memory unit, a digital modem, the analyzer code increments the counter non-code increment, the switch unit and the control unit, and the analyzer input codes increment connected to the output of arithmetices the first device, the first output of the analyzer code increment connected to the first input switch unit, the second to the first input of the memory block, and a control output to the first input of the counter code number increment, a second input connected to the first output control unit, the second and third outputs of the latter are connected respectively with the control input of the switch unit and the second input of the analog-to-digital Converter, and the output number counter code increment connected with the second input of the memory block, the output of which is connected with the second input of the switch unit, and the output switch unit with modem input.

The disadvantages of the known device is that upon registration the FORMER is not fixed to typical, locally and not visible “at a glance”, especially the FORMER, without which is impossible modern heart conditions ' diagnosis.

Classical methods of recording and analysing the FORMER have already exhausted their resources and therefore are searching for improving diagnostic capabilities using new methods of display and analysis of the FORMER.

In the known device the FORMER represented by a set of code samples in the time domain. From the description of the known device, it follows that “the Arithmetic unit generates, for each assignment of the difference between current and previous time reference”(hereinafter in quotes, italics authors present invention). According to the authors of the present invention, it is a fundamental distinguishing feature of the known device. Formed by the arithmetic unit, the difference is presented in the form of a 9-digit code: the first eight digits are for information only, and the last of the ninth - sign. Then according to the description of the known device in the analyzer code increment is divided code increment into two parts: two minor category code increment and its sign bit (just 3 digits) via the input switch unit are transferred directly to the digital modem and then to the communication channel and transmitted to the receiving end. The values of the remaining six high-order bits of code increments are analyzed and if it is different from zero at least one discharge through the input unit of the analyzer code increments of these 6 bits are sent to the input of the memory block, where remembered. At the same time under the condition different from zero the analyzer block codes increments generates a write command time coordinates coming from the analyzer to the input of the counter code number increment, which is determined by the number of the current code increment (time coordinate).

If all 6 high-order bits of the incoming code increment equal to zero, then the two youngest and the sign bit of code increments as before, enter the line before the Chi, and the code analyzer increments are waiting for the next code increment.

The procedure takes place until, until the end of the specified time of ECG recording, which is determined by the duration of the time interval, released by a control unit.

As follows from the above quote from the description of the known device, the ECG signal is recorded only in the time domain. According to the authors, from the point of view of view diagnostic information, this is clearly not enough.

It is obvious that the registration of the ECG signal is not an end in cardiology. The process of cardiac information, in addition to registration, includes the steps of analysis and diagnosis. The ECG signal is the primary carrier of diagnostic information, and fixing upon check out as much as possible this information will provide more opportunities for analysis and will significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis.

According to the authors of the present invention, it is necessary for the registration of the ECG signal to expand the scope of representation of diagnostic information.

Analysis of the electrocardiographic information is essential when planning a course of treatment, decision making in the diagnosis, finding ways to increase the effectiveness of treatment and so is the surveys of the ECG signal more suitable for the study and interpretation of the form is preferable.

The invention is directed to expand the functionality of electrocardiographic studies by registering the time localization of the spectral components of electrocardiograma.

This is achieved by the fact that in the device for recording of electrocardiogram containing serially connected amplifier and analog-to-digital Converter with multiplexer and the arithmetic unit, a memory unit, a digital modem, the analyzer code increments the counter non-code increment, the switch unit and the control unit, and the analyzer input codes increment is connected to the output of the arithmetic unit, the first output of the analyzer code increment connected to the first input switch unit, the second to the first input of the memory block, and a control output to the first input of the counter code number increment, a second input connected to the first output block management, second and third outputs of the latter are connected respectively with the control input of the switch unit and the second input of the analog-to-digital Converter, and the output number counter code increment connected with the second input of the memory block, the output of which is connected with the second input of the switch unit, and the output switch unit with modem input, input a second memory block, block digital filtering, and nl is the decimation, moreover serially connected analog-to-digital Converter, block digital filtering, block decimation and the arithmetic unit, and the input of the second memory block is connected to the fourth output control unit, the fifth output of the latter is connected with the second input of the digital filter and the output of the second memory block and the second output block decimation connected respectively with the third and fourth inputs of the block digital filtering.

Put the blocks and their relationships are new properties that allow you to increase when registering the amount of diagnostic information by recording the time localization of the spectral components of electrocardiograma.

The block diagram of the device for registration of electrocardiogram is shown in figure 1. The device contains: 1 - power, 2 - analog-to-digital Converter, 3 - block digital filtering, 4 - block collection, 5 - arithmetic unit, 6 - analyzer code increment 7 - block switch, 8 - digital modem, 9 - control unit, 10 - second memory block, 11 - meter rooms, 12 of the first memory block.

Series-connected amplifier 1 and an analog-to-digital Converter 2 multiplexer, block digital filtering 3, block decimation 4, the arithmetic unit 5, the analyzer code increment 6, the switch unit 7 and the digital modem 8. Outputs BL is the AC control 9 is connected respectively to the inputs of an analog-to-digital Converter 2 multiplexer, block digital filter 3, the switch unit 7, the second memory block 10 and the counter non increments 11. The output of the second memory block 10 is connected to the third input of the digital filter 3, a fourth input connected to the second output of the decimation 4. The second and third outputs of the analyzer code increment 6 are connected respectively with the second inputs of the counter non increments 11 and the first memory unit 12, the output of which is connected to the third input of the switch unit 7.

The amplifier 1 is designed for amplification of the signals leads. Analog-to-digital Converter with multiplexer 2 is designed to convert a lead signals from analog form to digital form. Block digital filter 3 is designed to separate the spectrum of the signals leads to two components: high frequency and low frequency. Block decimation 4 is designed for thinning 2 times the frequency of high-frequency and low-frequency components of the signal leads. The arithmetic unit 5 is for forming, for each assignment of the difference between the current and the previous code samples. The code analyzer increments 6 is designed for, first, the separation of the received code increment into two parts: the first part consists of two minor category code increment and its sign digit (only 3 digits), the second is the actu - of the remaining six high-order bits of code increments, and, secondly, to analyze the second part of the received code increment. The switch unit 7 is designed to connect the output of either of the analyzer code increments of 6, or the first memory unit 12 to the input of a digital modem 8. Digital modem 8 is designed for the transmission of information via communication channels. The control unit 9 is designed to synchronize and control the operation of the blocks of the device. The second memory block 10 is designed to store high-frequency coefficients and low-pass filters. Counter code number increment 11 is designed to determine the number of the current code increment. The first memory block 12 is designed to store the values of the second part of the code increments under the condition different from zero at least one category.

It is proposed to record the ECG signal in the frequency-time domain, to generate the appropriate code samples and send them to the receiving end for further processing. Formed in the proposed device code samples allow you to change the quality of the recorded information is compared with the registered information in the known device. While retaining the advantages of the known device for the source measurement accuracy of the ECG signal, to reduce the required volume of buffer memory and time ZANYATOSTI the communication channel.

Also the advantages of the proposed solution should include a more visual representation of the recorded ECG signal. It is known that graphical information (drawings, diagrams, charts) people perceive better, therefore, in the proposed device, the ECG signal is recorded in the time domain in the form of one-dimensional functions, and in the form of spectral surface in the frequency-time domain.

It is proposed to carry out the registration of ECG signal using wavelet transform [3].

The wavelet is called some function (pattern), well-localized (i.e. concentrated in a small neighborhood of some point and sharply decreasing to zero as the distance from it) both in time and in frequency domain. The wavelet can be applied two operations:

- shift, i.e. moving the field of localization in time;

- scaling (stretching or compression), i.e. moving the field localization in frequency.

Using these operations, taking into account the properties of the locality of the wavelet in the frequency-time domain, allowing you to record and analyze data from ECG signal at different scales and to pinpoint the location of their characteristics in time. The idea of the wavelet transform is to compute the scalar product (size, showing the grade is “similarity” of the two patterns) of the recorded data with the different shifts some of the wavelet at different scales. The result is a set of coefficients, showing how the behavior of the process at this point is similar to the behaviour of the wavelet at a given scale. Closer view of the recorded dependence in the vicinity of this point type wavelet, the greater the absolute value has a corresponding coefficient. Negative coefficients indicate that the dependence is similar to the “mirror reflection” of the wavelet.

The process of constructing wavelets is quite complicated for the user. Mathematicians already created a lot of wavelets, which is sufficient for ECG analysis. An important practical issue is the choice of many basic wavelet most appropriate. Skillfully selected wavelet will fully and clearly reflect the characteristic features of the ECG.

For orthogonal wavelets, there is a fast wavelet transform (Fast Wavelet Transform), also called the algorithm of Mallat (Mallat algorithm). It implements a filtering-based iterative algorithm, and the number of iterations N can be arbitrary.

The first step of the Mallat algorithm is illustrated by the following diagram of the wavelet decomposition of the signal:

The ECG signal s is fed to the decomposition filters low and high frequencies, and then using the operation of decimation ↓2 (reducing the frequency sostavlyajushie the half) we can obtain the approximation coefficients at the output of the low pass filter and detail coefficients at the output of the high pass filter. Further, this algorithm can be continued according to the scheme presented in figure 2.

The result (as can be seen from figure 2) is a complete set of approximating (denoted as a) and detailing (denoted as D) coefficients, up to the decomposition level j+1. The numbers indicate the level of decomposition. This is the code samples of the ECG signal, which is recorded in the proposed device. For this set of coefficients is based 3-D wavelet spectrogram of the ECG signal.

The ECG signal s is represented by the expression:

where and are the coefficients of the approximation for a given j and k, d are the coefficients of detail for a given j and k, ϕ(t) is the scaling function, ψ(t) is the wavelet function.

Approximate and detail coefficients are calculated by the formulas:

and

when

where hmand gmthe coefficients of the filter low-pass and highpass filters, respectively.

On the receiving end of a registered code samples are subjected to wavelet reconstruction. Using the operation, reverse the decimation, ↑2 (doubling the number of components by adding zero components interspersed with existing components), you can get a diagram of the reduction in the anti-shudder performance of the coefficients of the approximation:

The meaning of the operation ↑reverse the decimation, explains figure 3. The lower level of the coefficients of the approximation means a gradual approximation to the original ECG signal. The process of decomposition-reconstruction can be represented General diagram of wavelet transformations:

Figure 4 presents a more visual chart implement a fast multistage Mallat algorithm based on wavelet filtering. For clarity, the signal presented in the form of 1000 samples. Inside rectangles schematically shows the frequency response of filters. From this chart it is easy to follow the process of decomposition of wavelet filters and signals and then process the reconstruction of the ECG signal. RF filters are denoted as H and high - pass filters as L.

So, as a result of the registration process the original ECG signal s is decomposed into wavelet coefficients up to a specified level of decomposition, after which, during the reconstruction, is restored to the approximate signal se→s. The degree of approximation depends on the level of decomposition and reconstruction. The zero level corresponds to the exact recovery of the signal (se=s).

The proposed approach enables the registration of such an important analytical performance of the ECG signal, as the frequency, trend, local CCA the items.

One of the most important indicators of the ECG signal is its frequency and variability, i.e. the frequency after a certain period of time. Heart rate variability (HRV) is one of the fundamental physiological properties of the heart.

The availability of information about the periodic components of the ECG signal and the depth of the oscillations allows to assess the state of the cardiovascular system. However, a combination of several different vibrations may be so complex shape that reveal their presence “at a glance” is not possible. If you look at the ECG signal, it is possible to ensure that it is limited both in time and magnitude. Of course in mathematical analysis it is known that such a signal can be represented as a sum of harmonic oscillations of different frequency and intensity (amplitude). Oscillations with low frequency, are responsible for slow, smooth, large-scale changes described by the magnitude and frequency of the short, small-scale changes. The stronger the changes described by this pattern of value on this scale, the greater the amplitude have components at the corresponding frequency. Thus, any ECG signal can be considered as in the time domain (i.e. the development process over time)and in the frequency domain (i.e. in PLA the e extent of the changes in the value of interest). Thus formed image of the ECG signal is a 3-D wavelet spectrogram of the ECG. The horizontal plane of the spectrogram built-axis scale and time. The height is set by the values of the wavelet coefficients.

3-D wavelet spectrogram ECG showed all the characteristic features of the ECG: the scale and intensity periodically changes the direction and magnitude of trends, availability, location, and duration of shocks - that is, all the factors necessary to analyze cardinformation. Example of 3-D wavelet spectrogram of the normal ECG signal and an ECG signal with myocardial infarction are shown respectively in figure 5 and 6. The evaluation forms of the surfaces of 3-D wavelet spectrograms with various myocardial infarction, obtained using the basic wavelets and identified their features.

According to the authors of the present invention, the proposed device during registration of the ECG signal information content and clarity cardiogenic presents a greater extent in comparison with the known device.

The proposed device for recording the ECG signal is as follows.

Previously the user defines the type of the underlying wavelet, which will be implemented wavelet filtering of the ECG signal. Then the control unit 9 are formed control and ADR of the red signals, coming to corresponding inputs of the second memory block 10. The contents of the cells of the second memory block 10, accessed, are the coefficients of high-frequency and low-pass filters block digital filtering 3. This is the setup of the digital filter 3 on the wavelet transform of the ECG signal by using one of the basic wavelet. Decomposition of the ECG signal with the wavelet transformation type filter is to filter the ECG signal with two filters: low pass and high pass. Each filter represents a pair of sets of coefficients at different levels: detailing the gmand approximating hm. Then the clock pulses from the output of the control unit 9 is fed to the input of block 2 and trigger the ADC and the multiplexer, so that the output of the ADC 2 and respectively on the input unit of the digital filter 3 codes appear amplitudes EX sequentially in each lead. Block digital filtering 3 together with the block decimation 4 form for EX each lead set approximating a and d detailing component, which are nothing more than the wavelet coefficients EX this assignment, and presented in the form of code samples.

The arithmetic unit 5 generates for each of these code samples the difference between current and previous is the future reference and, thus, to the input of the analyzer code increment 6 enters the 8th bit code increment signal with the sign (the 9th bit) sequentially for each abstraction. At the same time from the output of the control unit 9 clock pulses arrive at the counting input of the counter code number increment 11, resulting in the output of the counter 11 is formed code numbers calculated increment signal, i.e. its temporal coordinate.

In the code analyzer increments 6 separates the received code increment into two parts; two minor category code increment and its sign bit (just 3 digits) via the input switch unit 7 is transferred directly to the digital modem 8 and further to the communication channel and transmitted to the receiving end. The values of the remaining six high-order bits of code increments are analyzed and if it is different from zero at least one discharge through the output unit 6 of the code analyzer increments of these 6 bits are sent to the input of the first memory block 12, where remembered. At the same time under the condition different from zero the analyzer block codes increments 6 generates a write command time coordinates coming from the analyzer 6 to the input of the counter code number increment 11, which is determined by the number of the current code increment (time coordinate).

If all 6 high-order bits of the incoming code increment Rav is s zero, the two youngest and the sign bit of code increments as before, go on line for transmission, and the code analyzer increments of 6 waiting for the next code increment.

The procedure takes place until, until the end of the specified time of registration of the FORMER, which is determined by the duration of the time interval, released by a control unit 9. At the end of the registration interval control unit 9 stops the supply of clock pulses to the inputs of blocks 2, 3, 11, completing their work, and then sends the command to the input of the switch unit 7, connecting the input of the modem 8 to the output of the first memory block 12 and starting the transfer of the memory contents, i.e. memorized older bits of code increments and time coordinates.

Thus, the proposed registration and representation of the ECG signal in the frequency-time domain:

- extend the functionality of the known device, keeping his dignity in the original measurement accuracy of the ECG signal, to reduce the required volume of buffer memory and time employment of the communication channel;

- allow to increase the information content and clarity;

- determine the necessity of creating a method of analysis of 3-D wavelet spectrograms, and serve as a basis for the development of new classification methods based on the analysis of features of 3-D wavelet spectrogram.

iterator

1. Microcomputer medical system. Ed. Tompkins, M.: Mir, 1983, s.

2. Baum O., G. Kostov, L.A. Popov Device for registration of electrocardio signals. Patent RU No. 2008796 C1, MKI 5 And 61 In 5/0402, 1994.

3. Deacons VP Wavelets. From theory to practice. - M.: SALT - R, - 2002, s.

Device for registration of electrocardiogram containing serially connected amplifier and analog-to-digital Converter with multiplexer and the arithmetic unit, the first memory block, a digital modem, the analyzer code increments the counter non-code increment, the switch unit and the control unit, and the analyzer input codes increment is connected to the output of the arithmetic unit, the first output of the analyzer code increment connected to the first input switch unit, the second to the first input of the first memory block, and a control output to the first input of the counter code number increment, a second input connected to the first output control unit, the second and the third outputs of the latter are connected respectively with the control input of the switch unit and the second input of the analog-to-digital Converter, and the output number counter code increment connected with the second input of the first memory block, the output of which is connected with the second input of the switch unit, and the output block switch is of the form with modem input, characterized in that it introduced the second memory block, block digital filtering and block decimation, and serially connected analog-to-digital Converter, block digital filtering, block decimation and the arithmetic unit, and the input of the second memory block is connected to the fourth output control unit, the fifth output of the latter is connected with the second input of the digital filter and the output of the second memory block and the second output block decimation connected respectively with the third and fourth inputs of the block digital filtering.



 

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