Method for geo-electric reconnaissance

FIELD: geology.

SUBSTANCE: method is based on measurements of electric field, excited using two electrodes. Distanced along supposed subject. Direction of field strength vector is determined on basis of results of measurements of its components in two orthogonal directions. As interpretation parameters value of difference of azimuths of strength vector observed and background, appropriate for homogenous substance, of electric fields, are used. On basis of character of deviation of force lines from background values, presence and position of non-homogenous areas is evaluated and detected.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of Geophysics, namely to ground methods survey method based on vector measurements of the electric field, and can be used in the allocation predominantly conductive objects in the solution search, geotechnical and environmental objectives, for example to identify groundwater flow paths, the search for ore bodies, mapping areas of high salinity groundwater, etc.

The number of known methods Geoelectromagnetic detection of geological heterogeneity, based on the method of resistance. These include various kinds of electric profiling and sensing (see Matveev B.K. Allegracasodex. M.: Nedra, 1990 press, p.104-107, 124 to 128).

The number of known approaches to solve these problems, and in particular, based on the use of the magnetic component of the electromagnetic field and, in particular, is considered in the invention. From the patent literature known geoelectroprospecting, the essence of which is that the purpose of positioning of linear conductive structures produce measurements of azimuth and inclination of the minor and major axes of the ellipsoid of polarization of the magnetic field at the frequency of industrial power. Determine the direction of the radius vector pointing to the abnormal position of the object and subsequent separation of the Ute those areas of the earth's crust, where thickening of the radius vector drawn from different points of measurement. According to the results of studies judged on the location of the linear conductive structures in the earth's crust (Patent RU №2107932, IPC G 01 V 3/08, bull. No. 11, 1998) Disadvantages counterpart is the limited application of the method in connection with the use of research as a source of magnetic field high voltage power lines.

Technology field observations of the methods of resistance closest to the invention, the method of the median gradient. The essence of the latter is reduced to measuring the potential gradient in the middle third of the interval between the feeding electrodes a and b along the profile, disposable parallel to the line AB (see Matveev B.K. Electromagnetics. M.: Nedra, 1990, pagination 126-127). This method is used for the prototype.

The known method has a weak resolution allocation of anomalous objects, especially in complex geomorphological conditions (when working on steep slopes, ravines and so on), and low precision of the measurements, due to the closeness formed the basis of their theoretical positions and the influence of various geological disturbances (including topography, near-surface inhomogeneities and others)

The objective of the invention is to develop a JV the dog geoelectricity, free from a number of disadvantages of the prototype, namely, with a higher resolution allocation of anomalous objects, especially in complex geomorphological conditions, and which can be used in the solution of various hydro-geological, prospecting, geological engineering and environmental problems associated with the allocation and tracking of objects with high electrical conductivity in complex geomorphological conditions.

The problem is solved by the characteristics specified in the claims, in common with the prototype, such as geoelectroprospecting to detect inhomogeneities in the surface layer of the earth, based on measurements of the electric field excited by two electrodes, spaced along the proposed facility, and distinctive essential features, such as hold a vector measurement of the electric field, the interpretation of the parameter using the value of the divergence of the azimuths of the intensity vector of the observed and background of the corresponding homogeneous medium electric field, and the direction of the intensity vector of the observed fields are determined by the results of the measurement component of the electric field in two orthogonal directions, and by the nature of the deviation of the lines of force from backgrounds the x values are judged on the presence and location of discontinuities.

The above distinctive features, each separately and all together, are aimed at solving the problem and are significant. The use of the proposed combination of essential distinctive features in the prior art was not found, therefore the proposed solution meets the patentability criteria of “novelty”.

One set of new essential features with common, well-known provides a solution to the problem is not obvious to a person skilled in the art and demonstrates compliance of the claimed technical solution to the patentability criterion of “inventive step”.

The invention consists in a vector measurement of the electric field to use as the interpretation of the parameter values of the differences of the azimuths of the intensity vector (Δϕ) observed and background (corresponding to a homogeneous medium) electric fields. The presence of a conductive object rejects power line from background values, indicating its position. Ceteris paribus the value of Δϕ much less depends on the morphological characteristics of the terrain compared to the commonly used parameter of apparent resistivity, which determines mainly the define the company applied the proposed option. Value Δϕ is determined by the formula:

Δϕ=ϕOBS0(if 1≤AB/2)

or

Δϕ=ϕOBS0(if 1>AB/2)

where ϕOBS=arctan(ΔUy/ΔUx); ΔUythat ΔUx- the observed value of a potential difference in two orthogonal directions; ϕ0- the value of the azimuth angle of the resulting fields in homogeneous media, calculated at a given point for a given position of the source field, 1 - projection of the distance from the electrode And to the observation point on the line AB. When performing areal observations are measured according to the system of parallel profiles, which are in the direction of the line AB is not more than 45°. The X component of the field coincides with the direction of the profile, Y - oriented in his cross.

Below is a specific example embodiment of the invention.

Our example is the task of mapping paths possible flow of groundwater at the site of their release on the ground with the aim of designing the construction of engineering structures. Geomorphological conditions of the project area is quite complex. The study area areal observations is within the slope, the slope of which varies from 35 to 50°. The difference of elevations of the terrain reaches 45m.

Figure 1 and 2 shows the processing results of measurements made by a method similar to the method of the median gradient, and the method of vector observations. In figure 1 under the 1 position of the specified log karst holes; pos.2 - designed treatment facilities; 3 - out of the river of the karst massif. Areal observations both methods performed by the network 10×10 m2plot 140×170 m2. Feeding electrodes was grounded near the river, along the intended direction of groundwater movement (North-East) with a spacing of providing the necessary depth research. Electrode And is located 60 m from the South-Western edge of the site, and the electrode is 200 m from the North-Eastern suburbs.

Comparing the results of both methods shows a more pronounced contrast of the display on the map (Δϕ) electrical properties of sections associated with possible ways watercourse compared with a map of apparent resistivity. Map Δϕ clearly captures two main areas of anomalous values of the intensity vector, opposite in sign (shown in figure 2 respectively red and blue colors), indicating the presence of linear conductive zones, natural traced in a North-easterly direction (indicated on the map in yellow)and matching in terms of the place of exit of the river from the rocks.

The method will find wide application in various hydro-geological, prospecting, geological engineering and environmental problems associated with the allocation and tracking of objects with high electrical conductivity in complex geomorphological conditions, in particular, identify groundwater flow paths, the search for ore bodies, mapping areas of high salinity groundwater, etc.

Geoelectroprospecting to detect inhomogeneities in the surface layer of the earth, based on measurements of the electric field excited by two electrodes, spaced along the intended object, wherein spend a vector measurement of the electric field, the interpretation of the parameter using the value of the divergence of the azimuths of the intensity vector of the observed and background of the corresponding homogeneous medium electric field, and the direction of the intensity vector of the observed fields are determined by the results of the measurement component of the electric field in two orthogonal directions and the nature of the deviation of the power lines from the background values are judged on the presence and location of discontinuities.



 

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