Hydraulic unit for converting kinetic energy of water flow into electric energy

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.

EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to hydropower and can be used to convert the kinetic energy of the water of small and medium rivers into electricity without building dams.

Known hydrogenerator Zakiev (A.S. USSR №1828941, F 03 In 17/06 publ. in B. I. No. 27, 1993), comprising a housing with inlet and outlet holes, installed in the casing impeller and an electric generator having a stator winding and a rotor associated with the wheel. The rotor of the generator is made in the form of a circular horizontal bridge with fixed underneath the rods with magnets to interact with the stator. When this water wheel with blades of hydrogenerator made in the form of a conical console, the top of which is installed on the thrust bearing and the base attached to the bridge.

One drawback of the hydrogenerator is that its construction requires large capital investments, in addition, it is complicated in construction and operation it is aimed primarily at non-freezing rivers.

It is also known a device for the energy of the river flow (RF Patent No. 2189492, F 03 7/00, 13/00, 17/06, publ. 20.09.2002,), comprising a housing with a hydro turbine which is made with a vertical shaft and blades oriented in a vertical plane with the possibility of protrusion for the body housing,and a generator. The body is made in the form of extended along the river dam with transverse openings, in which are installed units. Vertical shafts, the latter is displaced relative to the longitudinal axis of the dam, with the possibility of contact of the working surface of the blades with the flow of water during their rotation in the same direction of rotation, and the shaft connected to the generator through a step-up gear.

Without compromising the dignity of the known device note that it has low efficiency because it uses only part of the energy of water flow. The reason is that constructed the dam with the device is in the middle of the river where the water flow is split into two parts and only one part of the flow goes to a rotating shaft with blades and, consequently, the generation of power. In addition, the construction of the dam is very expensive and does not provide for protecting the blades from getting random items going with the flow of water.

Also known run-of-river hydro (RF Patent No. 2187691, F 03 7/00, 13/00, 13/10, publ. 20.08.2002 g)containing lateral or rotary turbine bearing on its shaft mounted on the fixed to the shore or bottom support frame resting on the runners, and the generator is kinematically associated with the turbine. This unit is equipped with a system for USCA in the flow of water and adjustment of the position of the turbine relative to the core flow of water, driver stream containing a bottom plate mounted at an acute angle to the incident flow.

The specified device to the technical nature more close to the offer and may be taken as a prototype.

One drawback of the hydrogenerator is that it is complex by design and is not adaptable to production. Requires high material costs, labor and time to manufacture. In addition, it is not reliable, because the year-round operation of existing in the construction of hydro generator drive shafts, and the sealing parts are subject to heavy wear.

The present invention aims to remedy these disadvantages of the prototype.

The problem is solved is described by a hydraulic unit, comprising mounted on the frame of the turbine bearing on its shaft kinematically associated with the turbine generator, the driver thread and the protective device from floating objects made in the form of rib-plates.

What's new is that it has interconnected bevel gears intermediate vertically and horizontally mounted shafts with bearings, a vertical of which is placed in the well, built near the shore and communicated with the river through a channel within the aqueous below the maximum possible thickness of the ice cover, formed in the winter time, which houses some of the horizontal shaft connected to the turbine shaft, the upper end of a vertical shaft connected to the generator via the ground horizontal shaft and Overdrive gearbox, while the flow shaper is made in the form of shutters that are installed on the shafts can be rotated to direct the flow of the river in its Central part, between which there is a rotary valve with the possibility of contact with one of the valves to direct the flow of water in the right or left side of the turbines.

New is also that the shaft of the turbine is made detachable and mounted vertically, and the shafts of the valves and the valves are located vertically below the level of the possible thickness of the ice cover can be rotated through the worm gear.

Preliminary patent research conducted by the authors showed that the technical solutions of similar purpose of obtaining such a positive effect, as proposed, is not detected. Therefore, according to the authors, declare that the unit meets the criteria of “novelty” and “inventive step”, and its practical applicability, see the full description.

Attached to the application drawings explain the essence of the invention, in which figure 1 shows schematically the Hydra is the unit in General, in partial section.

Figure 2 schematically depicts the river with the base frame is mounted a turbine, where you can see her shaft with blades, are also visible fold, flap and grid established across the river, to arrest accidentally caught in the river large items, a top view, in partial section.

Hydraulic unit for converting the kinetic energy of the water flow in the electric contains installed in the river 1 welded frame 2 (see figure 1) with the turbine, representing a vertically mounted shaft 3 and bearings 4, 5, 6 and 7, which is rotatably mounted blades 8, sorientirovannye in the vertical plane. The blades are made of composite (see figure 2) and they are connected between a hinge and equipped with limit switches 9 of rotation of the blades with the ability of inflection when the direction of rotation towards the water and straightening when passing him the direction of rotation. For convenience of Assembly, the turbine shaft 3 in the upper part is made detachable, connectable their parts spline connection 10. The upper end of the said shaft ends bevel gear 11, meshing with a bevel gear 12 horizontal shaft 13 mounted in bearings 14 and 15 and passed through the channel 16 and connecting the river to the City of Florence, 17, built near the shore. Channel 16 will is replaced under the lower level of the maximum thickness of the ice cover 18, formed in the winter time.

The end of the horizontal shaft 13, located in the well equipped bevel gear 19 meshing with a bevel gear 20 of the vertical shaft 21, is placed in the well 17 and mounted on bearings 22 and 23. Bevel gear 24 of the shaft 21 in turn is connected with a bevel gear 25 ground horizontal shaft 26 mounted on the bearing 27, which other end is connected to a multi-stage step-up gear 28, which shaft is in turn connected to the rotor of the generator 29 three-phase mains voltage of 400 volts. The front of the unit from front river 1, the frame 2 is mounted shafts 30 and 31 of the valves 32 and 33 (see figure 2), respectively, and the shaft 34 of the valve 35 mounted to rotate with the worm gear (worm gear of Fig. not depicted) for the direction of the river flow to the turbine, and valve 36 by rotation of its shaft, has the ability to direct the flow of water in the right or left side of the turbine. Blade and rack frames can be fitted with stiffeners. The lower ends of the shafts 30, 31 and 34 are supplied bushings and the upper end of the square is 36 for rotation (see figure 1).

The unit works as follows.

Before manufacture of the unit examined abounding river 1, identify the most narrow eamest, determine the depth, the water pressure, the possible thickness of the formed ice 18 in the winter time of year, etc. and taking into account the received information to produce design work.

Further, the manufactured unit taking into account the above information disassembled to take the place of its installation and its turbine is installed on the frame 2, is immersed in the river crane and then collect the rest of the nodes, as indicated in figure 1 and 2. The ends of channel 16 after placing therein a horizontal shaft 13 seal gland gasket 37, and the most critical components of the unit are closed with covers 38 (in the drawing they are marked with a dash-dotted line). Next fold 32 and 33 extend to a stop on the shore of the river by the rotation of the shafts 30 and 31 and, if necessary, fix them. The valve 35 is turned to the right or left extreme position to another to one of the valves. The stream of water is directed to the blades 6 of the turbine under the action of water pressure the latter is driven into rotation and through an associated transmission rotates the rotor of the generator 29 three-phase current through the reduction gear 28, which provides a high speed, allowing you to increase electricity production. Across the river before the unit is installed protective device made in the form of a lattice 39, to prevent debris from entering the turbine accidentally putting the camping in the river of large objects.

Techno-economic benefit of the proposal is as follows.

Industrial use of hydraulic unit on the medium and small rivers, and to a large extent - many turbines, connecting them to a single electrical system, will provide a large number of cheap electricity and will give the opportunity to refuse the use of thermal power plants that burn huge amounts of fuel.

The unit does not require sophisticated equipment and material costs, as it eliminates the need for the construction of dams. It is easy to maintain and it can be operated all year round.

1. Hydraulic unit for converting the kinetic energy of the water flow in the electrical, including mounted on the frame of the turbine bearing on its shaft kinematically associated with the turbine generator, the driver thread and the protective device from floating objects made in the form of rib-plates, characterized in that it is equipped interconnected bevel gears, an intermediate vertically and horizontally mounted shafts with bearings, a vertical of which is placed in the well, built near the shore and communicated with the river through a channel made under the level of the maximum possible thickness of dormancy is ova ice formed in the winter time, which houses some of the horizontal shaft connected to the turbine shaft, the upper end of a vertical shaft connected to the generator via the ground horizontal shaft and Overdrive gearbox, while the flow shaper is made in the form of shutters that are installed on the shafts can be rotated to direct the flow of the river in its Central part, between which there is a rotary valve with the possibility of contact with one of the valves to direct the flow of water in the right or left side of the turbines.

2. The hydraulic unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the shaft of the turbine is made detachable and mounted vertically.

3. The hydraulic unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the shafts of the valves and the valves are located vertically below the level of the possible thickness of the ice cover can be rotated through the worm gear.



 

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