Method for operating gas-lifting oil well, gas-lifting oil well and method for controlling flow of multi-phase flowing substance in gas-lift oil well

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: at least one acoustic dynamic is mounted immediately on product pipe in oil well and acoustic characteristic of flowing environment flow is determined in product pipe. It is sent into surface controller, using product pipe. Using surface controller flowing substance flowing mode is determined, on basis of which working parameters of oil well are adjusted. Working parameters of oil well can be adjusted to detect Taylor mode of flow. For adjustment of working parameters throttle is used and/or controlled valve of oil well, controlling amount of gas, forces into product pipe. For determining mode of flow of flowing environment artificial neuron net can be used. It is possible is provide energy for acoustic sensor through product pipe. It is possible to determine additional physical characteristics of flowing substance, for example pressure and temperature.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

3 cl, 22 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a system and method for optimizing the flow of fluid in the pipe and, in particular, flow in gas-lift wells.

Gas-lift oil wells are used from the 1800s, and provide capacity increase oil production where natural lifting force in the tank is insufficient (see Brown, Connolizo and Robertson, West Texas Oil Lifting Short Course and H.W.Winkler “Misunderstood or Overlooked Gas-Lift Design and Equipment Considerations” - “misunderstood or overlooked considerations for gas-lift structures and equipment” - SPE, R (1994)). In a typical case, in gas-lift oil well natural gas produced from oil fields, compressed and pumped into the annular space between the casing and tubing and direct from the casing into the tube to ensure the lifting of the production pipe. Although the pipe can be used for injection of lifting gas in the annular space, used for oil extraction, in practice this is rare. Initially gas-lift wells was pumped gas into the base pipe, but certainly, the deep wells that require extremely high initial pressures. Were developed ways to inject the gas into the tube at different depths of the wells (see, for example, U.S. patent No. 5.267.469).

In the most applicable type of gas-lift wells used mechanical g is softie bellows valves, attached to the pipe for regulating the flow of gas from the annular space between casing and pipe-in-pipe (see U.S. patent No. 5.782.261 and 5.425.425). In a typical gas-lift bellows valve bellows pre-set or pre-load a certain amount of pressure to operate the valve, enabling the transfer of gas from the annular space in the pipe with pre-applied pressure. Applied pressure is calculated based on the valve position in the borehole, the height of a hydrostatic pressure, operating modes, wells and many other factors.

Typical bellows-type gas lift valve has a pre-load to regulate the gas flow from the annular space outside the pipe to lift oil. Some problems are common to such typical bellows-type gas-lift valves. First of all, the bellows often lose their load, resulting in failure of the valve to move to closed position or mode, is different from the settlement. Another common disadvantage is erosion around the valve seat and the wear of the ball valve stem, which often leads to partial failure of the valve or, at least, to inefficient production. Since the gas flow through the gas lift valve is often substandard when R is the bot in a stationary mode, rather it is a certain ratio of shock and vibration when using a ball valve, the destruction of the saddle is normal. Damage or poor operation of bellows valves leads to lower efficiency in the operation of a typical gas-lift wells. In fact, it is established that the production from the well for at least 5-15% less than optimal due to damage to the valve and inefficient operation.

Therefore, a significant advantage can be achieved by systems and methods that overcome the inadequacy of conventional gas lift valves. Some methods have been developed for premises operated valves, descending on column pipes, but in all known devices typically use an electric cable along the tubing to drive the action and connection with gas-lift valves. Undoubtedly, extremely undesirable and practically difficult to apply the cable along the tubing or United with the column pipe or in the annular space between the pipe and casing, because this system has a large number of mechanisms of damage. Other ways of communication within a well bore is described in U.S. patent No. 5.493.288; 5.576.703; 5.574.374; 5.467.083; 5.130.706.

U.S. patent No. 4.839.644 describes a method and system for wireless two is udovich communications in a cased wellbore, having a string of pipe. However, this system describes the descending toroidal antenna for accumulating electromagnetic energy in THE waveguide-type using the annular space between the casing and the pipe. This toroidal antenna works on the principle of accumulation of electromagnetic waves, which requires mostly a non-conductive fluid (such as recycled heavy petroleum distillate) in the annular space between the casing and the pipe and the toroidal cavity, as well as insulators in the wellhead. Therefore, the method and system described in U.S. patent No. 4.839.644, are expensive and have problems from the point of view of leakage of brine inside the casing. The system is difficult to use as a system for descending two-way communication. Other schemes communications down-hole, for example a pulse telemetry drilling fluids (U.S. patent No. 4.648.471; 5.887.657). showed the presence of effective communication at low bystrodeistviya, but have limited validity in communication systems that require high performance or desirable to have a difficult downward borehole for drilling fluids with telemetry equipment. Have been tested and other communication methods for down-hole (see U.S. patent No. 5.467.083; 4.739.325; 4.78.675; 5.883.516 and 4.468.665), as well as fixed sensors - a sensor unit and a control system for down-hole (U.S. patent No. 5.730.219; 5.662.165; 4.972.704; 5.941.307; 5.934.371; 5.278.758; 5.134.285; 5.001.675; 5.730.219; 5.662.165).

Usually it is known that in gas-lift well the dependence of the amount of oil produced from increasing the amount of compressed gas injected into a downward wellbore (i.e. lifting gas), is not linear. This means that for any given borehole at a particular choice of operating conditions, the amount of injection gas can be optimized to produce the maximum amount of oil. However, when applying the standard bellows valves pressure opening gas lift bellows valve is set and the primary control wells carried out depending on the amount of gas pumped to the surface. Feedback to determine the optimal well performance can take many hours and even days. Also commonly known that in the regimes of two-phase flows, such as in gas-lift well, there are several modes of threads of different efficiency (see A.van der Spek and A.Thomas. “Net Neutral Identification of Flow Regime using Band Spectra of Flow Generated Sound” - “Identification through a neutral network flow using striped spectrum of the sound generated by the stream. - SPE50640, October 1998). However, pascalc is, as you know, you want to manage in a stream mode, it was considered impossible for practical application.

Therefore, a significant advantage in the management of gaslift wells can be accomplished by establishing an alternative to the standard bellows valve, in particular, if the sensors to determine the characteristics of the flow in the borehole could work with adjustable gas-lift valves and surface control systems to optimize the flow of fluid in getleftpos well.

In European patent No. 0721053 disclosed a method of operating a gas-lift oil wells, which establish at least one sensor directly at the production pipe in an oil well, define the characteristics of the fluid flow in the production pipe, pass the specified characteristic in the surface controller, using the production pipe.

This patent also disclosed gas-lift oil well containing a production pipe for transporting two-phase fluid containing oil and lifting gas to the surface, at least one sensor descending wells installed directly on the production pipe and designed to determine the physical parameters of the fluid, modem, operatively connected the first production pipe for receiving data from the sensor and transmit them through the production tube to the surface.

In the famous specified method and borehole sensor mounted below the gas lift of the intake valve, determines the characteristics of mainly single-phase flow of crude oil below the gas lift of the intake valve, the characteristics of which are used to control opening of the valve so that the optimal amount of lifting gas pump to reduce the density of oil and the lifting gas mixture generated at the point of injection of lifting gas and higher.

From U.S. patent 5929342 And known way to control the flow of the multiphase fluid in the channel, which determine the acoustic characteristics of the fluid flow along the duct length and determine based on the specified characteristics of the mode of the fluid flow on the specified section of the channel.

U.S. patent No. 5.353.627 describes the method of determining flow in a multiphase fluid flow through a passive acoustic detector. U.S. patent No. 6.012.015 describes an automated system flow control downward wells for wells with lateral branches, containing acoustic and other sensors for determining parameters of the formation and flow of water.

The technical result of the present invention is to increase the effectiveness of the control flow of the multiphase fluid in the gas is ifthey well.

In one aspect of the invention, created a method of operating a gas-lift oil wells, which establish at least one sensor directly at the production pipe in an oil well, determine the characteristics of the fluid flow in the production pipe, pass the specified characteristic in the surface controller, using the production pipe, and according to the invention as a sensor using an acoustic sensor to determine the acoustic characteristics of two-phase flow of the fluid, the flow of two-phase fluid is determined with the use of the surface controller and the operating parameters of the oil wells regulate on the basis of determining the mode of flow of fluid through the surface of the controller.

When adjusting the operating parameters of oil wells it is possible to regulate the amount of compressed lifting gas is injected into an oil well, or the amount of compressed gas injected into the production tube through a controlled valve downward well.

When determining the flow characteristics of the fluid can enter the acoustic characteristic of the artificial neural network.

When adjusting the operating parameters of the oil wells they regulate to establish tayloresque flow.

You can determine the identification of additional physical characteristics of the fluid. You can determine the pressure and temperature of the fluid in the production pipe.

You can use a production pipe, including a branch pipe extending from the main vertical oil wells.

You can supply acoustic sensor using the production pipe.

In another aspect of the invention, the set of gas-lift oil well containing a production pipe for transporting two-phase fluid containing oil and lifting gas to the surface, at least one sensor descending wells installed directly on the production pipe and designed to determine the physical parameters of the fluid, modem, operatively associated with a production pipe for receiving data from the sensor and transmit them through the production tube to the surface. According to the invention, the well is equipped with a throttle and/or operated valve downward wells to control the amount of lifting gas, injected into the production pipe, and surface controller designed to receive data sent by the production pipe, determining the mode of fluid flow into the production pipe and management based on the specific mode of the fluid flow orifice and/or the valve downward SLE the new well.

The sensor may be an acoustic sensor.

The controller can include a computer with artificial neural network for determining the mode of fluid flow measurement-based acoustic sensor.

Well may contain a source of energy connected with the production pipe for supplying energy to the sensor.

In another aspect of the invention, created a way to control the flow of the multiphase fluid in the pipeline, which determine the acoustic characteristics of the fluid flow along the pipeline and determine based on the specified characteristics of the mode of the fluid flow on the specified section of the pipeline, according to the invention prior to determination of the mode of flow of the fluid transfer of the specified characteristics to the controller through the pipeline and on the basis of determining the mode of fluid flow regulate the amount of at least one of the fluid in the pipeline to establish the desired flow.

The pipeline may be an oil well, and multiphase fluid medium contains a lifting gas, pumped into the well, and oil.

You can use the controller, including a computer with artificial neural network designed to determine the mode of the fluid flow based on the acoustic the characteristics.

The desired profile of the fluid flow can be tailoresses regime of the stream.

The desired flow may include minimizing the amount of lifting gas and maximizing the amount of oil produced.

The problems given above, in most cases are solved by a system and method in accordance with the present invention for determining the flow and regulation characteristics of the flow to maintain the required mode. In a preferred execution adjustable gaslift wells contains a cased well bore with a casing string having a string of pipe installed inside the casing and pass along it. Adjustable gas lift valve attached to the pipe for regulating the discharge gas between the inner and outer space of the pipe, and in the more particular case, between the annular space between the pipe and casing and the inner part of the pipe. Adjustable gas lift valve and the sensors are supplied with electricity and regulated from the surface. This is done to control objects such as the communication of fluid between the annular space and the inner space of the pipe and the amount of injection gas to the surface. Communication signals and electrical power are served from the surface through the pipe and casing in quality is solid inner and outer conductors. Electricity is mainly alternating current low voltage with a frequency of about 60 Hz.

In more detail, the controller (computer) on the surface includes a modem communication signal communicated to the pipe and received on the modem descending wells associated with adjustable gas valve. Similarly, the modem descending wells can link information the sensors with the computer system. In addition, the electric power is fed to the column pipe and get in descending the well to regulate the actions of the regulated getlefttogo valve and the energy supply of the sensor. Mainly casing is used as a grounded return line. In alternative remote breed can be used as the electrical return wire. The path grounded return line is provided an adjustable gas lift valve through a conductive centralizer around pipes, which is isolated in its contact with the pipe, but is in electrical contact with the casing string.

Adjustable gas-lift well contains one or more sensors in descending well, which mostly are in contact with the modem descending wells and associated with the computer on the surface. In addition to acoustic sensors such as temperature sensors, pressure geovanny the sensors, sensors valve position, flow rates and differential pressure gauges are used it is preferable in many situations. The sensors transmit the measurements to the modem for transmission to the surface or directly to the programmable interface control device for determining the mode of the stream at this location and operation of the controllable gas-lift valve and discharge gas at the surface to control fluid flow through the gas lift valve.

Mainly ferromagnetic chokes attached to the pipe to act as a serial impedance (impedance) to the flow of current to the tubes. In an advantageous embodiment, the upper ferromagnetic choke is placed around the pipe below pipe and power and the communication signal is transmitted to the pipe below the upper ferromagnetic choke. The lower ferromagnetic choke placed beneath it in the hole around the pipe with an adjustable gas lift valve, electrically connected with the pipe above the lower ferromagnetic choke, although adjustable gas lift valve may be mechanically connected to the pipe below the bottom ferrite inductor. Mostly superficial controller (computer) connected through surface leading modem and pipe with a downstream modem descending well controllable gas-lift valve. To ntroller on the surface can receive measurements from a variety of sources, such as sensors in descending the well, measuring the output of oil and measuring the admission of compressed gas into the well (flow and pressure). Using these measurements, the controller can calculate the optimal position adjustable gas valve, and more specifically the optimum amount of gas injected from the annular space within the casing through each adjustable valve in the pipe. The controller may be subject to additional parameters, such as, for example, can be regulated compressed gas into the well on the surface, the regulation of the back pressure in the wells, the regulation of the pumping system porous fermentation agent or surfactant for foaming oil and of obtaining measurements of the production and operation of various other wells in the same field to optimize the performance of the field.

The ability to actively manage current conditions in descending the well associated with the ability to control the conditions on the surface and in the descending well, could have great advantages in gas-lift wells. Channels, such as gas-lift wells are four broad regime of the fluid flow, namely bubble, tayloresque, solid and annular flows. The most effective the m-mode flow for production (oil is extracted through the gas injection) is tayloresque stream.

Sensors in descending well described in the present invention, is able to measure tayloresque stream. The above-mentioned controller on the surface to control mechanisms, adjustable valves, gas injection, the injection of surfactants, etc. provide the ability to create and maintain tayloresque stream. In the larger forms of adjustable valves in the downstream wells can work independently to obtain localized tayloresque stream.

When the preferential process all the gas lift valves are controlled valves of the type in accordance with the present invention and can be independently controlled. You want to raise the oil content of the column from the point of the borehole closest to the operational packer. For this purpose, the low set hasleby valve is the primary valve during operation. The upper gas-lift valves are used for excitation well during commissioning. In standard gas-lift wells these upper valves have pre-installation of the bellows with the limits of error of 200 pounds per square inch to ensure the closure of valves after excitation. This means that the lifting pressure is lost in the descending well to ensure the loss of 200 psi at the valve. Moreover, such the conventional valves frequently flow and refuse to work until full closure. The use of pressure reducing valves of the present invention overcomes these shortcomings.

The design of this adjustable gas-lift wells are selected in such a way as to be similar to the standard design. To do this, after installation of the well casing in the typical case above the production zone set packer. The string of pipe is then carried through the casing to communicate with the production area. As soon as the column pipe is raised above the surface, the bottom ferrite inductor is placed around one of the standard columns of tubes to establish a position above packera down well. In sections of columns of tubes gas-lift valve and one or more sensors attached to the column. In the preferred embodiment, applied to the mandrel in the form of a side pocket for placement of the line to be inserted and withdrawn back gas-lift valve or sensor. With this configuration or adjustable gas-lift valve in accordance with the present invention can be introduced into the mandrel, or one or more compact devices with sensors can be used. In the alternative case, adjustable gas-lift valve or the sensors can be transmitted through the pipes. Column pipe rises to the surface, where the ferromagnetic choke again placed around the tubing is so pipe. Communication and power wires then connect through the flow at the mouth of the well with casing pipe below the upper ferromagnetic choke.

In an alternative embodiment, the sensor and the communication groove is injected, without being controlled gas lift valve. Thus, the electronic module having sensors of pressure, temperature and acoustic sensors or other sensors, power supply and modem, is introduced into the mandrel in the form of a side pocket to connect to the controller on the surface to flow with the use of conductor pipe and the casing. Alternatively, such electronic modules can be mounted directly on the pipe passed through the pipes) and may not have the same configuration, to be replaced by a wired communication line. Directly mounted on the pipe electronic module or controlled gas lift valve may be replaced only by pulling all the tubing. Only for sensors placed in the descending borehole, measurements associated with the surface and surface parameters (i.e., the compressed gas) is adjusted to obtain the desired flow down a well.

The following is a detailed description of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, which depict the following:

Figure 1 represents schematic the ski type controlled gas-lift wells in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention;

figure 2 - schematic view of the tubing in a cased wellbore, illustrating the location of the mandrel in the form of a side pocket on the string of pipe;

figure 3 is a series of fragmentary, vertical cross sections illustrating the form of two-phase flows in vertical (upward) flow, where figa illustrates a bubble flow, figv illustrates the core flow, figs illustrates turbulent flow and fig.3D illustrates the circular flow;

figa-4D are in the form of flow in horizontal two-phase flow, where figa illustrates the annular dispersed flow, figv illustrates alternating wavy flow, figs illustrates a rod or pulsating flow and fig.4D illustrates the dispersed bubble flow;

figure 5 represents a graph of the amount of compressed gas from the pressure in the pipe and depicts the four flow conditions faced in a typical gas-lift well, namely bubble, tayloresque, rod and annular flow types;

6 is a magnified diagram of the controlled gas lift valve, placed in a wire recovered frame in the form of a side pocket;

figa-7C depict a vertical section of the preferred option controlled valve in the form of a box;

Fig represents in an enlarged scale a schematic vertical sectional electroneg the module, which contains the sensors that are attached to the string of pipe, separately from the controlled valve;

Fig.9 equivalent chart controllable gas-lift wells, shown in figure 1;

figa - scaled diagram of the controlled valve permanently attached to the string of pipe;

figv in an enlarged scale a vertical section of a controlled gas lift valve according to alternative execution;

11 is a schematic diagram depicting the surface controller in connection with electronic devices controlled gas lift valve;

Fig is a block diagram of the electronic power and control system;

Fig is a block diagram of a neural network for distribution of data for the interpretation of acoustic data.

Description of modes of threads

Without the classification of flow regimes is difficult to quantify the flow velocity of two-phase fluid in the channel. Standard by classifying flow is a visual observation of flow in the channel using a human observer. Although the downward borehole video commercially available, visual observation of the downward flow of the well is not standard practice (horizontal borehole, borehole studies that require special wire line (cable from optical is anyone fiber). Moreover, video descending the well can be successful only in transparent fluids and gas wells plugged wells with transparent masking fluid. In oil wells needed an alternative to visual observations to classify the mode of the stream.

All flow regimes produce their own special sounds. Experienced human observer can classify the mode of flow in the pipe is more auditory than visual observations. In contrast to the video service for acoustic logging is available for different providers wired for different wells with casing strings. The traditional use of such sound, wireline logs must detect leaks in the casing or pipe. In addition to the recorded audio logging charts surface remote control equipped with amplifiers and speakers that provide auditory perception of sounds produced downward well. Sound wireline logs is usually applied depending on the depth level pressure (uncalibrated) sound well after passing the audio signal through 5 flow-through filters of different height (fraction of noise: 200 Hz, 600 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz). In principle, an engineer by logging based on lyrics by the insurance observing the sounds of the descending wells could spend the classification of flow regimes. This procedure, however, is impractical, as it is prone to errors and may not be reproduced sound from wireline logs (no sound is recorded normally on audience) and it depends on the individual experience of the engineer.

The successful application of neural network classification of stream mode audio logging charts on the field provides a number of benefits for the enterprise. First of all, it will allow you to apply the correct, specific for this mode of flow of the hydraulic model for the task of evaluation of logs extraction of two-phase fluid from horizontal wells. Secondly, it allows for a more forced serial control register data research production. The latter is an alternative to the need to predict flow regime, applying criteria hydraulic stability from first principles, by lowering this design load at least 10 times, resulting in faster treatment time.

“Two - phase flow is the interactive flow of the two phases, liquid, solid or gas, in which an intermediate surface between the phases due to their movement” (Butterworth and Hewitt, 1979). Many different types of threads can be the result of changing the shape of the intermediate surface between the two phases is. These species depend on a wide range of factors, such as flow velocities, phase, pressure, and diameter and slope in the pipe containing the analyzed flow, etc. flow Regime in vertical lifting flow is shown in figure 3, includes the following streams: bubble flow, which is a dispersion of bubbles of liquid shock or pulsating flow, in which the diameter of bubbles approaching the diameter of the pipe and the bubbles have a bullet shape, small bubbles suspended in the intermediate liquid cylinders; peremeshivayte or foam flow, which vysokostabilnyy flow is oscillatory in nature, due to which the fluid near the pipe wall constantly pulsates up and down; circular flow in which the liquid film flows down the wall of the pipe and the gas flows in the center.

This thread is obtained by increasing the gas velocity. For gas wells circular flow, believed to be located above the main part of the pipe, while for oil wells intermittent flow prevails in the upper part of the pipe. In the conditions of the inlet pipe predominantly present bubble flow, and therefore, in the pipe, since associated gas comes out of the oil when the pressure drops, there is a transition from bubble flow to intermittent flow. The flow regimes in a horizontal flow about lyustrirovani figure 4 and are as follows: bubble flow, in which bubbles tend to float on top of water; layered flow in which the fluid flows along the bottom of the pipe, and the gas flows are upstairs; shock or pulsating flow, in which large frothy fluid accumulation interspersed with large gas bags; circular flow in which the liquid ring attached to the wall of the pipe with the gas blown through it, usually the layer is much thicker at the bottom than at the top.

Another mode of the stream has been identified, namely tayloresque flow that occurs between the bubble and pulsating flows (3, 3A, 3B) and has characteristics of each. In more detail, as shown in figure 5, tayloresque flow is the most desirable mode of the stream to maximize the yield of oil for the amount of pumped gas. Although the preferred embodiment is connected with achievement tayloresque flow in a vertical oil well, the principles are applicable to horizontal wells (figure 4) and the majority of two-phase flow in the pipeline. Given the speed is the ratio of the flow rate Q flow in linear terms to the cross section of the pipe A, so that:

Given the speed is a speed that would have a phase, if it was the only phase in the pipe. The fraction of the volume of the Aza (GVF) is given by the velocity of the gas, divided by the sum of the given gas velocity and shows the fluid velocity.

The fraction of the volume of gas depends on the pressure. Note that in experiments in a closed section of the flow speed of the gas flow is expressed under normal conditions (nm3/h).

Convenient and illustration by image modes flow through the flow velocity is mapping the flow in a two-dimensional plane with the speed of gas on the horizontal axis and the speed of the fluid along the vertical axis for a given inclination of the pipe (figure 3). Theoretically eight variables necessary to determine the flow regime in the pipe. In option card flow, depending on the angle, using only three variables. In this case, the approach is justified, because the three variables flood maps, namely the angle of the pipe, the velocity of the gas and the liquid velocity are the only variables that changed in the course of studies. All other variables, i.e. the density of the gas and the fluid and the viscosity, surface tension, pipe diameter and roughness of the pipe are fixed (Wu, Pots, Hollenberg, Meerhoff, “Flow pattern transition in two-phase gas/condensate flow at high pressures in an 8 inch horizontal pipe” - “Transition in the form of flow in two-phase gas/condensate flow at high pressures 8-d is iMovie a horizontal pipe”/r.of the Third International Conf. On Multiphase-Phase Flow, The Hague, The Netherlands, May 18-20, pp.13-21, 1987; Oliemans, Pots, Trompe, “Modelling of annular dispersed two-phase flow in vertical pipes” - “Modeling of annular dispersed two-phase flow in vertical pipes”, J.Multiphase Flow, 12:711-732, 1986).

Presents a map of the stream covers three orders of magnitude for the rate of flow of gas and liquid. At a superficial fluid velocity of 10 m/s, 4-inch pipe will maintain a flow rate of approximately 10,000 barrels of fluid per day, if the fluid is the only fluid medium flowing through the pipe. Thus, such a map thread covers all situations that have practical application in the oil field. Since the gas volume fraction is the ratio of the reduced gas velocity for a given amount of gas velocity and the present velocity of the fluid, lines of constant fraction of the volume of gas appear on the map thread in the form of parallel straight lines with a slope angle of 45°. 50% GVF line is a line passing through the point (10,10) and (0.01, 0.01). To the right of this line have a large fraction of the gas, while the left gas volume fraction decreases.

Measurement of sound

Sound rarely has a single frequency. Therefore, in order to analyze it, it would be necessary to study the full set of frequencies. The selected frequency range may be divided into Smin the e lanes (Pierce, 1981), such as

and, accordingly,

where n-I band limited low frequency fL(n)a upper frequency fU(n). Stripes can be considered proportional if the ratio of fU(n)/fL(n) is the same for each band. Octave is a band for which

that is, the highest frequency is twice the lower frequency limit of the band. At the same time one-third octave band is a

any proportional band is defined by its center frequency. It is expressed as

Standard scheme, divided 1/3 octave (ANSI S. 1.6-1967 (R 1976) uses the fact that ten 1/3-octave bands of approximately ten days. Standard 1/3-octave bands are such that

that is 1, 10, 100, 1000, etc. are some of the standard 1/3-octave centre frequencies. Can be obtained graphically display the number 1/3-octave bands in the frequency dependent. On a logarithmic scale 1/3-octave bands are equidistant and have the same width.

For two ranges of analyses on the recording equipment used frequency of 100 kHz and 1000 kHz. Diapason 100 kHz covers band 20-49. Range 1 Hz also covers alternative distribution scheme that uses a decade. The center frequencies of two adjacent strips decades have the value 10.

The signal value of any given band is expressed as the sound pressure level. The sound pressure level (SPL) has a logarithmic scale and is measured in decibels (dB) (Kinsler et al., 1982). If p is the sound pressure, then:

pref- the reference pressure, often taken in 1μPA for underwater acoustic systems. With the introduction of the concept of delbello in a more familiar context in the air (the reference pressure is 20 μPA) 0 dB is the threshold of acute hearing person, while 130 dB is the sound level that causes a sharp pain. Assuming that all of the sound sources are incoherent, can be expressed by the following formula sound pressure levels:

where (SPL)NEW- the level of the combined sound pressure from the n source sound level (SPL)n. For example, asking (SPL)1100 dB (SPL)2120 dB received their sum (SPL)SUM=120.043 dB ≈117 dB.

Neural networks

Artificial neural network is an information technology system that is designed to simulate the activity of the human brain (Caudil and Butler, 1992). It contains a number vysokostoimostnyh related to the nervous system processes and can be adapted for recognition among samples of the data presented it in such a way that it can later identify these patterns in previously unknown data. The data presented for the neutral network, passed to one of the three sets (training set, fitness setting and approving the installation and respectively etiketirovannyh. Simulator installation is used for training the network, where the testing facility should watch the action network. Approver setting is one where the network can transfer their acquired knowledge to use in unknown data.

Mainly neural network with a direct link and reverse distribution, such as shown in Fig applies for the interpretation and classification of acoustic sensor. Architecture neutral networks for classification problems in 1/3 octave spectra shown in Fig. Neutral network consists of three layers, with the input layer 52 includes an input unit, the middle layer consists of 16 units and 4 units are in the output layer, and each of the units corresponds to one of the classes of signal flow.

The output unit generates large output values from 0 to 1 can interpretarea the ü as the likelihood that such a specific stream mode, managing a defined pattern of inputs. The probability of four units of output estimate from each of the estimated probability after training the network. The output is considered small if its value is 0.5 or lower, and high. If it is above 0.5, each sample of the dataset can be classified as the following.

The correct sample: unit of output corresponding to the signal class has a high output, all other units have low output.

Erroneous sample: unit of output is high output, all other units of output (including the corresponding signal class) have a low output.

Unknown sample: two or more unit of output have a high output or all units of output are low output.

Push the correct sample: unit of output corresponding to the signal class that has the highest output regardless of its absolute value. This number will include all the correct samples and some incorrect samples.

A disordered matrix specifies how the network classifies all data modes. A sensitivity analysis is performed on each input feature. This is expressed as the percentage change in the error, where private entrance should be excluded from the learning process. The processing performance of the sensor the computer on the surface can be compared with signalgeneration for the outputs of the network with the highest and second highest probabilities, designated respectively as the best and second best.

Description gas-lift wells

The figures shown gaslift wells in accordance with the preferred implementation of the invention. In the broad concept figure 1 illustrates the gas-lift oil well 10 extending from the surface 12 through the barrel bore hole and into the production zone 14.

Production platform 20 is shown schematically above the surface 12 in figure 1. Standard wellhead, with the suspension 22, contains a pipe 26, which is suspended on the suspension 22 and supported. Casing 24 is a standard, that is, it is typically cemented in a borehole during completion of the well. Similarly, column pipe 26 is usually the standard, containing a multitude of elongated tubular sections of the production tubing, the United threaded couplings on the end of the pipe sections. The chokes 30 inlet gas is used to ensure the passage of the compressed gas inside the annular space between the casing 24 and pipe 26. On the contrary, the outlet valve 32 provides for the issue of oil and gas bubbles from the interior of the pipe 26 during oil production.

Shown schematically indicated by the position 34 of the computer and a power source located on the surface, with the systems of power supply and communication the traditional systems 36, passes through the system 38 of the feed pressure in the suspension 32. The upper and lower ferromagnetic flaps 40, 42 are installed on the production tubing to act as full resistance (impedance) to the current flow. The size and material of the flaps 40, 42 can be changed to change the magnitude of the impedance of the series. Energy and communication from source 34 is injected into the pipe 26 through the feeders 36 at a point below the top of the valve 40. Thus, the surface of the pipe between the top and bottom flaps 40, 42 may be considered as a way for energy and communications (6). Flaps 40, 42 are made of highly permeable magnetic material and they are mounted concentrically and externally in relation to pipes. In a typical case, they solidified injected epoxy resin and compressed elastomer to withstand sharp handling.

As can be seen from figure 1, packer 44 is placed in the descending hole in casing 24 above the production zone 14 and is used to isolate production zones, but it electrically connects metal production pipe 26 with the outer metal casing 24. Similarly, above the surface 12 of the metal suspension 22 (along the surface of the valves, platforms and other production equipment) electrically connects the inner part of the metal is their production pipe 26 and the outer metal casing 24. In a typical case, such a configuration would not be allowed to transmit or receive an electrical signal at the top and bottom of the well, using the pipe as a conductor and casing as the other conductor. However, the location of the ferromagnetic flaps 40, 42 changes the electrical characteristics of the metal structure of the well, providing a system and method for implementing communication and power signals up and down the shaft of gas-lift wells 10.

Figure 1 illustrates the predominant use of controlled gas lift valve 52, operatively associated with the pipe 26. In figure 1, each gas-lift valve 52 attached to the pipe 26 is controllable gas-lift valve in accordance with the present invention. Additionally, the acoustic sensor 51 is placed along the pipe 26 and connected with the controller (computer) 34 on the surface.

Figure 2 shows the configuration of the descending well controlled valve 52 as well as electrical connection with the casing 24 and pipe 26. Pipe sections 26 are standard and where you want to embed the gas lift valve in a section of pipe, a mandrel in the form of a side pocket, such as manufactured by Weatherford or Camco. As you can see in figure 2, these mandrels are concentric extension pipe sections 26 and allow vosstanavlivat the wire line and paste the contents of the pot.

In gas-lift well 10 using standard arc spring centralizer for centering pipe 26 within the casing 24. However, the insulating arc spring centralizer 60 (figure 2, 3) between the flaps 40, 42 use PVC insulators 62 for electrical insulation of the casing 24 from the pipe 26. Other types of non-conductive centralizer can be used, such as ball type, or a number of pipes coated with epoxy resin. For example, high-temperature rubber plug configuration can be used as centralizer. Power and signal jumper 64 attaches the electronic device within the controlled valve 52 to the pipe sections 26, as shown in figure 2. Grounded centralizer 61 adjacent to the controlled valve 52 is grounded to the casing 24 by means of a gripper (6). Grounded wire 66 provides a return path from the electronic device controlled valve 52 and, as can be seen in Fig.6, grounds through centralizer 61 and capture 63 on the casing 24.

The use of controlled valves 52 is predominant for several reasons. For example, the standard bellows valves 50 frequently leak, when they should be closed during production, which results in inefficient work well. Additionally, standard bellows valve is 50 usually constructed on the permissible deviations of about 200 lbs/sq. inch on the valve, which leads to further inefficiencies.

As can be seen from Fig.6, 7, configuration controlled gas lift valve 52 in the inside of the mandrel 70 in the form of a side pocket is illustrated in more detail. The mandrel 70 includes a channel 72 for gas inlet in fluid communication with the annular space in a borehole between the pipes 26 and casing 24. Operated valve 52 measures the amount of gas flowing from the annular space in the pipe 26 through the channel 74 to release gas.

Figa-7C illustrate a preferred implementation of the controlled valve 52 of the present invention. As shown in figs controlled valve 52, sliding, fit into the mandrel 70. The channel 72 to the inlet gas is liquid communication with the annular space in a borehole between the pipes 26 and casing 24. Operated valve 52 measures the amount of gas flowing from the annular space into the pipe 26 through the exhaust gas channel 74.

In more detail, as shown in figa, electronic module 82 is installed in the chamber 80. The check valve 94 prevents reverse flow from the pipe through the outlet channel 74. Stepper motor 84 rotates the gear 202, which through a worm gear 204 raises and lowers the housing 206. The housing 206 gears saddle 208, which regulates the flow inside the holes 210. As pok is shown in more detail in figv, the shoulder 212 is configured to further mating engagement of the sleeve on the body 206 when the valve is closed. This configuration is the “body” of the valve is considered to be the preferred design, from the point of view of fluid mechanics, relative to alternative implementation of the configuration of the needle valve on figv. Thus, the flow of fluid from the inlet channel 72, the past of the connection housing 206/seat 208, allows precise adjustment of the fluid without excessive wear of the surface of the partition.

On Fig shows an alternative embodiment of the controlled valve 52 of the present invention, which should be different from the configuration of the mandrel in the form of a side pocket on

6. On Fig pipe 26 includes an enlarged annular pocket 100, in which is placed an electronic device and controllable gas-lift valve 52 of the present invention. The gas lift valve 52 is mounted in the pipes and may not be imposed and recovered by sticking through the mandrel 70 figure 6 (that is, “be transported through pipes”). Operated valve 52 to Fig contains a ground wire 102 (similar grounding wire 66 figure 6), which is a stand-alone carrying wire to attach to the arc current collector 61 of centralizer, grounded on the casing 24. E-the module 106 is connected by a communications and energy sources with the pipe 26 through power and signal jumper 104. Equipped with electric drive valve 108 is shown schematically, but works in a similar way shown in Fig.7 for the management of operational communication annular space between the pipe 26 and casing 24 in the inner space of the pipe 26. Similarly with Fig.7 is provided a reversing valve 110.

Fig also illustrates the use of a large number of sensors that can be used to control the operation getleftpos well 10. Thus, the acoustic sensor 113 is mounted on the tube 26 to register the internal acoustic pattern of the fluid flow, while similarly the temperature sensor 114 detects the temperature of the fluid inside the pipe 26. As you can see in Fig, acoustic and temperature sensors 113, 114 attached to the electronic module 106 and electrically connected to receive energy and communications.

Similarly, the sensor 116 salinity sensor 112 and pressure sensor 118 of the pressure difference are electrically connected with the electronic module 106. As you can see, the sensor 116 salinity promptly placed through the pocket 100 to register salinity of the fluid in the annular space between the casing column 24 and pipe 26. The sensor 118 pressure difference provides a measure of the pressure on each side needle valve 108. It is clear that alternatives is provided in Fig.6, 8, can include or exclude any number of sensors 112, 114, 116, 118. Can be used an alternative sensors, such as sensors for gauge, absolute and differential pressure, flow rate of the lifting gas, the acoustic wave tubes, the position of the gas-lift valve or similar signal. Similarly, the electronic module 106 and the sensors 112, 114, 116 can be packaged and deployed independently controlled valve 52. In an advantageous embodiment, use at least one acoustic sensor.

Equivalent circuit figure 9 should be compared with figure 1. As you can see, the controller and the energy source includes a source of 120 VAC and communication master modem 122, electrically connected between the casing 24 and pipe 26. Fig.9 illustrates two separate down-hole communication and electronic modules, which is identical to that shown. You must understand that any such electronic module, for example mounted in the mandrel 70 may contain or not to contain various components and communication, such as sensors 112, 114, 116, 118 or operated valve 52. Figure 9 this electronic module (such as an electronic module 82 figure 7) is electrically connected between the pipe 26 and casing 24. This electronic module 82 contains electrical transformer 124, as showing the but. Similarly, the data of the transformer 128 is connected with the auxiliary module 130, as shown.

Figure 10 shows mounted in the mandrel, a controlled gas lift valve 132, which may not be easily replaced. These mechanical valves replaced by pulling out the tubing. Figure 10 shows that the electronic device is controlled valve 132 mounted in the valve body. It is clear that the costs for electricity supply and control equipment can have a separate configuration and can be mounted in a raised pipe mandrel 134. Figure 10 shows the configuration of the needle valve alternative implementation, it is obvious that the valve body 7 and other configurations of valves may be provided with an alternative design. As shown in figure 10, the ground lead 136 connects the electronic module 138 integrally with the valve body 132 and grounds to the current collector 61 of the spring centralizer. Power and signal connecting wire is integral with the mandrel 134 and connects the electronic module 138 pipe 26. The stepping motor 142, a needle valve 144 and the control valve 146 is similar in operation and configuration with a controlled valve, depicted in Fig.7. In the same way that Fig executed outlet 148 and the outlet 150 to ensure the message is placed between the annular space and the inner part of the pipe 26.

11 illustrates a block diagram of a communication system 152 in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention. 11 should be compared with figure 1 and 6. Figure 11 shows the master modem 122 and the source 120 AC. The computer 154, as shown, is connected to the reference modem 122 mainly through RS232 from PC 154 operating operating system such as Windows NT and wider range of users. The source 120 AC has an input of 120 volts AC, grounding 158 and the neutral wire, as shown in the figure. Fuse 162 (that is, 7.5 amps) output 164 of the transformer is shown at approximately 6 volts AC and 60 Hz. The source 120 of energy and the master modem 122 is connected to the casing 24 and the tube 26, as shown diagrammatically at 11.

Electronic module 82 contains the source 166 power and analog-to-digital conversion module 168. Programmable interface controller 170 is shown connected to the auxiliary modem 130 (Fig.9). The tool 172 unleashing input/output is shown at 11.

Fig depicts in detail the preferred implementation of the electronic module 82. Amplifiers and shapers 180 signals used for receiving input signals from a variety of sensors 112, 114, 116, 118 (see Fig, DG is shown an acoustic characteristic, the temperature of the pipe, the temperature of the annular space, the pressure in the pipe, the pressure in the annular space. The flow rate of lifting gas, the position of the valve, salinity, pressure and the like). Mainly nizkorodov operated amplifiers are configured with reinvestirovanie single end inputs (i.e. linear technology LT1369). The amplifiers 180 all programmed with amplifying elements designed for turning the operating parameters of the specific input sensor analog output. Programmable interface controller 170 using standard analogue with digital technology transformation, generates a digital signal of 8 bits, is equal to the output of the amplifier 180.

In a more detailed manner, the pressure sensors 112 (such as manufactured by Measurement Specialties, Inc.) used for measuring the pressure in the pipes, the inner groove of the casing and through differential gas lift valve shown in Fig positions 112 and 118. When the internal pressure of the groove is not seen as necessary. But it is acceptable as an option. Such pressure sensors 112, 118 are designed to withstand harsh vibration associated with gaslift columns of tubes. The temperature sensor 114 (such as Analog Devices, Inc. LM-34) is used for temperature measurement in pipes and in the diagnostic work through the groove to Guha, power transformer or power supply. Temperature transmitters is 50-300°F, and the temperature conditioning at the input of the network is +5-255 lets the printer°F.

Address switches 182 are designed to address individual devices from the reference modem 122. As shown in Fig, 4 address bits of the address switch for the formation of the upper 4 bits of the full address of 8 bits. The lower 4 bits are implied and are used for addressing individual elements within each electronic module 82. Thus, using this illustrative option, 1024 module is assigned to a separate reference modem 122 (Fig.9) on a single communication line. Depending on the configuration, up to 4 standard modems 122 can fit on a single communication line.

Programmable interface controller 170 on Fig (PIC IS produced by Microchip) is the bulk velocity of the clock 20 MHz and built with 8 analog and digital outputs, as shown by position 184, and 4 address inputs, as shown by the position 186. PIC 170 includes TTL level serial communication UART 188, as well as the interface controller of the stepper motor 190.

Supply 166 energy pig turns the current nominal variable line of plus 5 volts DC at the output 192 minus 5 volts constant is th current output 194 and plus 6 volts DC at the output 196, which is used by various elements within the electronic module 82 (land depicted on the exit 198). PIC 170 applies + 5 volts DC, while a satellite modem 130 uses plus 5 and minus 5 volts DC, as shown at the output 192, 194). Stepper motor 84 plus uses 6 volts DC, as shown at the output 196. Supply 166 energy includes the step-up transformer for converting a nominal 6 volt AC to 7.5 volt AC. 7,5 volts AC then straighten in the full wave shunt for the production of 9.7 volts unregulated DC. Tehterminal regulators have regulated outputs 192, 194, 196, which are poorly filtered and protected reverse EMF contour diagram. As you can appreciate, the modem 30 is the main consumer of energy in a typical case using 350 milliamps when±5 volts noise DC.

In more detail, the modem consists of crystalline installation with IC/SS transmitting electric line (trademark EG ICS1001, ICS1002 and ICS1003 from National Semiconductor) and is able to work at 300-3200 the baud rate at the transmission frequencies from 14 to 76 kHz (U.S. patent No. 5.488.593 describes crystalline installation in more detail and given in the reference).

PIC 170 controls the operation of the stepping motor by the controller 200 step is the first motor 84 (that is, the driving circuit of the stepping motor Motorola SA1042). The controller 200 needs only directional information and a simple clock pulses from the PIC 170 to drive the stepper motor 84. A single installation of the controller 200 when the excitation contains all the elements for initial operation in a known state. Stepper motor 84 (mainly the head unit MicroMo) sets the stock box valve toward its seat or away from it (see Fig.7) as the fundamental work component controlled gas lift valve 52. Stepper motor 84 provides torque 4 duyne and rotates at a speed of 100 pulses per second (within a safe period of time). A complete revolution of the stepper motor consists of 24 separate steps. The output of the stepper motor 84 is directly connected with 989:1 worm head, which produces the necessary rotation for closing and opening the valve. Constant torque required for opening and closing the valve 3 is duuun 15 duuun required for planting and raising of the valve.

PIC 170 is connected through a digital modem 130 spread spectrum with the outside world using a chain (interstage connection) and connected with the casing 24 and the tube 26, as shown in Fig.9. PIC 170 uses the MODBUS Protocol 584/985 PLC. The Protocol is ASCII encrypted for transmission.

the most interest part of the artificially raised oil today uses a gas lift for transfer of oil from the reservoir to the surface. In such gaslift wells compressed gas is injected into a downward hole from the outside of pipes, usually in the annular space between casing and tubing, and mechanical gas-lift valve provides a flow of gas inside the pipe sections and lifts the column of fluid inside the pipes to the surface. Such mechanical gas-lift valves are typical mechanical bellows valve device that opens and closes when the pressure of the fluid exceeds the pre-load section of the bellows.

However, a leak in the bellows is a common phenomenon and turns bellows valves in a non-operative, however, the pressure of the bellows out of his pre-loaded throttling without bellows weakened, that is cracked. In addition, a common source of damage in this bellows valve are erosion and wear of the ball valve relative to the seat, as the ball/seat frequently during normal operation is in the brine at high temperature and pressure around the ball valve. Such leakage and damage may not always be installed on the surface and probably reduce the effective capacity of the wells on the order of 15% due to lower speed production and high demand field system of a pressure of the lifting gas.

The surface controller 34 (either locally or centrally located) continuously combines and analyzes data downward borehole and surface data in order to calculate the profile giving the program the pipes in real time. The optimal speed of the gas lift flow for each controlled gas lift valve 52 is calculated from these data. Mainly the measurement of pressure carried out in areas affected by turbulence during injection of lifting gas. Acoustic sensor 113 (sound less than approximately 20 kHz) listens for samples bubbles in the pipes. Data is sent through a satellite modem directly to the surface controller. Alternatively, the data may be sent to the monitoring data, the average cavity and is assigned to a surface computer. Samples of bubbles in the tubes analyzed in accordance with the artificial neutral network Fig to determine the flow conditions. In the absence of tayloresque flow production control modify.

Thus, in addition to controlling the rate of flow of well production can be controlled to operate in Taylorism mode of the fluid flow or near it. Undesirable conditions, such as “fracture” and “core flow”, can be avoided. By changing the operating conditions of the well may achieve and maintain tayloresque the stream mode, which is the most desirable mode of flow. Being able to quickly determine such unwanted Pazyryk the new threads in descending well you can manage the production so as to avoid undesirable conditions. So, a quick definition of such conditions and the rapid response by the surface computer can adjust such factors as the position of the controlled gas lift valve, the rate of discharge of gas, back pressure on the pipe at the wellhead and even the injection of surfactants.

1. A method of operating a gas-lift oil wells, which establish at least one sensor directly at the production pipe in an oil well, determine the characteristics of the fluid flow in the production pipe, pass the specified characteristic in the surface controller, using the production pipe, characterized in that the sensor uses an acoustic sensor to determine the acoustic characteristics of two-phase flow of the fluid, the flow of two-phase fluid is determined with the use of the surface controller and the operating parameters of the oil wells regulate on the basis of the definition of a specified mode of the fluid flow through the surface of the controller.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein when adjusting the operating parameters of the oil wells regulate the amount of compressed lifting gas is injected into the oil well.

3. SPO is about according to claim 1, wherein when adjusting the operating parameters of the oil wells regulate the amount of compressed gas injected into the production tube through a controlled valve downward well.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when determining the flow characteristics of the fluid injected acoustic characteristic of the Artificial Neural Network.

5. The method according to claim 1, wherein when adjusting the operating parameters of the oil wells they regulate to establish the Taylor flow regime.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that define additional physical characteristics of the fluid.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that to determine the pressure and temperature of the fluid in the production pipe.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the use of the production pipe, including a branch pipe extending from the main vertical oil wells.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that provide the energy supply acoustic sensor using the production pipe.

10. Gas-lift oil well containing a production pipe for transporting two-phase fluid containing oil and natural gas, to the surface of the at least one sensor descending wells installed directly on the production who authorized the pipe and designed to determine the physical parameters of the fluid, modem, operatively associated with a production pipe for receiving data from the sensor and transmit them through the production tube to the surface, wherein the well is equipped with a throttle and/or operated valve downward wells to control the amount of lifting gas, injected into the production pipe, and surface controller designed to receive data sent by the production pipe, determining the mode of fluid flow into the production pipe and management based on the specific mode of the fluid flow indicated by the throttle and/or operated valve downward well.

11. Well of claim 10, wherein the sensor is an acoustic sensor.

12. Well according to claim 11, characterized in that the controller includes a computer containing Artificial Neural Network to determine the mode of the fluid flow measurement-based acoustic sensor.

13. Well according to claim 10, characterized in that it contains a source of energy connected with the production pipe for supplying energy to the sensor.

14. The method of controlling the flow of the multiphase fluid in the pipeline, which determine the acoustic characteristics of the fluid flow along the pipeline and determine based on the specified characteristics of the flow regime those who UCA environment on the specified section of the pipeline, characterized in that prior to determination of the mode of flow of the fluid transfer of the specified characteristics to the controller through the pipeline, and based on the definition of the mode of the fluid flow regulate the amount of at least one of the fluid in the pipeline to establish the desired flow.

15. The method according to 14, characterized in that the pipe is the oil well, and multiphase fluid medium contains a lifting gas, pumped into the well, and oil.

16. The method according to 14, wherein using the controller, including a computer with Artificial Neural Network designed to determine the mode of the fluid flow on the basis of acoustic characteristics.

17. The method according to 14, characterized in that the desired profile of the fluid flow is tailoresses regime of the stream.

18. The method according to item 15, wherein the desired flow contains a minimized number of lifting gas and maximizing the amount of oil produced.



 

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FIELD: oil producing industry; pumping facilities.

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FIELD: oil producing industry; pumping facilities.

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