Earth structure built on permafrost ground

FIELD: building, particularly for erecting road embankments in areas with high-temperature permafrost ground.

SUBSTANCE: earth structure comprises road bed body and rock layer exposed to air in peripheral zones. Lateral parts of peripheral zones in are water-impermeable from below. Rock layers are connected one to another by underlying rock layer.

EFFECT: increased resistance and operational reliability of earth structure, particularly erected on permafrost ground in summer period.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The present invention relates to the construction and can be advantageously used in the construction of road embankments in the areas of distribution of the high-temperature permafrost.

The essence of the problem: Accumulated significant negative operating experience of road embankments in permafrost (SSPE "Tynda permafrost station", postbox "Omsk Soundarya", "JSC "Irkutskgiprodornii", Khabarovsk Institute of railway transport engineers, Central research Institute of information and technical-economic studies of rail transport /cniitei/ etc.) shows that the construction of the embankments of the thawed soil, especially during the warm period, leads to the formation of melt kernel over the base of the inside of the mound, which does not freeze in winter. The result is an unstable, high-temperature permafrost in the ground does not receive much-needed annual "charge" cold and gradually begins to degrade with all the ensuing problems.

There is a construction of the mound [1], comprising a body made of composite of the lower part, containing waterlogged clayey soil, and the upper part of the drainage of the soil in which to accelerate consolidation, peripheral portions of the lower part of the mound is made in the form of a triangular (resistant) prisms of draining soil, pereuvlazhnennyj the soil of this part of the embankment is placed between the triangular prisms.

The disadvantages of this construction of the embankment for areas of permafrost is that it does not provide the “recharging” of the permafrost base in the Central part, especially in high embankments. The latest in the areas of distribution of the high-temperature (unstable) permafrost leads to its gradual degradation in the base of plants. Also vulnerable to the effects of warm surface water and the periphery of the mound, running from draining soil. All this is especially in areas with high temperature (unstable) permafrost leads to an overall degradation of her at the base of the mound, accompanied by long-term subsidence and loss of stability.

Closest to the proposed technical solution is an earthen structure on thawing permafrost soils [2], containing the body of the subgrade and hard prisms in the peripheral zones, the inner part of which is adjacent to the bottoms of the bearing part of the body of the subgrade and base, made in the form of a continuous layer of assorted rock soil contact at the top and bottom parts of the prisms with air.

However, this solution has a number of significant drawbacks. So a layer of assorted rock soil adjacent to the Foundation soils and contact the traveler at the base of the plants with the air in the warm season, easily skips the warm surface water in the base of the sloping parts of the mound. The latter is able to run dangerous thermokarst processes. In addition, the soaking of soil Foundation dramatically reduces their strength properties. All this together, as a rule, leads to the sediment and the loss of stability of the structure. The mere sediment structures in thawing permafrost soils could significantly or completely overlapped by the contact with air, the rock layer at the bottom. It should be noted that in winter the mound quickly formed a significant snow deposits in its lower part. The latter also will prevent this main period "recharging" cold contact rock layer at the base of the structure from the air. As a result of additional (higher) convective heat transfer to occur anymore, and the proposed mechanism for the effective freezing of soils of the Central part of the body of the subgrade and base will not be able to operate, with all the ensuing consequences.

The aim of the invention is to improve the stability and operational reliability earth structures on permafrost, including those erected during the warm period of the year.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in earthen construction on permafrost containing the body of the subgrade (or pavement layers and layers of rocks the aqueous soil, in contact with the air in the peripheral zones, according to the invention the peripheral zone in the sloping parts of the bottom are made waterproof, and a layer of rocky soil are connected to the underlying layer of rocky soil. The height waterproof bottom sloping parts of peripheral areas located within:

Sc+NSV≤Ng≤NS-NEF

where Hr is the height of waterproofing bottom of sloping parts of the peripheral zone, m;

Sc and NSV is the magnitude of precipitation and snow thickness or surface water at the facility, m;

NEF is the effective thickness of the contact with air layers of rock material in the peripheral zones (for example, not less than 1.0 m, as in A.S. No. 1656078), m;

The national Assembly and the height of the building and the thickness of the edges (or pavement) in the peripheral zones, m

Themselves waterproof (seal) bottom slope of the portion of the peripheral zones can be made of nijenrode soil or from draining soil gidrolizovannogo prisypannymi side prisms of nijenrode soil, and/or are connected by an anchor with a slope to the slope waterproof or drainage layers (for example, Styrofoam, karbofos, fiberglass, polyester-dimensional and so on), and is closed on top by a layer teplopromproect materials (e.g. peat, majorscale cover, ultrafiolyetovykh of geotextiles, high is porous foams etc).

The proposed solution meets the criterion of "novelty" due to the presence of a range of new features. Waterproof bottom sloping parts of the peripheral zones, in summer prevents filtration of the warm surface water (perched) in the base of plants, which is especially dangerous at high temperature (unstable) permafrost. Additionally, the proposed interval change their height provides a leaking cold air inside buildings in the winter through the overlying layers of rock material in the underlying layer of rocky soil, although, as a rule, significant sediment bulk structures erected on Ottaway soils (especially in summer), as well as the subsequent formation of thick snow deposits (more than 0.5-1 m) at the base of the structure. Thus the conditions for reliable winter "recharging" the Foundation inside the building.

The proposed solution meets and the criterion of "inventive step" because the proposed new set of features creates different from the known technical solutions are not obvious beneficial effect. This effect is temperature pinch heat balance of the structure Foundation under the connector, the underlying layer of rock soil into the negative temperatures. Last PR is expressed as by creating the necessary conditions for the penetration into the base of plants heavier cold air in the winter, and the subsequent delay (congestion) in low wind (waterproof)on the edges of the rock layer inside the building. In the lighter warm air in the summer to go can't do it. This dramatically reduces the annual warmth turnover of the structure Foundation and lowers its temperature.

Thus the air in the upper in contact with the peripheral air rock layers "holes"that are connected to the underlying rock layer, in the summer provides known for rocky osypka embankments preliminary annual average pinch temperature by 2.5-4°With downward and insulation (as in "coat") of the underlying chilled rock layer with heavier cold air in micoscopic cavities. The result is improved stability and operational reliability of the structure, particularly in conditions of high temperature (unstable) permafrost. The proposed modifications are considered ground structures also provide the necessary seismic resistance (see, for example, VSN 61-89, pages 182-183 Mandatory Annex 10 1.2., S.).

In General, compliance with the proposed technical solution the criterion of "inventive step" shows the comparative analysis in the table below.

Table 1.

Comparison is sustained fashion analysis of structures and road bulk facilities for areas of the North.
The type of constructive solutions to the mound on permafrostProtection of the frozen base of the mound from getting warm surface watersEnsuring annual "charge" cold base peripheral parts of the moundEnsuring annual "charge" cold reason the Central part of the high moundThe suitability of the design of high embankments to ensure stability at high temperature permafrost
1. Barrow (similar)-+--
2. Earthen construction in thawing permafrost soils (prototype)-+--
3. The claimed technical solution++++

The drawing shows the earthen structure located on permafrost 1, containing the body of the subgrade or pavement layers 2 in contact with the air layer of rocky soil, “holes” 3, above waterproof bottom sloping parts of the peripheral zones of the structure 4. Layer of rocky soil 3 are connected to the underlying layer of rock soil 5. This waterproof bottom slope of the portion of the peripheral zone 4 had the t required (thermal stability facility) height and can be with by the device prisypkin prisms 6 of nijenrode soil and/or connected by an anchor with a bias to the slopes or waterproof drainage layers 7, made for example of foam, karbofos, fiberglass, polyester-dimensional, etc. Vodonepronicaemyj the lower slope of the portion of the peripheral zones, advanced closed top layer 8 of the heat semi-permeable evaporative materials (e.g. peat, majorscale cover, ultrafiolyetovykh of geotextiles, highly porous foams etc). To improve the seismic performance of structures layer of rock material 3 can be placed in the gabion Maccaferri.

Earthen construction operates as follows. In the winter, with the onset of freezing temperatures, heavy cold air gets into the rock layer "holes "(for which it is desirable to provide for the use of strong nerazmokaemogo, frost-resistant species with a size of 0.2-0.4 m) and descends structures in the underlying (lower) layer of rocky soil, preferably with a content of fine-grained deposits not more than 5-6%), contact with the needy viagogo "recharge" cold ground structures. The warmer air in this layer tends to rise up and squeezed through the opposite rocky dirt layer (to leeward), and also through the upper part of the rock layers "holes". In the result, the temperature inside soedinitelnoj the underlying rock layer of the ground is reduced. This promotes cooling and “recharge” the cold-bearing permafrost Foundation of Central and peripheral parts of the structures on unstable permafrost.

With the onset of positive mean daily air temperatures warm air will also be partially to get to zadumatjsa) in "holes". However, as more light than the underlying cold air in micoscopic cavities underlying connective layer of rocky soil, down to the frozen ground structures it down can not. In malovetrenaya weather the air zastaivayas in micoscopic cavities "holes" from the rocky soil, works as a good thermal insulator (since the coefficient of thermal conductivity of air is less than that of the foam), which explains the well-known decrease of temperature in rocky sketches. It is known (see, for example, Kudryavtsev V.A. “the Effect of summer rainfall infiltration on the temperature, seasonal freezing and thawing and annual calaborate soil.” In Proc. of Permafrost studies, issue VII the MSU Publishing house, 1967.) in the summer there is condensation of water vapor present in the air on the rocks rocky scree and sketch, the water from which nature often flows down the slopes, the water resistance of the latter. The proposed technical solution, water vapor in the summer, mainly b which will condense as rock placement in the rocky ground “holes”. Thus the condensed water flows on nijenrode ground or connected by an anchor with a slope to the slope waterproof or drainage layer, enters the layer teplopromproect evaporative materials (in the form of peat or majorscale cover and others)laid on the surface of the lower waterproof parts of the embankment slopes. Data layers kapitalas statemay condensation moisture will continue to work not only insulation, but also to ensure the outflow coming on the slopes of the heat of solar radiation through the active evaporation of the incoming condensate moisture its developed surface. Thus is provided as preventing the ingress of condensate moisture in permafrost rock walls, and the simultaneous use of it for cooling from radiation heating in contact with the base of the lower parts of the slopes of the embankment due to evaporation (as the evaporation of 1 kg of water must be expended 2256 kJ of heat, or about 590 calories. 1 g of water). Windproof (airtightness) rocky layer between the peripheral zone provides water resistance that simultaneously prevents the ingress of warm surface water (perched) in the base of the structures on permafrost, leading to its degradation. The last is the most dangerous for unstable Vysokoe the temperature of the permafrost, to save which is mainly intended for the invention.

Collectively, the above mechanism allows you to shift the average annual temperature at the surface of the base structure of the positive region (as in conventional constructions) in the negative. The latter is much easier to maintain permafrost in the base of plants. This improves its overall stability and reliability

Sources of information

(1) the Copyright certificate №1081283 And class. E D 17/18.

(2) Copyright certificate №1656078 A1, class E D 17/18.

1. Earthen construction on permafrost containing the body of the subgrade and a layer of rocky soil in contact with the air in the peripheral zone, wherein the peripheral zone in the sloping parts of the bottom are made waterproof, and a layer of rocky soil are connected to the underlying layer of the rocky ground.

2. Earthen construction according to claim 1, characterized in that the height of the waterproof bottom sloping parts of the peripheral areas is located within the

Sc+NSV≤Ng≤NS-NEF

where Hr is the height of waterproofing bottom of sloping parts of the peripheral zone, m;

Sc and NSV is the magnitude of precipitation and snow thickness or surface water at the facility, m;

NEF is the effective thickness to the of ntact with air layers of rock material in the peripheral zones, m;

The national Assembly and the height of the building and the thickness of the edges (or pavement) in the peripheral zones, m

3. Earthen construction according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the waterproof bottom slope of the portion of the peripheral zones can be made of nijenrode soil or with prisypannymi side prisms of nijenrode soil and/or connected by an anchor with a slope to the slope waterproof or drainage layers (e.g., foams, karbofos, fiberglass, polyester-dimensional and so on) and closed on top by a layer of heat-permeable film evaporation materials (e.g. peat, majorscale cover, ultrafiolyetovykh of geotextiles, highly porous foams etc).



 

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