Method for preparing composition cover for recovery metallic surface

FIELD: composition materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing the composition cover that can be used for recovery worn out article surfaces working under conditions of high compression loadings, bearing surface of lateral framework in loading truck car in zone of slipping aperture. Method involves mixing the polymerizing epoxy composition and metallic dispersed filling agent in the ratio = (1:6)-(1:9) mas. p. p. Mixing is carried out at effect in increasing pressure in auger mixer with alternate step being each the following auger step differs from previous step by the constant value. Then the prepared composition is applied on metallic surface and kept its at the polymerization temperature up to finishing the solidification process. Composition based on epoxy resin ED-16, ED-20 with latent hardening agent dicyandiamide is used as epoxy composition. Iron powder PZH-4, iron-base powder PS 27-M, iron-base PG-USCH-35, nickel-base powder PG-SP2-M are used as a metallic dispersed filling agent. Invention provides enhancing the specific compression loading value.

EFFECT: improved method for preparing, valuable properties of cover.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 6 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering and is intended to restore the defects and worn surfaces of parts operating under high loads in compression, for example, the supporting surface of the side frame of the truck of a freight car in the area of the bolster opening.

In the operation of freight cars is heavy wear of the axle-boxes of the nodes in the jaw openings on the sides of trucks. Restore worn surfaces by the method of arc welding is unacceptable because associated with changes in the structure of the metal, its physical and mechanical characteristics, as well as violation landing options axlebox bearings, which leads to the violation of the requirements of traffic safety.

There is a method of protection and recovery of metal surfaces by applying a primer layer on the base composition containing epoxy resin, polyethylenepolyamine as a hardener and fillers. On the metal surface, apply primer in the following ratio, wt.%:

Epoxy resin 75,4-75,5

Oxide 12,7-was 12.75

Hardener 11,75-11,9

and after drying it to "tack-free" is applied an insulating layer containing epoxy resin, bakelite varnish, diabase powder, aluminium oxide, glass, hardener, then surface dried to "tack-free", also cover p is estetiziruemym layer, containing epoxy resin, acetone, dispersion of the iron oxide red in the varnish, hardener, and then the coating is dried for a full utverzdenija (see application EN 98109671, 7 IPC 09 D/08, publ. 20.02.2000) [1].

The disadvantage of this method is that, first, the process is multi-stage, and hence time-consuming, as it requires a threefold application with required exposure time for each layer. In addition, for each layer, the composition of the mixture must be different, in terms of real production is inconvenient and not always acceptable.

Secondly, use as hardener polyethylenepolyamine limits the viability of the mixture of epoxy resin with polyethylenepolyamine time. The curing process of the resin begins immediately after the introduction of polyethylenepolyamine and real mixture should be used within 15-20 min after preparation. In this regard, the mixture should be prepared directly on site use and it is impossible to have a reserve. For this reason it is also impossible thorough mixing, which requires a certain amount of time, therefore, the mixture will be uneven in the degree distribution of the filler.

Thirdly, for use as a hardener polyethylenepolyamine one-time preparation of a mixture of possibly limited to what icestar (almost 200-250 ml), because the curing of the resin, linear aliphatic di - and polyamines is exothermic in nature and leads to self-heating of the mixture, its foaming, spontaneous cure and unsuitable for use.

Also known compound for heavy structural products based on epoxy resins, including Dianova resin, filler - carbonyl iron and hardener - barbarastrasse the polyethylenepolyamine with the following content of components (parts by weight):

Epoxy resin 100

Carbonyl iron 250-350

The polyethylenepolyamine-orthocarbonate 7-9

(see application No. 96120300/04, RU, 6 IPC 08 L 63/02, publ. 20.01.99) [2]

In the manufacture of structures of compound separately mix the epoxy resin and amine hardener with carbonyl iron, vaccum, utverjdayut under normal conditions and thermoablative with speed rise temperature mode:

5 hours at a temperature of 50°

5 hours at a temperature of 150°

5 hours at a temperature of 250°

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is that the use of the mixture is limited to its viability, because since the introduction of the hardener into the resin begins its curing and the mixture must be used within a limited time, otherwise it will become worthless. For this reason, it is impossible to cook cm is camping in advance in order to have a reserve. In addition, due to the exothermic nature of the curing reaction of the resin is its self-heating, foaming and accelerated curing; the process speed is greater, the greater number of prepared mix. Thus, there is a limit on the number of simultaneously prepared mix.

Another disadvantage is the necessity of using complicated special equipment for degassing and for large items it is not always acceptable.

In addition, the process is long and energy intensive, heat treatment is carried out for 15 hours, and all this time requires energy consumption to maintain the temperature within the specified limits.

At the specified ratio of epoxy and carbonyl iron last runs in the system role only thickener, and not carrying a load frame element, because even in the monolith carbonyl iron has a very low hardness, and the distribution of it in epoxy all external power load will perceive epoxy resin, physico-mechanical characteristics which are not suitable for use as a structural material operating at high contact loads in compression.

A significant drawback of the compound is that it has Nevis is some heat and when the local temperature rise during operation, parts of the heat from the working area, for example, the friction zone is limited to low thermal conductivity of epoxy resin, and particles of carbonyl iron, being relatively remote from each other a distance not participate in the process of heat removal.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is a method of obtaining a polymer coating, comprising the sequential application of a heated metal surface layer of the powdered epoxy resin and a layer of a mixture of it with filler.

To improve impact strength and the transition of the electrical resistance as filler applied powder slag Ferroalloy production, taken in a mass ratio to the epoxy composition 1:(1-7), and the mixture is applied on the first layer after exposure for a time, lying in the interval between the time of film formation and gelation of the first coating layer at the heating temperature of the metal surface (see A.S. SU # 1811086, 5 IPC 05 D 1/36 [3], adopted for the prototype).

The disadvantage of the prototype is that the method cannot be used in cases where the metal bases are required preserve the immutability of the structure, since the melting temperature of the powdered epoxy resin is about 250-270°and at these temperatures structural changes of metal, in particular PR is coming vacation tempered carbon steel, that is not always valid.

The process requires a double cover, and the second layer must be applied in the time interval between plenkoobrazovatelem and gelation of the first layer. This parameter depends on the design of the coated surface and thin-walled parts, rapidly losing stock heat from the heat, is extremely small. Practically this can be tenths of a second, and during this time you cannot manage to put a layer. In this way it is impossible to apply the coating in a narrow through with crack-like places, and to obtain a thick coating process must be conducted repeatedly.

Another disadvantage is that the slag Ferroalloy production, being a mixture of silicates, being brittle and having a low hardness, which leads to lower hardness and load bearing capacity of the coating relative to the contact loads, resulting in reduced stability of the surface.

The present invention is the restoring of worn surfaces of the parts, working in high, of the order of 700-900 kg/cm2specific loads in compression, in particular worn-out surfaces of the axle-boxes of the nodes in the jaw openings of the side walls of the freight car trucks. The main requirement for the material of the coating is the ability to resist the efforts of the compression caused by the weight of the car, because under the influence of them is NGO of these efforts is the main wear and resizing mating parts which ultimately has a negative impact on traffic safety. In addition, the material and method of application should be efficient.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the stability of the reducing coating for metal surfaces when exposed to high loads in compression.

Based on task proposed to use a composite material, which in the initial state, the initial stages of the technology should be plastic, so it was easy to create the desired geometry of the surface of the worn parts, and in final form must be solid to withstand mechanical loads. For this scheme the material matrix-filler and the matrix, which acts as a binder selected from the polymerized substances such as resins, curable by exposure to external factors, and as a filler used metal dispersed filler. The range of technological and operational properties of the material depends on the degree of filling of the system and limited, on the one hand, the plasticity of the material, and on the other hand, the load-bearing capacity. To identify the permissible filling mixture the experimental test, the results of which are shown in the table.

Technical achiev that is achieved by the method of obtaining a composite coating to restore metal surfaces involves mixing polymerizable epoxy composition with a metal dispersed filler, coating the resulting composition on the metal surface and keeping it at the temperature of polymerization until the end of the solidification process.

According to the invention, as a polymerizable epoxide composition use composition based on epoxy resin grades ED-16, ED-20 with the latent hardener dicyandiamide as a dispersed filler metal powder, the ratio of the epoxy composition and a metal dispersion of the filler is 1:6 to 1:9 parts by weight, the mixture of components is realized under the influence of increasing pressure in the screw mixer with variable step and each subsequent step of the screw is different from the previous one by a constant value.

Another difference is that as the metal dispersion of the filler used iron powder brand PR.

Another difference is that as the metal dispersed filler use powder brand GHG-On 27-M on the basis of iron.

Another difference is that as the metal dispersed filler use powder brand PG-USC-35 on the basis of iron.

Another difference is that as the metal dispersed filler use powder brand PG-SR)

Another difference is that as a latent hardener epoxy polymerizable composition using dicyandiamide.

Physico-mechanical properties and performance reliability system binder-filler is determined by the rheology of the boundary layer, as it is the transfer of mechanical load. It is important to have a solid thermally and hydrolytically stable connection between the surface of the filler and the polymer matrix, enabling them to work together. To ensure good adhesion between the polymer and the filler must form a strong neytralizuet chemical bonds, i.e. on the surface of the filler should be groups capable of chemical interaction with the functional groups of the binder.

Molecular interaction between the polymer and the filler may be in various interactions. So, between the active functional groups of epoxy resin and filler is a chemical interaction with the formation of strong chemical bonds. In addition, there is the existence of a whole spectrum of physical links - from van der Vaal's to hydrogen, causing a phenomenon the Oia wetting, adhesion and interfacial layers.

It is known that thermodynamic work of adhesion is proportional to surface tension and boundary corner wetting binder. The magnitude of the contact angle also affects the surface structure of the substrate.

The presence of oxides on the metal surface has a significant influence on the strength of the connection.

To increase the strength of the connection binder and filler blending components are produced under increasing pressure as the promotion mix in the mixer, which represents a screw extruder with a variable pitch screw, and each subsequent step screw differs from the previous one by a constant amount. This ensures the removal of the surface oxide layer, which leads to activation of the surface, reducing the contact angle and increase the strength of the contact material by mixing the components in terms of overall compression.

An example of a specific implementation.

The table shows the values of specific pressure to compress the recovered metal surfaces, obtained for different ratios of binder epoxy composition and the dispersed metal filler powder.

The drawing shows the design of the mixer used for the production of composite coatings for metal recovery on the of Ernesta.

In the specific example were prepared in the mixer (see the drawing), a screw extruder with a variable pitch screw with a constant rate of change equal to 5 mm, providing progresses mixture to the outlet uniform mixing and clean the particles of metal powder from oxide.

Similar design of screw extruder described in patent No. 2118257 C1, RU, 6 IPC 29 47/38, 47/66, publ. 27.08.98, [4].

The use of a screw extruder with variable step equal to 5 mm, allows mixing of the components of the binder in the form of liquid or paste-like epoxy resins and metal dispersed filler provides uniform mixing with increasing pressure.

Improving the quality of the mixture is achieved through the intensification of the process of mixing crushed solid particles of the filler mixture. With a uniform distribution of the components of the mixture in the volume of mixing is accompanied by scraping the surface of the filler particles of oxides and other contaminants that provides reliable wetting their binder.

The mixer used for uniform mixing of the components under the action of increasing pressure (see drawing), consists of a cylindrical body 1 with the outlet 2. In the housing 1 is placed auger 3 is variable pitch. With the input side of the housing 1 has a hopper 4 through which load the original components of the mixture. The screw is made variable pitch And in which each subsequent step differs from the previous one by a constant b.

Mixing the starting components is as follows.

The screw 3 by means of the actuator receives the rotation in the direction of the arrow indicated in the drawing. In the bunker serves 4 source components of the mixture - metal dispersed filler and binder, which used epoxy composition with a latent curing agent, such as epoxy resin ED-16, ED-20, with dicyandiamide as a latent hardener. During the rotation of the screw components fall within the turns of the screw and mixed up in the direction of the outlet and simultaneously mixed together.

In connection with the reduction step of the screw 3 in the direction of the outlet 2 the velocity of the mass relative to the housing 1 is reduced, but since the area of the hopper 4 is a continuous supply of mass, then the length of the body 2, the pressure in the mixture is constantly increasing, and due to the fact that mass is actually incompressible, occurs over mixture in a spiral along the turns of the screw, i.e. the mixture at increasing the compression gets complex spatial motion, in which the particle is of omnitele friction each other are cleaned from oxide films and other of pollutants. As the process proceeds without access of air surrounded by a binder, provides better wetting of the filler binder that promotes maximum adhesion, and hence the quality of the mixture.

The mixture of iron powder brand PR and epoxy resin ED-16 in the concentrations indicated in the table were applied to the worn-out surface detail, polymerizable at 120-130°to fully cure. Iron powder brand PE by its technological parameters (particle size, flowability, ability to mixing) when the mixture is close to other metal granular powder brand PG-USC-35, PG-SR-M, PG-S-27-M.

Then were tested received a reducing coating in compression with control of residual deformation. When this is set (see the table)that with increasing concentration of the metal filler in the mixture with the epoxy composition is from 1:5 to 1:10 load-carrying capacity of the reducing coverage increases from 805 to 990 kg/cm2but at a concentration of 1: 10 due to the high viscosity of the mixture coating was difficult. The lower acceptable limit of the degree of filling of the metal dispersed filler is a mixing ratio of 1:6, as at a concentration of 1:5 there is a significant reduction Usto the stability of the reducing coating to the loads in compression, which corresponds to the average load per unit 805 kg/cm2.

The achieved stability of the reducing coating in compression meets with a stock of real stress in the jaw openings freight car trucks.

Sources of information

1. Application EN 98109671, 7 IPC 09 D 5/08, publ. 20.02.2000.

2. Application No. 96120300, RU, 6 IPC 08 L 63/02, publ. 20.01.99.

3. A.S. SU # 1811086, 5 IPC 05 D 1/36 prototype.

4. Patent No. 2118257 C1, RU, 6 IPC 29 47/38,47/66, publ. 27.08.98,

Table
№ p/pThe ratio of the binder is epoxy resin grade ED-16 with a latent hardener dicyandiamide to the filler - iron powder PJ (parts by weight
1:51:61:71:81:91:10
Unit load in compression (kg/cm2)
1770880920930955990
2835875955965985985
3810910940970980995
Cf is dnee 805888,3938,3955973,3990

1. Method of production of composite coatings for recovery of metal surfaces comprising a mixture of polymerizable epoxy composition and the dispersed filler, coating the resulting composition on the metal surface and keeping it at the temperature of polymerization until the end of the solidification process, characterized in that as the epoxy composition use composition based on epoxy resin grades ED-16, ED-20 with the latent hardener dicyandiamide as a dispersed filler metal powder, the ratio of the epoxy composition and a metal dispersion of the filler is 1:6-1:9 parts by weight, the mixture of components is realized under the action of increasing the pressure in the screw mixer with variable pitch, each the next step screw differs from the previous one by a constant.

2. A method of obtaining a composite coating to restore metal surfaces according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal dispersion of the filler used iron powder brand PR.

3. A method of obtaining a composite coating to restore metal surfaces according to claim 1, otlichalis the same time, as the metal dispersed filler use powder brand PS-M on the basis of iron.

4. A method of obtaining a composite coating to restore metal surfaces according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal dispersion of the filler used powder brand PG-USC-35 on the basis of iron.

5. A method of obtaining a composite coating to restore metal surfaces according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal dispersion of the filler used powder brand PG-SR-M Nickel-based.



 

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