Water desalination installation

FIELD: agriculture and different industries; irrigation farming.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of agriculture, in particular, to an irrigation farming at construction of the irrigation and drainage systems with a closed cycle of a water rotation and also to the industrial and agricultural water supply facilities. The installation includes a water feeding duct with a sensor of mineralization of the water, a water separator and water outlets; an accumulator of the mineralized water with two sections, an accumulator of a desalinated water, an evaporator, pumping stations, feeding water pressure pipelines; an ice site with a counter-filtering screen, protective dikes, a cutoff drain and water outlets; apparatuses for a winter sprinkling to freeze on an ice block; a channel-collector of the saline solutions and the desalinated water; a gravity flow self-contained collector with water-intakes from the channel-collector;, a command and measuring complex (CMC) for control over the process of a water desalination in the collector; a power plant, a device for a heating of the air and a compressor to feed the heated air in the collector. Located sequentially around the ice-site accumulators of the mineralized and a desalinated water, an evaporator - are separated from the channel - collector by a ring-shaped dike and separated by bridges and their outer boundaries form a closed contour having a lineout of the territory within the limits of the landscape intended for creation of the installation. The depth of the evaporator is determined according to a mathematical dependence. The installation shall ensure desalination of the mineralized water by freezing with use of the natural climatic factors in conditions of a flat topography of the location at a high coefficient of land utilization within the limits of the area occupied by the installation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures desalination of the mineralized water by freezing with use of the natural climatic factors.

9 dwg

 

The invention relates to techniques for desalination of saline water by freezing using natural climatic factors and can be used in irrigated agriculture in the creation of irrigation and drainage systems with a closed loop water circulation, as well as for industrial and agricultural water supply.

Known device for layer-by-layer numerazione and thawing of ice in natural conditions, containing a pump associated with the discharge pipes for the supply of water to lopamudra, vertical risers with liquid ring nozzles, drain pipe, in which, in order to obtain ice from saline and circulating water, it is equipped with perforated assalaamualaikum pipes, common collector, and otkaznim pump, ldapmessage has artificial drainage layer, with pipes for water supply and resolutie pipe installed with a slope of 1 - 2°, the latter are located in the drainage layer, and the vertical struts are mounted vibrators and removable dividers water; one of the dividers designed to numerazione made in the form of a cone, and the other designed to defrost in the form of a perforated hemispherical shell (SU inventor's certificate No. 875185, M CL3F 25 1/02. Installation for layer-by-layer numerazione and thawing is IDA in natural conditions // Bakalov E, Groman DS., Minasyan RG and Kornev V.A. Stated 31.08.78 published 23.10.1981).

The disadvantages of this setup should include low productivity due to technology layer numerazione, the lack of alignment parameters of rain with meteorological factors, the inability to generate high amounts of ice, the duration of the desalination process, low reliability rassolopodemnyh system.

Also known installation for the desalination of saline water, including desalination lipoplasty, pumping station inlet pressure pipe, a sprinkler for sprinkling, bulk drainage layer the drainage pipeline and evaporation pond, which, with the goal of increasing efficiency by providing for the regulation of the quality and salinity of desalinated water, which additionally contains a pond drive mineralized waters with bottom discharge and pit in the zone of water intake, pond-battery desalinated water discharge pipe of the pump station is equipped with a perforated pipe in the bottom area of the sump water intake and drainage pipe equipped with a valve; pond drive, pond-battery and pond-evaporator are positioned successively in the direction of the main slope; it further comprises a pool for the accumulation of saline water and the channel on the I supply of fresh water; it is equipped with equipment for use on ice massif fine particles (SU inventor's certificate No. 1786005 A1, IPC302 F 1/22. Installation for the desalination of saline water // Alimov A.G., Varlamov N.E., Bryzgalin A.D. Marinenko V.E., Kontorovich I.I., Balakov R.A. Declared 09.11.1989 published 07.01.1993).

The disadvantages of this setup are low reliability rassolopodemnyh system during the winter period, restrictions on the terrain in which you can create and effective functioning of the installation of gully network, low coefficient of land use within the area occupied by the installation.

It is also known a device for desalination of salt water, containing pools numerazione and accumulation of salty ice, and the pool stick is placed in the center and contains a system of drains and pipes, which, with the aim of reducing the amount of excavation works during construction and placement in topographically complex areas, pools numerazione and accumulation are aligned and are in the horizontal sectional shape of a circle (SU inventor's certificate No. 1808815 A1, IPC502 F 1/22, 01 D 9/04. Device for desalination of salt water // III. Declared 29.09.89 published 15.04.93).

The drawbacks are low productivity due to technology layer numerazione ice the lack of technical solutions new special high performance lorazepambuy machines and mechanism for throwing the developed ice from the bottom of the pool stick.

Also known installation for the desalination of saline water, including the drive saline water pumping station with inlet pressure piping for supplying saline water on lipoplasty to the apparatus winter rainwater and desalinated water to the consumer, interconnected regulatory structure lopamudra with drainage layer, impervious screen, protective shaft, shut-off Drenai and outlets, apparatus winter sprinkling to numerazione ice masses, the channel-collector brines and desalinated water regulatory structures, storage of desalinated water and the evaporator further comprises a control and measurement system, powerplant and private gravity sewer, associated with channel-the collector of the intakes, the tip of which is made of a hydrophobic material and protected against the ingress of snow, and the collector laid below the average depth of soil freezing and has a regulatory structure for changing the direction of flow or in the evaporator or in the storage of desalinated water; measuring sets the CC to monitor the salinity of water in the channel-collector and a closed gravity collector is connected with the actuating mechanisms regulating structures for changing the direction of flow; power unit is electrically connected with a device for heating air and a compressor for supplying heated air in a closed gravity sewer; drive saline water hydraulically connected to the evaporator by means of the pumping station discharge pipeline (RU, patent No. 2178772 C1 IPC702 F 1/22, F 25 C 1/00. Installation for the desalination of saline water // Kontorovich I.I., Kolganov AV, Caldew A.M. Declared 27.04.2000 published 27.01.2002).

The main weaknesses of the installation should include the limited conditions for the implementation of the countryside with a one-way slope (slope), low coefficient of land use within the area occupied by the installation.

This setting, as the closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result, adopted us for the nearest equivalent.

The invention consists in the following.

The problem to which the invention is directed, - improving the efficiency of the desalination of saline water by natural freezing in conditions of flat terrain.

The technical result, which can be obtained by carrying out the invention, the reduction of the installation area due to the rational layout of its elements, increasing the coefficient of land use within the area, the employed population installation, on the territory of a potential consumer of desalinated water.

This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved in that in the known installation for the desalination of saline water, comprising a supply channel, drives saline and desalinated water, evaporator, pump station with water from the drives saline and desalinated water supply pipelines to supply saline water on lipoplasty to the apparatus winter rainfall in the evaporator and desalinated water to the consumer, lopamudra with drainage layer, impervious screen, protective shaft, shut-off Drenai and outlets, apparatus winter sprinkling to numerazione ice masses, the channel-collector brines and desalinated water regulatory structures placed below the mean average depth the soil freezing indoor gravity sewer with control structures to direct the flow into the evaporator or in the storage of desalinated water associated with the channel collector water, the tip of which is made of a hydrophobic material and protected against the ingress of snow, to monitor the salinity of water in the channel-collector and a gravity closed manifold, control and measurement system associated with the Executive what mechanisms control structures for changing the direction of flow, power generating unit, electrically connected with a device for heating air and a compressor for supplying heated air in a closed gravity sewer, according to the invention lopamudra has a cone shape or a hollow cylinder, is provided in the peripheral part of the ring shut-off Drenai, evenly distributed around the outer border of the outlets, the protective ramparts and is limited by the perimeter of the annular channel-collector brines and desalinated water, hydraulically connected with the ring closed by a gravity collector, the drive saline water, the storage of desalinated water and the evaporator are arranged successively around lipoplasty, have an impervious floor and separated from the channel-collector ring with an earthen dam, located in it annular pressure pipe from the hydrant to supply saline water to the apparatus winter rainfall, and between the ridges, and the external borders of the drive saline water, storage of desalinated water and the evaporator to form a closed loop, mostly rectangular in shape with the shape of the borders of the territory within the landscape, intended for creation of installation; the depth of the evaporator is determined from the dependencies

h=k· hCOI+O+c (1)

where h is the depth of the evaporator; k - ratios are the NT, taking into account the influence of water salinity on the rate of evaporation from the water surface; hCOI- the average amount of evaporation from the water surface; the average multi-annual precipitation; - constructive stock.

Due to the fact that the external borders of the drive saline water, storage of desalinated water and evaporator arranged in series around lipoplasty, form a closed circuit with the outlines of the boundaries of the area within the landscape, intended for creation of installation is achieved by the above technical result.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows a plant for the desalination of saline water by the method of freezing the tapered lopamudra process numerazione ice array top view.

Figure 2 - section a-a in figure 1.

Figure 3 - section b-b In figure 1.

Figure 4 - section C-C in figure 1.

Figure 5 - node D in Fig. 1, the layout of the communications in the area of the pumping station, view from above.

Figure 6 - layout of the drive saline water, storage of desalinated water and the evaporator when the rectangular shape of the territory within which to create the installation, top view.

Figure 7 - layout of the drive saline water, storage of desalinated water and the evaporator when the trapezoidal shape of the territory is, within which to create the installation, top view.

On Fig diagram of the layout of the drive saline water, storage of desalinated water and the evaporator when the polygonal shape of the territory within which to create the installation, top view.

Figure 9 - layout of the drive saline water, storage of desalinated water and evaporator for an arbitrary form of the territory within which to create the installation, top view.

Information confirming the ability of the invention are as follows.

Installation for the desalination of saline water by the method of freezing drive 1 contains mineralized water impervious coating 2 consisting of two compartments 3 and 4, which are separated by a watertight bulkhead 5 and hydraulically interconnected regulatory structure 6; the inlet channel 7 with water salinity sensor 8 and line 9, the water divider 10, the outlets 11 and 12 respectively in the compartments 3 and 4 drive 1 for transportation of mineral water, for example, drainage water from the irrigation and drainage system installation; drive 13 desalinated water impervious coating (not shown), an evaporator 14 residual brine brines with impervious cover (not shown), pump station 15 with the intake is from the drive 1 saline water the drive 13 of desalinated water, avancuara 16, pressure pipe 17 and the annular pressure pipe 18 with evenly distributed along the length of hydrants 19; lopamudra 20 in the form of a cone (figure 1-3) or hollow cylinder (not shown) for numerazione ice array 21 with the following design elements: impervious hard surface 22 on sandy and/or gravel cushion 23, toconcentrate troughs 24 from the center of lipoplasty to the periphery, having a variable length cross-section, an annular shut-off Drenai 25, evenly distributed around the outer edge of lipoplasty protective shaft 26 in the form of rings or slices segments (in the plan), the outlets 27 of the valve or without them; vehicles (installation) winter sprinkling 28 connected to the hydrants 19; and an annular channel-collector 29 brines and desalinated water with waterproofing 30 and the intake 31, through the latter channel-collector 29 is connected with the ring closed by a gravity collector 32; gravity conduit 33 with the regulatory structure 34 for supplying brine and desalinated water from a closed gravity collector 32 in the avankamera 16, the inlet and the discharge pipe 35 for supplying pumping station 15 desalinated water from avancuara 16 in the storage of desalinated water 13, the inlet pressure of the pipelines is 36 to supply desalinated water to the consumer, inlet discharge pipe 37 for supplying saline water in the evaporator 14, the power plant 38 (e.g., wind), which power the device 39 for heating the air and the compressor 40 for its submission to the private gravity sewer 32; control and measurement system 41 tracking the level of mineralization of water in a closed gravity collector 32, the conduit 33 and the avankamera 16 associated with the actuators of the pump station 15 (lines of communication and themselves actuators not shown); catwalks 42 through the channel-collector 29 located above the intake 31; hole 43 for injection brines in underground horizons, additional pumping station 44 water from the evaporator 14 and the discharge pipe 45 for supplying brine in the well 43, the sensor 46 to the evaporator 14 is electrically connected with the pump station 15 (line not shown).

For increasing the coefficient of land use, the installation area of the outer border drive 1 saline water, the drive 13 of desalinated water and the evaporator 14 form a closed circuit, mostly rectangular in shape (6), repeating the shape of the boundaries of the territory within the landscape, designed to create a setup (Fig.7-9). Depth of the evaporator is determined from the dependencies

h=k#x000B7; hCOI++C

where h is the depth of the evaporator; k - coefficient taking into account the influence of water salinity on the rate of evaporation from the water surface; hCOI- the average amount of evaporation from the water surface; the average multi-annual precipitation; - constructive stock, take into account fluctuations in evaporation of mineralized water and sediments in long-term period, wind surge and the height of the forward wave, exceeding the mark of the shore of the evaporator above the maximum level of brines in it, equal to 0.5 m (see SNiP 2.06.03-85. Drainage systems and structures / Gosstroy of the USSR. - M.: CITP of Gosstroy of the USSR, 1986, p.32).

To provide gravity feed of water to the avankamera 16, the bottom drive 1 saline water and the bottom of the drive 13 of desalinated water is made with a bias towards the pumping station 15.

The channel-collector 29 brines and desalinated water, drive 1 saline water and the drive 13 of desalinated water can have a cross section other than rectangular, for example, trapezoidal, parabolic, or other.

To ensure effective removal of brines and desalinated water in the avankamera 16 channel-collector 29 is made of two sections with points on the centerline 47-48-49 and 47-50-49 (figure 1), which have the opposite bias towards the pumping station 15. Similarly, private gravity sewer 2 has two sections 47-48-49 and 47-50-49 with opposite biases towards the pumping station 15, moreover, they are linked interfacing wells 47 and 49.

Apparatus (installation) winter sprinkling 28 have the range of the torch artificial rain 51, 10-20% greater than the radius of lipoplasty 20.

The device operates as follows.

For example, the source of saline water is the drainage irrigation and drainage system. During the entire period of operation of the drainage (200-250 days of the Volgograd region) mineralized water through the collector-drainage network (not shown) is supplied into the supply channel 7 and depending on the magnitude of mineralization, m=f(T), where T is the time, through water divider 10 is directed through the outlets 11 or 12 into the compartment 3 or 4 drive 1 mineral water and accumulates in them. Under this regulatory structure 6 on the crosspiece 5 is closed. Monitoring the level of water mineralization in the supply channel 7 is performed by the sensor 8, which is in line 9 is connected with an actuating mechanism (not shown) of the water divider 10. When water salinity m≥ and water divider 10 directs the water through the outlet 12 into the drive Bay 4 drive 1, and if m≤ and - the outlet 11 into the drive Bay 3 drive 1, where a is a limit for a specific object is the salinity of the effluent. In winter when the temperature drops below -5° With mineralized water (m≥ a) is Tseka 4 drive 1 pump station 15 is supplied via the pressure pipe 17, the pressure ring 18 pipe and through hydrants 19 to the units (the units) winter sprinkling 28, by which within lopamudra 20 by a known method must be ice massif porous ice-21 (the first stage of the desalination of saline water). After emptying of the compartment 4 drive 1 open regulatory structure 6, the water from the compartment 3 (m< (a) flows by gravity into the compartment 4 and the same image is used for further numerazione array of ice. The process of numerazione array of ice continues until the complete evacuation of the drive 1 mineralized water.

In the process of forming ice array 21 is education and filtration of brine that flows over the surface and Starokonstantinov hollows 24 lopamudra 20 to its peripheral part, going the protective shaft 26 and through the outlets 27 enters into the open annular channel-collector 29. Next, the brine through the intake 31 with the end walls 52, made of a hydrophobic material and protected from the ingress of snow and other precipitation bridges 42 are annular private gravity sewer 32, arranged below the average depth of soil freezing in the construction installation and in the direction of the slope of the bottom and through the conduit 33 into the avankamera 16 pump station 15. To create the occupational groups for the smooth removal of brines in the winter on the ring closed Samotechnaya manifold 32 power plant 38 (desalination mineralized drainage water irrigation and drainage systems it is advisable to use a wind power installation) periodically or as needed, which can be controlled by temperature sensors in the manifold 32 (not shown)supplies power to the device 39 for air heating (radiator) and the compressor 40, which forces the heated air through the regulatory structure 34 and a gravity conduit 33 into the reservoir 32, guaranteed thereby save it positive air temperature. The collector 32 operates in free-flow mode and always has free space for admission of heated air.

When necessary, the heating of the collector 32 no power unit 38 provides electricity to other consumers within the installation, such as pumping stations, and outside (not shown).

Next brines from avancuara 16 climb pump station 15 and the inlet pressure pipe 37 are fed into the evaporator 14, which accumulated. During the formation of the array of porous ice its salt content is reduced to 10-12 times in comparison with initial salinity of sea water, which has been proved in experiments.

With the onset of positive air temperatures there is a natural melting of the ice pack (the second stage of the desalination of saline water). The first portion of melt water, if the miner who isace above the permissible according to user requirements, comes with lopamudra 20 through the outlets 27 in the channel-collector 29 and then through the intake 31 in the manifold 32 and the avankamera 16, from which we get pumping station 15 and the inlet pressure pipe 37 are fed into the evaporator 14. Fresh meltwater plays similarly, but from avancuara 16 pump station 15 is supplied via the inlet pressure pipe 35 into the drive desalinated water 13, which is accumulated. The change of direction of drainage from avancuara 16 is carried out in manual or automatic mode with the use of actuators (not shown) of the pumping station 15 on the basis of data measuring complex 41 on monitoring of the salinity of water in the reservoir 32 and the avankamera 16. The process of formation of desalinated water and its accumulation in the memory 13 is completed by the end of the natural melting of the ice pack 21.

Interception of groundwater flow in the area of the channel-collector 29 is an annular shut-off Drenai 25 in free-flow mode diverts water into the reservoir 32, and further, as described above, depending on the salinity in the drive desalinated water 13 or the evaporator 14.

As education and/or upon request of the consumer desalinated water from the drive 13 pump station 15 to the inlet pressure the pipeline 36 is supplied to the consumer, in the conditions of this example is in a conductive irrigation network irrigation and drainage system for subsequent irrigation of crops.

If necessary within the installation may be the regulation of the quality of desalinated water by mixing in the desired proportions with mineralized water from drive 1 or by adding different himmeliorants (nitric acid, calcium nitrate, and others). Structurally blocks for mixing and chemical reclamation of sea water are placed within the building of the pumping station 15 (not shown).

Further operation of the installation for the disposal of residual from desalination brines are determined by natural conditions and existing demand in the brines (salt) from potential customers in the area.

Option 1. Under favorable geological and hydrogeological conditions in the area to create an installation for the injection of brines in subsurface horizons, this process is performed using the well 43, where the brine from the evaporator 14 serves an additional pump station 44 through the pressure pipe 45 (figure 1). For example, for the conditions of the Volgograd region the possibility of disposal of liquid waste in stagnant groundwater basins and sub-salt horizons (see Bruises V.N.,Starovoitov, M.K., Polyaninov L.Y. and other Geoecological problems of underground and aboveground storage of liquid wastes in salt-dome areas. - M.: NIA-Priroda, 2001. - 153 C.).

Option 2. The brine in the evaporator 14 for the warm period of the year as a result of natural evaporation to concentrate the brine and salt. To prevent wind transfer salts when reaching into the evaporator 14 minimum level of brine h=hminthat is controlled by the sensor 46, by means of the pumping station 15 from the drive 1 via line 37 is served mineralized water to the level of the brine h=hmin+5... 10 cm After the expiration of the service or installation of irrigation and drainage systems (consumer desalinated water) brine and salt in the evaporator 14 must be disposed of or recycled according to a special technology (not an object of the invention).

Annually presents the technological cycle of operation of a desalination plant is repeated.

Example to determine the depth of the evaporator desalination plant under the following initial data.

The location of the desalination plant in the area Hilton Volgograd region (semi-arid zone). Desalination desalination plant provides drainage water from the irrigation system area of 100 hectares, the Amount of drainage runoff - Wd=100 thousand m3/year, mineralizes is - md=5.7 g/l Annual volume of residual brine, subject to natural evaporation - Wr=34,0 thousand m3. Salinity brines - mr=15,8 g/l

The depth of the evaporator is determined by the method of successive approximations.

In a first approximation, the calculated depth of the evaporator by the formula (1), taking as hCOIaverage perennial water surface evaporation evaporative basin area of 20 m2(h20). The value of h20find on the map for the area of the proposed construction of a desalination plant (see lokseva A.A. Practical hydrology. - L.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1976, p.69) - h20=120 see If the salinity of the brine to 15.8 g/l k-factor, taking into account the influence of water salinity on the rate of evaporation from the water surface, according to the data given in the reference Processing of natural salts and brines: a Handbook / falcons I.D., Ants AV, Safrygin US and others - L.: Chemistry, 1985, s, 175, equal to 1.0. The average multi-annual precipitation in the area, Elton Volgograd region is 292 mm (see Handbook of the climate of the USSR. - L.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1968. VIP. - Part IV, C). Constructive stock “C” in the first calculation step taken equal to 0.5 (see SNiP 2.06.03-85. Drainage systems and structures / Gosstroy of the USSR. - M.: CITP of Gosstroy of the USSR, 1986, p.32), i.e. does not take into account the salts precipitate layer on the bottom is sprites.

Then by the formula (1) depth of the evaporator in the first approximation will be:

H1=1· 120+29,2+50=199,2 (cm).

With an annual volume of brine 34000 m3and a pre-defined depth of the evaporator 1,99 m, the area of the evaporator (SCOIin the first approximation will be:

SISP=Wr/h1=34000:1,99=17085,0 (m2),

less than 5 km2and the evaporator in accordance with the current classification, should be classified as small water bodies (see Ivanov A.N., Negovsky T.A. Hydrology and flow regulation. - M.: Kolos, 1979 press, p.104). Then the average long-evaporation from the water surface of the reservoir with fresh water (hCOIlocated in conditions of flat terrain, determined by the expression (see lokseva A.A. Practical hydrology. - L.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1976, p.70):

hCOI=h20·kn·kPro·β, (2)

where h20- average long-evaporation from water surface evaporation basin area of 20 m2; kn- correction factor for the depth of the reservoir, kPro- correction factor for the protection of the reservoir from the wind, β is the correction factor by the area of the pond.

Tables 2.17-2.19 (see lokseva A.A. Practical hydrology. - L.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1976, p.70) for the conditions of example (semi-arid zone, the depth is and evaporator 2-5 m, the configuration of the evaporator in the plan is not specified, the area of the evaporator to 0.05 km2) kn=1,0, kPro=0,96, β =1,08. KProadopted maximum due to the fact that the configuration of the evaporator in the plan at this stage is not yet defined. By the formula (2) defined by hCOI:

hCOI=120· 1· 0,96· 1,08=to 124.4 (cm).

Then the depth of the evaporator by the formula (1) in the second approximation is equal to:

H2=1· to 124.4+29,2+50=203,6 (cm).

Specify the area of the evaporator SISP=Wr/h2=34000:2,04=16666,7 (m2and check whether you have enough constructive stock previously received 0.5 m, for accumulation of sediment salt when the duration of operation of desalination plant for 25 years. When the volume of the brine flowing into the evaporator, 34000 m /year, salinity brine 15.8 kg/m (or g/l) for 25 years at the bottom of the evaporator will be accumulated: 15,8· 34000· 25=13430000 (kg)=13430 (t) salts. With an average bulk density of sediment salt 1.75 t/m3(according to Sanin M.V. Use of resources high salinity water by desalination. - M.: Nauka, 1988, p.116) precipitate the salt will occupy the volume Wc=13430:1,75=7674,3 m3and its layer will be equal to Wc/SISP=7674,3:16666,7=0,46 (m). In this regard, the corrected value constructive stock=0,5+0,46=0,96 (m), and finally define the depth of the evaporator by the formula (1)

h=1· 124,429,2+96=of 249.6 (cm)=2,50 (m).

Thus, the desalination plant will provide the desalination of saline water by freezing using natural climatic factors in terms of flat terrain with a high coefficient of land use within the area occupied by the installation.

Installation for the desalination of saline water, comprising a supply channel, drives saline and desalinated water, evaporator, pump station with water from the drives saline and desalinated water inlet pressure piping for supplying saline water on lipoplasty to the apparatus winter rainfall in the evaporator and desalinated water to the consumer, lopamudra with drainage layer, impervious screen, protective shaft, shut-off Drenai and outlets, apparatus winter sprinkling to numerazione ice masses, the channel-collector brines and desalinated water regulatory structures, arranged below the average depth of soil freezing indoor gravity sewer with the regulatory structures for flow direction in the evaporator or in the storage of desalinated water associated with the channel-collector-water, the tip of which is made of a hydrophobic material and protected against the ingress of snow, for clejani the level of mineralization of the water in the channel-collector and a closed gravity collector control and measurement system, associated with the actuating mechanisms regulating structures for changing the direction of flow energy installation, electrically connected with a device for heating air and a compressor for supplying heated air in a closed gravity sewer, characterized in that lopamudra has a cone shape or a hollow cylinder, is provided in the peripheral part of the ring shut-off Drenai, evenly distributed around the outer border of the outlets, the protective ramparts and is limited by the perimeter of the annular channel-collector brines and desalinated water, hydraulically connected with the ring closed by a gravity collector, the drive saline water, the storage of desalinated water and the evaporator, consistently placed around lipoplasty, have an impervious floor and separated from the channel-collector ring earthen dam located therein an annular pressure pipe from the hydrant to supply saline water to the apparatus winter rainfall, and between the ridges, and the external borders of the drive saline water, storage of desalinated water and the evaporator to form a closed loop having the shape of the borders of the territory within the landscape, intended for creation of installation, and the depth of the evaporator is determined from the dependencies

< num="75"> h=k·hCOI++C

where h is the depth of the evaporator; k - coefficient taking into account the influence of water salinity on the rate of evaporation from the water surface; hCOI- the average amount of evaporation from the water surface; the average multi-annual precipitation; - constructive stock.



 

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: biological purification of household sewage and similar by composition industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of biological purification of household sewage and similar by composition industrial sewage from organic and nitrogen compounds. The installation consists of: a body; located in it a chamber of aeration with aerators placed at the bottom of the body; chambers of anaerobic treatment - denitrification equipped with a tool for microorganisms immobilization; a chamber of clarification; devices for feeding of the water subjected to purification. Each of the lateral mirror-located chambers of anaerobic treatment - denitrification is formed by a lateral wall of the installation body and the external wall of the aeration chamber furnished with a guiding inclined partition mounted with a gap in relation to the bottom of the body. The installation is additionally equipped with chambers of degassing and a vertical chamber of aerobic oxidation built in the chamber of aeration. At that each chambers of degassing is located above a chamber of denitrification is fused with it and furnished with a distributing chute of being purified sewage and overflow windows. The vertical chamber of oxidation is equipped at a foundation with the counter inclined partitions mounted with a gap in relation to the bottom of the body and overflow windows in each of the walls and located opposite to the overflow windows of the degassing cameras. At that the ratio of the areas of the overflow windows of the degassing chamber and the chamber of anaerobic oxidation makes no less than 1:4 accordingly. The axial chamber of clarification is made in the form of a cone coupled with a pipeline and a collecting chute for separation of the purified water, and a device for withdrawal of a redundant active sludge is placed in the upper part of the chamber of aerobic oxidation. The installation may be equipped with several axial chambers of clarification. The technical result is an increased degree of purification from nitrogen compounds simplification and reduction in price of the installation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of purification from nitrogen compounds, simplification and reduction in price of the installation.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods used for treatment of cleaning equipment constructions from biological overgrowing. Biological overgrowing are removed by treatment with ethyl mercury phosphate with the concentration 0.5 mg/l in each 10 days of working cleaning constructions. Invention provides enhancing degree of cleaning and heat-mass-exchange in cleaning unit.

EFFECT: improved method for cleaning.

1 dwg

FIELD: oxidation catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: objective of invention is protection of atmosphere from emissions of formaldehyde as well as treatment of waste waters by oxidizing formaldehyde under nearly ambient conditions. Invention achieves this with polyoxometallate catalyst of general formula Ax[XM'12-nM"nOk]y-, wherein X represents B, Si, or P; M' represents Mo or W; M" represents V, Ce, Co, Zn, or Mn; n=1-6; k=39-41; and A is one or more cations selected from H+, Na+, K+, Cs+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Mn2+, and Cu2+, or tetraalkylammonium cation R1R2R3R4N+, wherein R1-R4 are С14-alkyls; y is polyanion charge; and x number of cations. Method of oxidizing formaldehyde in aqueous solution with oxygen and/or air at atmospheric pressure in presence of above-defined catalyst at temperature not exceeding 100°C, preferably at 20-60°C, is described.

EFFECT: reduced expenses, simplified oxidation process, avoided environmental pollution, and enabled high-selectivity formation of recoverable formic acid.

8 cl, 5 tbl, 37 ex

FIELD: equipment for purifying of sewage water from petroleum products, fats, suspended substances, surfactants, metal hydroxides, organic contaminants etc, and for treating water for various purposes.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has processing unit arranged in its upper part and comprising flotation chamber and filter, and vessel arranged in lower part and adapted for accumulation of purified water. Vessel is connected through inlet pipeline with processing unit. Pumping unit, ejector with branch pipe for supplying of atmospheric air, saturator, and pipeline system are arranged separately from processing unit. Flotation and filtering chambers are arranged in horizontal plane and made in the form of individual vessels defined by successively arranging in axis of symmetry of single casing directed from wall of single casing to center of partition made in the form of ring with member cut through the entire height of ring; limiting cylinder defining in conjunction with sectioned walls cavity of flotation zones and cavity for collecting of froth product, said cylinder being adapted for providing flowing of floated water from second zone of flotation chamber into transition processing zone owing to apertures in lower limiting cylinder, dividing-overflowing partition adapted for separating flotation chamber from filtering chamber and made in the form of cylindrical pipe with semi-circular apertures on its upper end. Vertical plate divides pipe cavity into small and large zones.

EFFECT: increased extent of purifying of sewage water, wider operational capabilities of equipment, and reduced area employed by equipment.

2 dwg

FIELD: water treatment equipment, particularly for separating mechanical impurities from domestic and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises body rested upon support, grid adapted to perform continuous movement and formed as closed continuous chain with trapping hooks. Hooks are secured on rods forming grid web located on upper driving drum shaft and lower support drum shaft. Apparatus also has electric drive with rotary drive unit, grid cleaning device made as a bush of flexible bars and connected with above unit, as well as conveyer or special pack. Trapping hooks formed of sheet steel are secured to rods with two plastic bushes. Hook and bushes are connected one to another by pouring plastic material over hook along with bushes forming or hook is mechanically connected to bush so that hook and bushes are restrained from mutual rotation. Grid web and upper drum shaft are attached through star members installed on upper drum shaft and uniformly distributed through grid width. Body is provided with support plates located parallel to grid movement path and adapted for grid supporting. Apparatus also has drive for grid web movement speed regulation. Drive is made as electric drive having electric current frequency converter and level sensor to determine water level upstream and downstream the grid.

EFFECT: increased reliability, efficiency and service life.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture and municipal economy.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for use in agricultural and municipal economy for a fermentation of solid non-ground organic waste materials of cities and settlements as well as a dung and droppings of cattle-breeding and poultry farms, a vegetable wastes of agricultural production, different organic waste materials of agricultural estates and country houses with production out of them of the high-quality fluid mineralized organic fertilizers decontaminated from the pathogenic microflora, helminths, their eggs and seeds of weeds and with a high share of humus and a combustible biogas used for power needs. Fermentation of solid organic waste materials without their grounding and sorting is realized in a separately enclosed with a perforated fence sour zone of the first phase of the anaerobic fermentation with use of products of their splitting/hydrolyzing/in the second phase of an alkaline fermentation with formation in it of the liquid mineralized organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas, which is used before its withdrawal from the methane tank for stirring of fermentable waste products in it. At the side of the methane tank in its upper part there is a demountable drag-chain elevator, two horizontally located one over another and counter-directionally operating branches of which have a perforated fence located between and outside them and are introduced into the throat. The technical effect is provision of full disintegration of the waste products and formation of both a combustible biogas used for the power needs and the liquid mineralized organic fertilizers being more efficient, than a dung of animals and droppings of hens.

EFFECT: the invention ensures full disintegration of the waste products and formation of both a combustible biogas used for the power needs and the liquid mineralized organic fertilizers being more efficient, than a dung of animals and droppings of hens.

6 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: food and pharmaceutical industries; water filtration.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of purification of liquids and is dealt with filtration, in particular with the methods of purification of liquids from impurities. It may be used in the systems of industrial and household water supply in food and pharmaceutical industries. The method of liquids purification includes a partial shutting off a trunk of the unpurified liquid, delivery of the unpurified liquid in a trunk of the unpurified liquid and to the filtration element - in a trunk of purified liquid. Before the unpurified liquid delivery into the trunks of the unpurified and purified liquids it is passing through an ejector. The technical result is an increased convenience in operation and productivity of purification due to simultaneous outflow of both purified and unpurified liquids without decrease of a flow area of the purified liquid trunk running cross-section.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of convenience in operation and productivity of purification of liquids without decrease of a flow area of the purified liquid trunk running cross-section.

6 dwg

FIELD: water-supply engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of removing hardness salts from regenerates and can be used in water treatment processes in heat-and-power engineering, chemical, petrochemical, food, and other industries provided with ion-exchange water-desalting filters. Method is accomplished by precipitation of hardness salts involving recycle of precipitate treated by alkali solution followed by passage of supernatant through H-cationite filter. Treated precipitate accumulated in preceding settling cycles is recycled into regenerate and settling-subjected solution is passed through cationite filter to produce purified sulfuric acid further used for regeneration of H-cationite filters in water-treatment cycle. Precipitate is treated with alkaline regenerate from OH-anionite filters or with alkali solution obtained from electrolysis of regenerates with pH not below 11. Amount of regenerate introduced into accumulator-settler should be at least 20 kg/m3.

EFFECT: excluded liming procedure, preserved initial (after regeneration of filters) content of sulfate ions in sulfuric acid, reduced consumption thereof during preparation of regeneration solution, and excluded discharge of sulfate ions unto water objects.

3 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: petrochemical and food and other processing industries.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a device for purification of sewage and is dealt with designs of sewage treatment plants for purification and averaging of consumption and composition of sewage and may be used for preliminary purification of sewage of the enterprises of processing industries from floating and settling insoluble impurities. The device contains a cylindrical body with a cone-shaped bottomed, a mounted along the axis of the body cylindrical partition, a located above the body reactive water distributor with branch-pipes, a floating device, a rotating rocker arm with a foam pushing plates mounted with the help of a half-coupling to the reactive water distributor at a maximum level of water in the device, a collecting tank mounted with possibility of delivery in it of the circulating water, a pump, a pressure tank-saturator linked by a pressure pipeline with the reactive water distributor. Inside the body there is a ring-type chute, in which the reactive water distributor branch-pipes supplied with diffusers on their ends are placed. The technical result is an increase of efficiency of sewage purification and realization of averaging of consumption and composition of sewage and its purification simultaneously.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of sewage purification and simultaneous realization of averaging of sewage consumption, composition and purification.

1 dwg

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