Quazi-optical varied light divider

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: device has circular metallic plate, in which a periodic matrix of rectangular slits is cut. Plate is positioned in such a way, that a falling beam of millimeter-long waves falls at an angle of 45° relatively to plate surface. Polarization of falling beam is parallel to plate surface. When direction of plate is such, that electric field is perpendicular to slits (i.e. electric field is directed transversely to lesser dimension of slits), plate transfers almost 100% of falling power. If the plate rotates around its axis for 90° (while keeping angle between falling beam and plate equal to 45°) in such a way, that falling electric field is parallel to slits, then plate transfers 0% and reflects almost 100% of falling power at an angle of 90° relatively to falling beam. By changing rotation angle between 0° and 90° both reflected and passed power can be continuously varied between values 0% and 100% from falling power. Light divider has cooling device for taking heat, absorbed from magnetic waves, away from edge of metallic plate.

EFFECT: continuous variation of reflected and passed power.

11 cl, 15 dwg

 

The scope of the invention

The present invention relates to methods and devices intended for the direction and control of electromagnetic power. More specifically, the present invention relates to a variable power divider, splitters, etc.

Description of the prior art to which the invention relates.

For a variety of applications at the present time there is a need for systems and methods intended for the direction and management of electromagnetic power at high power levels and high frequencies. For example, currently there is a need in the implementation of fission power beams at millimeter wave frequencies (30-300 GHz) with quasi-Gaussian beams carrying capacity of more than 100-1000 kW. When quasi-fission power millimeter waves known from the prior art variable power splitter with wire mesh, usually constructed of tightly Packed matrix silenttek parallel wires. Variable power divider of wire mesh is a common component in many quasi-optical systems of millimeter waves. At low power levels, the heat generated by each wire current induced by the incident beam, is immaterial. At sufficiently high levels is Amnesty the absorbed heat can cause mechanical failure silenttek wires.

For example, a fraction of the power absorbed variable power splitter with wire mesh, low loss, when it is installed in such a way as to reflect 100% of the incident power can be so small that it will be the value 0,001; that is, for each kilowatt of power, which transfers the incident beam, the power divider will absorb at least 1 Watt. If the incident beam moves 1 MW, then the power absorbed by the voltage divider will be at least 1.0 kW, and if the incident beam shall be 5 MW, then the power absorbed by the voltage divider will be at least 5 kW. Variable power divider with a wire mesh may be unable to dissipate this amount of heat, because the ability of the conductors forming the wire to dissipate the absorbed power is significantly limited their small cross-section and, therefore, low thermal conductivity.

Therefore, in the prior art there remains a need for a system or method for implementing fission power powerful high-frequency applications.

The INVENTION

The need in the prior art is addressed by the system and method according to the present invention, intended for the implementation of the variable dividing power. The device according to the present invention includes navigating the Yu plate, in which there are many gaps. The cracks are in the form of periodic matrix to transmit on the first level of electromagnetic waves incident on the plate under a predefined angle and with a predefined polarization, when the slits are oriented at the first angle relative to the axis of the plate, and the reflection at the second level of electromagnetic waves incident on the plate under a predefined angle, when the cracks are oriented under the second angle and polarization with respect to the axis. Provided with a bearing block for supporting the plate under the established angle with respect to the direction of propagation of the incident electromagnetic waves, and a device for discharge of the heat absorbed from the incident electromagnetic waves from the edge of the plate.

The invention is intended for use with a device for rotating the plate from the first angle of orientation to the second orientation angle relative to the axis of the plate. In specific application, the invention is implemented as a variable beam splitter for use with quasi-optical beam of millimeter waves. The beam splitter consists of a round metal plate which is cut out periodic matrix of rectangular slits. The plate is located so that the incident beam of millimeter waves is fully at an angle of 45° with respect to the surface of the plate. In addition, the polarization of the incident beam parallel to the surface of the plate. When the orientation of the plates is such that the electric field of the incident beam is perpendicular to the slits (i.e. the electric field is directed transversely relative to the smaller size of the slits), and the plate transmits almost 100% of the incident power. If the plate is rotated with respect to its axis at 90° (while maintaining the angle of 45° between the incident beam and plate) so that the incident electric field was parallel to the slots, the plate passes 0%, and reflects almost 100% of the incident power at an angle equal to 90° with respect to the incident beam. As reflected and held power can continuously vary from 0 to 100% of the incident power by changing the angle of rotation between 0 and 90°.

A new essential feature of the invention arises from the use as a variable beam splitter for quasi-optical beam millimeter-wave plate with slots, and use the dependencies of the coefficients of reflection and transmission on the angle between the incident electric field and the axes of the slits, which allows a continuous variation of the reflected and held power through rotation of the plate relative to its axis.

Brief about isana drawings

The invention is further illustrated by description of a specific implementation options with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 shows a front view of an illustrative embodiment of the variable beam splitter designed for use with quasi-optical beam of millimeter waves in accordance with the present invention.

On figa presents an isometric view illustrative embodiments of a device for cooling a powerful variable beam splitter made in accordance with the present invention.

On fig.2b presents a section of the cooling unit shown in figa,

Figure 3 presents an enlarged view of the area of the matrix cracks of the beam splitter shown in figure 1.

4 shows a top view of a variable beam splitter and incident, reflected and past waves.

Figure 5 presents the first diagram showing the geometry of the beam splitter with the incident TE (transverse electric wave) and TM (transverse magnetic wave) waves with horizontal orientation matrix cracks in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 6 presents a second diagram showing the geometry of the beam splitter with the incident TE and TM waves with a vertical orientation matrix cracks in accordance with the present invention.

In Fig. presents the dependence depicting the transmittance power (insertion loss) of variable beam splitter illustrative embodiments as a function of frequency.

On figa shows a plot depicting the transmission power of variable beam splitter illustrative embodiments as a function of rotation angle for TE waves incident at an angle of 40°, at the operating frequency of 95 GHz.

On fig.8b shows a plot depicting the transmission power of variable beam splitter illustrative embodiments as a function of rotation angle for TE waves incident at an angle of 45°, at the operating frequency of 95 GHz.

On figs shows a plot depicting the transmission power of variable beam splitter illustrative embodiments as a function of rotation angle for TE waves, the incident angle of 50°, at the operating frequency of 95 GHz.

Figure 9 shows a plot depicting the reflection coefficients of the power variable beam splitter illustrative embodiments as a function of rotation angle for TE waves incident at an angle of 45°, at the operating frequency of 95 GHz.

Figure 10 shows a plot depicting the transmission power of variable beam splitter illustrative embodiments as a function of rotation angle for M-wave, the incident angle of 45°, at the operating frequency of 95 GHz.

Figure 11 shows a plot depicting the reflection coefficients of the power variable beam splitter illustrative embodiments as a function of rotation angle for TM waves incident at an angle of 45°, at the operating frequency of 95 GHz.

On Fig presents a top view of preserving the polarization device variable beam splitter TE and TM waves, incident and reflected from it, and passed through it.

Description of the INVENTION

Further, for realizing the advantages of the present invention will be described in the embodiments and illustrative applications with references to the accompanying drawings.

While the present invention is described here in relation to the implementation options for specific applications, it should be clear that the invention is not limited to them. A qualified specialist in the prior art and has gained access to the essence of the present invention set forth herein, acknowledges the existence of additional modifications, applications and implementation options in the scope of the present invention, as well as additional areas in which the present invention would be of significant value.

Figure 1 is a front view of a variant of implementation of variable beam splitter designed for use with vasopressine beams of millimeter waves, in accordance with the present invention. A beam splitter 10 according to the present invention consists of a round metal plate 20, a perforated periodic matrix 30 of rectangular slits. The plate is installed on the support base 11 and thus is supported at a selected angle relative to the incident beam. The plate 20 is made of beryllium copper or other material characterized by a corresponding conductivity for specific applications. In the illustrative implementation, the plate 20 has a diameter of 4.5 inches and a thickness of 6 mile (1 mil=25,4 µm). Illustrative beam splitter 10, described here, is an inexpensive device designed for applications with small and medium capacities. The thickness of the plate 20 provides the possibility of designing devices using chemical-mechanical processing, which, in fact, is an inexpensive process. For applications with powerful beams will probably need a thicker material to provide thermal conductivity, high enough to remove the heat absorbed from the incident beam due to the finite electrical conductivity of the sheet material, and will also need to provide a device for the discharge of heat from the edge of the plate. However, if the material is too thick, chemical-mechanical treatments the spacecraft will not be able to be used as the size of the gap will vary as depressions in the plate. In this case, can be used, wire EDM, wire EDM).

Figure 1 is a plate 30 is shown with the base holes 12, each of which is located on the edge of over 5°to provide opportunities to maintain accurate angular positioning. However, in an advantageous variant on the periphery of the plate 20 is provided by a gear 14. Gear 14 is designed to be driven by the gear 16. The gear 16 is driven by a stepper motor in response to commands provided by the controller 22 and the user interface 24.

Operating frequency of the beam splitter 10 is determined by the size of the slits, the period matrix and the thickness of the plate. The range of possible to use the capacity of the beam splitter 10 is determined by the heat conductivity of the plate, which is determined by the thickness. For applications with high power, it is necessary to provide a device for removing heat absorbed from the edge of the plate. Figa depicts an illustrative implementation of such a device.

Figa is an isometric view of embodiments of a device for cooling a powerful variable beam splitter made in accordance with the present invention. As shown in figa, opalocka cooling attached to the edge of the plate 20, and water or any other suitable refrigerant is supplied through the inlet 27 of the refrigerant, flows clockwise through the shell 26 cooling and enters the output port 28 of the refrigerant.

Fig.2b is a section of the cooling unit, showing the elements of the channel 29 of the cooling contained within the shell 26 cooling. To effect the rotation of the beam splitter 10 around its axis between 0 ° ° and 90° using flexible tubing (not shown), to supply the refrigerant into the inlet 27 of the refrigerant and to withdraw the refrigerant from the outlet 28 of the refrigerant.

Figure 3 is an enlarged view of the area of the matrix cracks of the beam splitter shown in figure 1. As shown in figure 3, the slits 32 are rectangular in shape and are located in the configuration of isosceles triangles. Cracks in the plate 20 can be made of a chemical-mechanical processing. Qualified in the prior art it will be clear that the scope of the present invention is not limited by form or a number of cracks in the matrix, and no way created cracks.

To eliminate diffraction peaks grille at the location of the cracks in the configuration of isosceles triangles must be satisfied the following conditions:

and

where:

dx=the period matrix on the x-axis;

2dy=the period matrix y;

λ=the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic waves; and

θ=angle of incidence (see figure 3).

In the illustrative implementation, the dimensions of the slit are 61 miles in length, 20 miles in height. That is, a=61 mile, and b=20 miles. The dimensions of a matrix in the x and y directions are, respectively: dx=90 mile, and dy=35 mile (the period in the y direction equal 2xdy=70 miles), and the thickness of the plates is d=6 miles. The angle between the nearest adjacent slits is equal to: α=tan-1(2dy/dx)=37,875°. The period in the horizontal direction is 90 miles, and in the vertical direction 70 miles. With these values of dxand dyfor an angle of incidence θ=45° and the operating frequency 95 GHz no diffraction peaks of the lattice cannot exist. In a variant implementation of the present invention slit matrix 30 fills a circle with a diameter of 4 inches. This provides approximately 4000 cracks.

The beam splitter 10 is oriented so that the incoming beam of millimeter waves fell at an angle of 45° to the normal of the plate 20, as illustrated in figure 4.

Figure 4 is a top view of a variable beam splitter and incident, reflected and last waves. The incident wave impinges at an angle θ what about the relation to the z-axis, which is the axis of the plate. A portion of the incident power that is missed by the beam splitter 10 can continuously vary between 0 and 100% by turning the beam splitter 10 to 90° around the z axis.

Figure 5 is a first diagram depicting the geometry of the beam splitter with the incident TE (transverse electric vector) and TM (transverse magnetic vector) waves with horizontal orientation matrix cracks in accordance with the present invention. In this context, TE waves are plane waves, the electric field which is parallel to the plane containing the beam splitter and TM waves are waves, a magnetic field which is parallel to the plane containing the beam splitter. The z-axis normal to the surface of the beam splitter 10 and is the axis of rotation for the rotation angle. For the orientation of the beam splitter shown on the figure, will be skipped in almost 100% of the incident TE wave. Note that, although recorded, and passed the TE wave is not shown, the polarization of the electric field parallel to the plane containing the beam splitter. Similarly, polarization, magnetic fields reflected and held TM waves parallel to the plane containing the beam splitter.

When, as illustrated in figure 5, the polarization of the incident beam is parallel to the short axis of the slits, on the designed frequency transmission is achieved, aunoe almost 100%. As the rotation of the beam splitter 10 around its axis (supporting angle of 45° between the incident beam and the normal to the plate) share held power decreases while the reflected power increases.

6 is a second diagram depicting the geometry of the beam splitter with the incident TE and TM waves with a vertical orientation matrix cracks in accordance with the present invention. Assuming falls TE wave, a portion of the incident power that has passed the beam splitter, is determined by the angle of rotation of the beam splitter with respect to the z axis. Figure 5 and 6, the magnitude of the vector k is 2π/λand its direction coincides with the direction of propagation of the incident beam. For orientation, depicted in Fig.6, the beam splitter is reflected almost 100% of the incident power. As illustrated in Fig.6, when the angle of rotation is 90°in which the polarization of the incident beam parallel to the long axis of the slits, the beam divider is passed to the zero power, and reflects almost 100%.

On the quality of the beam splitter 10 is not affected by the angular divergence of the incident Gaussian beam as long as the divergence is not too large. Note that for a Gaussian beam density of the incident power is the lowest on the edge of the beam, where the deviation from θ=45° at the most, so that the decrease of the coefficient p is lowering power at different angles, different from θ=45°will have minimal impact on the quality of the beam splitter.

Fig.7 represents the dependence depicting the transmittance power (insertion loss) of variable beam splitter 10 of the illustrative embodiments as a function of frequency. The incident wave is TE00Floquet fashion, incident on the beam splitter 10 at an angle of 45°. Since cracks in the matrix is rectangular, it is not surprising that they affect the incident wave in different ways depending on the polarization of the incident wave relative to the orientation of the cracks. One result of this is that the transmittance varies as varies the angle of rotation of the beam splitter that changes the orientation of the incident wave relative to the slots and allows the perforated plate to function as a variable beam splitter. Another result is that occurs, to some extent, the transformation of polarization, i.e. the part of the incident TE00wave when passing is converted into an orthogonal - polarized TM00fashion, as illustrated by Fig.

Figa-b form a series of dependencies, showing the transmittance of the variable power of the beam splitter 10 according to a variant implementation of the invention as a function of the rotation angle for razlichnykh fall, at the operating frequency of 95 GHz. That is figa represents the dependence depicting the transmission power of variable beam splitter embodiments of the invention as a function of rotation angle for an angle of incidence of 40°, at the operating frequency of 95 GHz,

fig.8b represents the dependence depicting the transmission power of variable beam splitter embodiments of the invention as a function of rotation angle for an angle of incidence of 45°, at the operating frequency of 95 GHz,

figs represents the dependence depicting the transmission power of variable beam splitter embodiments of the invention as a function of rotation angle for an angle of incidence of 50°, at the operating frequency of 95 GHz. The similarity coefficients of the transmission power for different angles of incidence clearly indicates that the quality of the work variable beam splitter 10 is not overly sensitive to the angle of incidence and that it can accommodate diverging Gaussian beam, while the divergence angle is not too large.

Each of figa, b and c indicated transmittance power required for TE00fashion, TM00fashion and General held power, which is the amount of power that was held at TE00and TM00the MOU. In each case, the beam splitter 10 is a conversion of polar the organization, so the last field contains TM00component in addition to the required TE00component. However, it can be expected that the General held the thickness varies gradually from maximum to minimum as the angle of rotation of the beam splitter 10 is increased from 0 to 90°.

Fig.9 depicts the reflection coefficient of the power based on the rotation angle for TE00TM00and TE00+TM00fashion as a function of rotation angle for θ=45°. This figure depicts that the reflected power may vary in the same way that held the power, by means of variation of the angle of rotation of the beam splitter.

The spin polarization is not unusual for quasi-optical component. Mirrors, for example, often rotating the polarization of the incident wave after reflection. If required, the unwanted polarization component can be removed from the reflected and the last beams of the extra splitters in the path of their distribution. Each additional beam splitter identical in construction and configuration to the variable beam splitter 10, described above, but remains at a fixed angle of rotation. The rotation angle is chosen to transmit 100% of the required components of polarization. Figb depicts that of the incident beam TE00fashion occurs 100% of propuskanie is then when the rotation angle f=0°that is, when the polarization of the incident beam is perpendicular to the slits in the plate.

Figure 10 and 11 show the transmittance power and reflection coefficients, respectively, variable beam splitter embodiments of the invention for incident TM00fashion for TE00TM00and TE00+TM00fashion as a function of rotation angle for θ=45°.

Figure 10 depicts the fact that, when the rotation angle is 0aboutmade losses for incident TM00fashion make up almost 25 dB, even for plates having a thickness of only 6 miles. If you made losses can be increased by increasing the thickness of the plate.

11 depicts the fact that, when the incident field is TM00fashion and the rotation angle of 0°reflects almost 100% of the incident power. Therefore, the beam having and TE00and TM00components incident on a beam splitter with a fixed angle f=0°that will give 100% of the components of the TE00and 0% components TM00while reflecting 100% of the components TM00and 0% of the components of the TEOO. Thus, the unwanted polarization component can be removed from the reflected and passed beams by placing the beam splitter having a fixed angle f=0° the spread of each puck is, as illustrated in Fig.

Fig is a top view of the device of variable beam splitter TE and TM waves, preserving the polarization of the incident, reflected and passed through him in waves. On Fig are three beam splitter 10, 10’ and 10’.

The first beam splitter 10 is variable, and the second and third splitters - 10’ and 10’ - fixed. Full past capacity varies from maximum to zero by rotating the first beam splitter 10 to 90°. Unwanted polarization is removed from the reflected and passed beams by placing second and third beam splitters 10’ and 10’having the rotation angle is fixed at 0° the spread of each beam.

In essence, the invention is a variable beam splitter that is designed to work with electromagnetic energy, in particular, quasi-optical beam of millimeter waves. The beam splitter 10 is composed of a conductive metal plate, perforated periodic matrix of rectangular slits. By rotating the beam splitter around its axis power reflected from the beam splitter and passing through it, may vary from 0 to 100% of the incident power.

Thus, the present invention has been described in relation to specific embodiments the La specific application. Qualified specialist in the prior art and having access to the present invention recognize additional modifications, applications and embodiments within the scope of the present invention. For example, in a variant implementation of the incident beam of millimeter waves falls on the variable beam splitter 10 at an angle θ=45°as shown in Fig and 9. However, the real scope of the invention is not limited to 45° orientation. Qualified specialist in the prior art will be able to design a system with different angles θ the fall in the scope of the present invention. Qualified specialist in the prior art can also appreciate that grows θ the diameter of the beam splitter must increase to accommodate the cross-sectional area of the incident beam.

Thus, the amount of any and all such applications, modifications, and implementation options within the present invention is defined by the attached claims.

1. Variable power divider (10)containing a conductive plate (20)having multiple slits (30), in which the mentioned slit placed in such a way as to pass electromagnetic waves incident on the plate under a predefined angle, when said slit is oriented at the first angle relative to the axis of providing what Uta plate, and to reflect the aforementioned electromagnetic wave incident on the plate under previously mentioned a certain angle, when the said slits are oriented under a second angle relative to said axis; block (11) to maintain the said plate (20) at a given angle with respect to the above-mentioned electromagnetic waves; a device for removing heat absorbed from the above-mentioned electromagnetic waves from the edge of the said plate.

2. The power splitter according to claim 1 which further includes a device (16, 18, 22 and 24) to rotate the said plates of the first mentioned angle of orientation of the said second angle of orientation with respect to the axis of the said plate.

3. The power splitter according to claim 1, in which said slots are located in the periodic matrix.

4. The power splitter according to claim 1, in which said slits are rectangular.

5. The power splitter according to claim 4, in which said rectangular slit cut in said plate in an isosceles triangular configuration in accordance with the following ratios and sizes:

and

where

dx= the period matrix x;

2dy= the period matrix of the and y;

λ = wavelength mentioned electromagnetic waves;

θ = the angle of incidence.

6. The power splitter according to claim 5, in which the slit width is 61 mil, height gap of 20 mils, the period matrix x axis is 90 mils, the period matrix on the y - axis is 70 mils, the thickness of the plate is 6 mil, and also α - the angle between the nearest neighboring slits is approximately 37,875°.

7. The power splitter according to claim 6, in which the said angle of incidence relative to the surface of the plate is 45°.

8. The power splitter according to claim 7, in which the frequency mentioned electromagnetic wave is equal to 95 GHz.

9. The power splitter according to claim 1 in which the said angle of incidence relative to the surface of the plate is equal to 45°.

10. The power splitter according to claim 1, in which the frequency mentioned electromagnetic waves is in the range of 30-300 GHz.

11. The power splitter according to claim 1, in which the power transmitted mentioned electromagnetic waves is greater than 100 kW.

12. The power splitter according to claim 1, in which said plate (20) is circular.



 

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FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: device has circular metallic plate, in which a periodic matrix of rectangular slits is cut. Plate is positioned in such a way, that a falling beam of millimeter-long waves falls at an angle of 45° relatively to plate surface. Polarization of falling beam is parallel to plate surface. When direction of plate is such, that electric field is perpendicular to slits (i.e. electric field is directed transversely to lesser dimension of slits), plate transfers almost 100% of falling power. If the plate rotates around its axis for 90° (while keeping angle between falling beam and plate equal to 45°) in such a way, that falling electric field is parallel to slits, then plate transfers 0% and reflects almost 100% of falling power at an angle of 90° relatively to falling beam. By changing rotation angle between 0° and 90° both reflected and passed power can be continuously varied between values 0% and 100% from falling power. Light divider has cooling device for taking heat, absorbed from magnetic waves, away from edge of metallic plate.

EFFECT: continuous variation of reflected and passed power.

11 cl, 15 dwg

Display // 2321036

FIELD: image generation devices - displays.

SUBSTANCE: claimed device contains a light source, liquid-crystalline panel, and also redirecting film and stack of optical wave conductors positioned between the first two parts, where optical wave conductors are made in form of films, first ends of which are oriented towards the light source, and second ends are extended relatively to one another with creation of toothed surface, which is connected to first toothed surface of redirecting film, second surface of which is connected to liquid-crystalline panel, where the teeth of both connected surfaces have to faces.

EFFECT: increased brightness of image.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: light conducting optical element, which includes at least one light supplying base, which is equipped with at least two surfaces located parallel to each other; optical means that are used for entering light beams into the base by total internal reflection so that the light would strike one of the above surfaces, set of one or more partially reflecting surfaces located inside of the base, the surfaces of which are not parallel to the above base surfaces; the partially reflecting surfaces being flat surfaces selectively reflecting at an angle, which are crossed by part of beams several times before exiting the base in the required direction.

EFFECT: provision of wide field of view and increase of eye movement area with device fixed.

44 cl, 36 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical substrate contains three-dimensional surface preset by the first function of surface pattern, modulated second function of surface pattern. The first function of surface pattern can be described by length, width and vertex angle with optical characteristics for formation of, at least, one output mirror component. The second function of surface pattern can be described by geometry with, at least, pseudorandom characteristic for modulation of the first function of surface pattern, at least, by phase along length of the first function of surface pattern. At that the phase presents horizontal position of peak along width. The surface of optical substrate creates mirror and scattered light from input light beam. The three-dimensional surface can have value of correlation function which is less than approximately 37 percent of initial throughout the length of correlation about 1 cm or less.

EFFECT: brightness increase is provided.

46 cl, 41 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method for separation of combined surface and volume electromagnet waves of terahertz range, which includes preliminary shaping of groove with smoothened edges on sample surface, at that groove axis is perpendicular to plane of incidence that crosses track of surface electromagnet wave (SEW) rays bundle and having size along track that is less that SEW spread length, and further direction of combined waves to groove, differs by the fact that groove is shaped in the form of regular cone half, axis of which lies in the plane of sample surface, at that angle of SEW deviation from incidence plane that contains volume wave, is equal to the following: γ=arcsin[tg(α)-(π-2)-k'], where α is angle between generatrix and cone axis, k' is actual part of SEW refraction index.

EFFECT: provision of spatial separation of SEW and volume wave by means of SEW direction variation.

3 dwg

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