Method of and device to control dc electric drive of single bucket excavator

FIELD: earth moving equipment; mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control of dc electric drive of main mechanisms of single-bucket excavator and it can be used in other dc drives of mining machines and mechanisms operating at low temperatures and wind loads. Method comes to control motor stopping by control of field current simultaneously and in inverse proportion to value of motor setting speed. Control of motor speed as a function of complex parameter taking in account level of negative temperature of machine metal, wind load and speed of change of these values, is also carried out. Device for implementing the method contains additionally motor field current setter mechanism, motor field current regulator whose output is connected with motor field current source, motor field current weakening setter whose input is connected with output of master controller, and output, with second input of field current regulator. First input of motor field current regulator is connected to output of motor maximum field current setter. Shaper of complex signal taking into account negative temperature of metal of machine, wind load and speed of change of said values is connected with second input of emf regulator.

EFFECT: reduced dynamic loads at starting, reversing and stopping, improved conditions of excavator bucket filling at digging.

3 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the control of electrical drives of the main mechanisms shovel excavator and can be used in other DC drives of mining machines and mechanisms operating in conditions of low temperatures and wind load.

It is known that during the winter period, the number of failures excavators increased, with the proportion of refusals accounted for metal working equipment excavator. To reduce the frequency and duration of stops for repairs in the winter time, it is necessary to reduce the dynamic loads in the electric main machinery excavator (lifting, pressure, rotation) in the modes of start-up, reversing, braking, speed control in accordance with the technology of excavation, stop.

In excavating the DC drive limit of dynamic loads in these modes is achieved by limiting the current (torque) of the engine with delayed negative current feedback armature (cutoff current) (Key VI Limitation of dynamic loads of the drive. M: Energy, 1971, p.74).

Known way to control DC electric shovel excavator implemented in the device as the USSR №1090813, IPC E 02 F 9/20. The control unit electric shovel excavator /Auth. izopet. Daemon, the.Horbunova, Iagmeeeo, Epogen, Maisenberg, Ngerian and Wmerican / Publ. 07.05.84. Bull. No. 17. This unit describes the way in which at low temperatures, depending on the ambient temperature, regulates the amount of current (torque) braking of the motor. The lower the temperature, the less the current locking, consequently, less dynamic loads during operation of the excavator. In the device management modes of start-up, reversing, speed control, and shutdown are performed by using the controller, the output of which is connected through parallel connected EMF regulator and link constraints to the current regulator, which is connected to a source of regulated voltage on the armature of the motor. Shaper signal proportional to the temperature of the ambient air, is connected to the auxiliary input level restrictions.

The disadvantage of this method and device is that at reduced current (torque) locking drive motor mechanism and the occurrence of overload conditions (locking), the actual reduction in dynamic loads in the kinematic chain mechanism does not occur. This is due to the fact that the dynamic load jammed fully determined by the stock of the kinetic energy of all moving masses, which is proportional to the square of the SC is to grow the movement, and not depend on the magnitude of the current (torque) locking drive motor mechanism. Therefore, the dynamic load mode locking are relatively large. In addition, by reducing the current (torque) braking worsens the filling of the bucket during the digging, especially during low speed movement of the bucket, since the torque delivered by the engine mechanisms of thrust and lift, is also reduced.

There is a method that is implemented in the control device electric shovel excavator, selected as a prototype - as the USSR №1416625, IPC 4 E 02 F 9/20. The control unit electric shovel excavator /Auth. izopet. Warclient, Iverboat, Deano, Ehitushinna, Uhazherov, Aiedam and Vsav / Publ. 15.08.88. Bull. No. 30. The method of drive control includes start-up, reversing, speed control of a drive motor mechanism in accordance with the technology of excavation, shutdown, and automatic current control (torque) locking drive motor mechanism in the function of a complex parameter that takes into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and speed changes of these values.

The device prototype for this author's certificate management modes is done using the function block, the output of which connection is Chen through parallel connected EMF regulator and link constraints to the current regulator, which is connected to the Converter, connected to the drive motor mechanism, and shaper of the complex signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the rate of change of these quantities, which is connected to the control input of the link constraint.

The disadvantage of this method and device is the large magnitude of the dynamic load mode locking, as well as the deterioration of the filling of the bucket during the digging.

The technical result of the proposed method and device is to reduce the dynamic loads at start-up, reversing, and when stopping and improve the conditions of filling of the bucket during the digging.

It is achieved by the fact that in the method of controlling the DC electric shovel excavator, including start-up, reversing, speed control in accordance with the technology of excavation, as well as regulation of point locking drive motor mechanism, regulation point locking drive motor mechanism carried out by regulating the excitation current of the motor simultaneously and inversely proportional to the magnitude of the velocity of a drive motor mechanism. Additionally carry out the regulation of the motor speed in function of the complex parameter that takes into account the level is ü negative temperature metal machine wind load and speed changes of these values.

Regulation of the time of braking of a drive motor of the mechanism of regulation of the motor excitation current simultaneously and inversely proportional to the magnitude of the velocity engine allows you to generate the maximum possible starting torque, for example, motors of the lifting mechanisms and the pressure of the excavator at low speeds, equal to 1.9-2 nominal moment that gives you the ability to ensure good filling of the bucket during the digging. As speed increases, the excitation current is reduced, thus decreases the motor torque. When working on the main mechanical characteristics, corresponding to the maximum speed, torque locking drive motor mechanism is formed equal to 1.0-1.1 nominal, so the motor speed is in the process of digging is less than the nominal and emerging mode locking starts at a lower speed and smaller loads that defines a smaller supply of kinetic energy and, consequently, reducing dynamic loads.

The decrease in the moment of locking a drive motor mechanism with increasing speed provides when starting the movement with less acceleration and, consequently, with lower dynamic loads.

Speed adjustment accommodates the underwater motor mechanism in the function of a complex parameter, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the rate of change of these quantities allows to reduce the motor speed is increasing as a result of these factors and, additionally, to thereby reduce dynamic loads.

The difference of the proposed method from the prototype is that the regulation point locking drive motor mechanism carried out by regulating the excitation current of the motor simultaneously and inversely proportional to the magnitude of the speed of the engine, and that additionally carry out the regulation of the motor speed in function of the complex parameter that takes into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and speed changes of these values.

This technical result is also achieved by the fact that the control device DC electric shovel excavator, containing the drum, the output of which is connected through parallel connected EMF regulator and link constraints to the current regulator, which is connected with the inverter connected to the motor mechanism, and a driver integrated signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and speed changes of these values, further comprises the generator excitation current of the motor is the body, the excitation current controller of the engine, the output of which is connected to a source of controlling the excitation current of the motor, the unit loosen the motor excitation current, the input connected to the output of the controller, and the output unit attenuation of the excitation current of the motor is connected with the second input of the regulator motor excitation current, the first input of which is connected to the output of the generator excitation current of the motor, and the driver integrated signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the rate of change of these quantities, is connected with the second controller input EMF.

The difference between the claimed device from the prototype is that it further comprises a unit of the motor excitation current, the excitation current controller of the engine, the output of which is connected to the source of the regulation of the excitation current, the unit loosen the motor excitation current, the input connected to the output of the controller, and the output unit attenuation of the excitation current of the motor is connected with the second input of the regulator motor excitation current, the first input of which is connected to the output of the generator excitation current of the motor, and the driver integrated signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the UK is to grow the changes of these values, connected with the second controller input EMF.

The presence of the generator excitation current motor and generator attenuation of the excitation current of the motor allows you to generate the mechanical characteristics of the drive motor mechanism, in which at low speeds the torque of the motor as possible, and as speed increases, it decreases that provides improved filling of the bucket during the digging, as well as movement at start-up, reversing, stopping with less acceleration and, consequently, with lower dynamic loads. Connection driver integrated signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and speed changes of these values to the second input of the regulator EMF allows you to adjust the speed of the motor mechanism, depending on the values of the complex parameter and to minimize dynamic loads.

The new essential features in the proposed method and the device confirms the compliance of the technical solutions of the criterion of “novelty”.

Analysis of patent and scientific and technical information is not allowed to reveal the sources that contain information about the popularity of the distinctive features of the claimed invention that demonstrates compliance of the claimed invention, the criterion of “inventor is Yelsk level.

The proposed method is implemented by a device, which is illustrated by a functional diagram of a control system of the electric drive mechanism of an excavator placed in figure 1, the circuit unit attenuation of the excitation current of the motor placed at 2; mechanical characteristics of a drive motor mechanismplaced at 3; charts elastic momentsin the drive of the lifting mechanism of the excavator in the start up mode of the prototype and the proposed method, placed at 4; charts elastic momentsin the drive of the lifting mechanism of the excavator in the mode locking of the prototype and the proposed method, placed at 5.

Figure 1 is taken notation:

UU device drive control mechanism of the excavator (control system);

Iin- the specified excitation current;

IOTC- specified cut-off current of the motor;

Uthe Golden Horde khanate- stress job of weakening the motor excitation current.

Figure 2 taken notation:

Utothe output voltage controller (voltage speed setting of the engine);

Uthe Golden Horde khanate- stress job attenuation of the excitation current of the motor;

R1potentiometer settings required coupling coefficient between e.g. what both of U toand Uthe Golden Horde khanate;

V1 - Zener diode to create a dead zone in the lower speed of the engine;

R2 is a variable resistor to adjust the width of the dead zone;

In - rectifier for forming a voltage reference weakening of the motor excitation current Uthe Golden Horde khanateone sign.

Figure 3 accepted notation:

the relative magnitude of the torque lock (starting points) of a drive motor at different voltage speed reference motor;

- relative velocity of the engine.

Figure 4 adopted notation:

the relative magnitude of the elastic torque in the drive of the lifting mechanism in the control method of the prototype when operating in the start mode;

the relative magnitude of the elastic torque in the drive of the lifting mechanism with the proposed method of control when operating in the start mode.

Figure 5 adopted notation:

the relative magnitude of the elastic torque in the drive of the lifting mechanism in the control method of the prototype when the mode locking;

the relative magnitude of the elastic torque in the drive of the lifting mechanism with the proposed way the drive control when the mode locking.

Device control the drive mechanism of the excavator includes the drum 1, the output of which is connected through parallel connected controller 2 EMF and link 3 limitations to the controller 4 DC, which is connected to the inverter 5 and a drive motor 6 of the mechanism. Shaper 7 complex signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the rate of change of these quantities, is connected with the second input of the regulator 2, EDS. Unit 8 excitation current of the motor is connected to the first input of the controller 9 of the motor excitation current, the output of which is connected to the source 10 of regulation of the excitation current of the motor. The input unit 11, the attenuation of the excitation current of the motor is connected to the output of controller 1, and the output of the generator 11 attenuation of the excitation current of the motor is connected with the second input of the controller 9 of the motor excitation current.

Configuring device management UU is as follows.

In the period of seasonal adjustment is set to the specified cut-off current IUTS.engine (figure 1). The knob 8 of the excitation current is set to a given (nominal) excitation current Icenturyengine. In unit 11 loosen the motor excitation current through potentiometer R1 (2) set the desired coupling coefficient between the voltage U at the output of the controller 1 and the voltage Uthe Golden Horde khanateset the attenuation of the excitation current of the motor, while various provisions of the controller of the formation of a family of mechanical characteristics of the drive motorpresented in figure 3. The maximum torque of the locking engineis selected from 1,9-2,0 nominal torque of the engine, which remains unchanged in the range from 0 to 0.1 of the nominal speed of the motor and is provided by forming a dead zone using Zener diode V1 and the variable resistor R2 (figure 2). Minimum torque lockingis equal to 1.0-1.1 nominal torque of the engine. Figure 3 shows as an intermediate mechanical characteristics of the drive motor with moments locking

The operation of the lifting mechanism of the excavator in the process of digging with the proposed control method is as follows.

Excavator driver, installing the drum 1 to the desired position, sets the desired speed of the drive mechanism. In a variant of the fast moving arm controller 1 at the position of the main mechanical nature of the stick drive motor, the corresponding maximum operating speed of the lifting drive. The voltage Utoat the output of the sequencer will be the maximum.

Voltage set the attenuation of the excitation current Uthe Golden Horde khanateengine maximum, and time locking (starting torque)this feature is minimal (figure 3). If the interaction of the bucket with the bottom of the engine load of the lifting mechanism will be more starting torquethen there will be no movement and the operator will have to set a lower speed at which the starting torque will be more of the load torque. Will start filling the bucket. Therefore, the most rational management is management with a smooth transition from a lower speed to a higher value, which will be forced to do the driver. In this case, the acceleration will occur with minimal acceleration and, therefore, minimum dynamic loads.

As an example, figure 4 shows the graphs of the elastic moments (dynamic effort) in the drive of the lifting mechanism EKG is 12.5 at start-up:- elastic torque in the drive way the drive control of the prototype;- the proposed method of controlling the electric shovel excavator. See, Thu is in the drive with the proposed control method dynamic load is less than 30%.

Regulation of the motor speed in function of the complex parameter that takes into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the rate of change of these quantities, reduces the speed of the engine as more of these factors. The motor mechanism works on the mechanical characteristics shown in dotted lines (Fig 3). Therefore, the jammed starts at a lower speed and smaller loads. Supply of kinetic energy is less, therefore, the dynamic load is reduced.

Figure 5 shows the graphs of the elastic moments in the drive of the lifting mechanism when the locking:- elastic torque in the drive way the drive control of the prototype;- the proposed method of controlling the electric shovel excavator. It is seen that in the drive with the proposed control method dynamic load is less than 30%.

To hold the bucket in position during transportation of cargo for unloading the driver moves the handle of the controller 1 to the zero position. The voltage at the output of the controller Utois reduced to zero. The motor of the lifting mechanism moves in the braking mode. Voltage set the attenuation of the excitation current Uthe Golden Horde khanatealso reduced to zero. The excitation current on the " growing up to a given (nominal) value. This process goes smoothly enough, due to the large electromagnetic inertia of the motor excitation circuit. Therefore, the braking torque of the engine at least reduce the speed increases gradually, the intensity of the braking actuator compared with the intensity of braking in the drive with the method implemented in the prototype.

Thus, the application of the proposed method and device allows to reduce the dynamic loads in the electric shovel excavator, to increase the reliability of the excavator by reducing the number of failures excavator in the winter, to improve the filling of the bucket during the digging.

The method and apparatus are simple from the point of view of modernization of existing systems, drive control of the main mechanisms shovel excavators and commissioning and operation.

1. The method of controlling the DC electric shovel excavator, including start-up, reversing, speed control of the engine in accordance with the technology of excavation, the regulation of the time of braking of the motor function of a complex parameter that takes into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the rate of change of these quantities, characterized in that the regulation of the time of locking of the drive engine is the mechanism carried out by regulating the excitation current of the motor simultaneously and inversely proportional to the magnitude of the speed of the engine, additionally carry out the regulation of the motor speed in function of the complex parameter that takes into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and speed changes of these values.

2. The control device DC electric shovel excavator, containing the drum, the output of which is connected through parallel connected EMF regulator and link constraints to the current regulator, which is connected with the inverter connected to the motor mechanism, and a driver integrated signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the rate of change of these quantities, characterized in that it further comprises a unit maximum motor excitation current, the excitation current controller of the engine, the output of which is connected to a source of controlling the excitation current of the motor, the unit loosen the motor excitation current, the input connected to the output of the controller, and the output referencing attenuation of the excitation current of the motor is connected with the second input of the regulator motor excitation current, the first input of which is connected to the output of the generator maximum excitation current of the motor, and the driver integrated signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature is ture metal machine wind load and the rate of change of these quantities, is connected with the second controller input EMF.



 

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