Trailer-train

FIELD: transport engineering; railless vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed trailer-train consists of prime mover with fifth wheel coupler engaging with semitrailer by pivot rigidly secured on support plate of step of semitrailer frame, and pneumatic brake system including compressor, connecting pipelines, brake cock, air cylinders, air distributing valves and wheel brake chambers. Pivot is made hollow accommodating shutoff valve. At one side pivot hermetically adjoins cup spring-loaded relative to turntable of fifth wheel coupler also furnished with shutoff valve and connected by pipeline to air cylinder of semitrailer, and at other side, to solid slider spring-loaded by compression spring to semitrailer frame and provided with slot of semielliptical shape with flexible pipeline connected to pipelines of semitrailer wheel brake chambers. Spring-loaded slider is connected with rod of pneumatic cylinder whose housing is connected to semitrailer frame, and space, also through pipeline, is connected with pipelines of said brake chambers of semitrailer wheels.

EFFECT: improved safety of trailer-train by preventing jack-knifing at braking.

6 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field of trackless vehicles and can be used in the construction of various transportation systems, combining cars-trucks and trailers.

Known combination consisting of a truck tractor MAZ-V and semitrailer MAZ-G shown in Fig p.93 and described in the book Musci and other "Automobile and tractor trailers, motor cycle", M., 1962, the Coupling parts of this trailer made due to the presence on the frame of the towing vehicle fifth wheel device in contact with the supporting sheet of the ledge of the frame, on which is rigidly fixed to the bolt (see p.88-91, Fig and Fig the same workbook). The truck-tractor and semi-trailer equipped with United pnevmotormoznyh system. So, on the towing vehicle (see the book "Handbook of automotive mechanics" LFS and others, ed. 4-E. M., engineering, 1969, str-237, RIS and RIS) installed an air compressor associated with the piping system through the combined brake valve to the brake chambers of the front and rear wheels of the vehicle. Pneumatic control system brakes the car is equipped with a connecting head, which vzaimouvjazyvalsja with similar installed on the trailer (see the book Musci and other "Automobile and tractor trailers, motor cycle". M., 1962, page 87, Fig)Tormoznoy equipment proprits the PA also consists of pipelines, crane hand brake control, air valve, air cylinder and brake chambers of the wheels of the trailer.

Despite its efficiency, this combination has a significant drawback, namely, that when braking, due to the difference in brake force on the brake pads wheel of a truck tractor and semitrailer, is knifing, which leads to emergency situations on the roads. This is confirmed by the studies described, for example, in the book Drells "Handling". TRANS. from English. M., engineering 1975 (see str-92). The author concludes that if the wheels lock, trailer braking knifing is less intense.

Also known combination consisting of the towing vehicle ZIL-133 and trailer Odas-935 (see "a Brief automotive Handbook 10th ed., revised and enlarged additional Meters, Transport, 1983, p.97). The design of such trains are generally similar to those described above and therefore, the shortcomings of their kind.

Therefore, the aim of the invention is to increase the safety in the operation of trains due to the exclusion of folding them links when braking.

This objective is achieved in that the bolt is made hollow, hosting the shut-off valve, and one from the pile tightly adjoins podpruzhinennom relatively saddle saddle device glass and thatα the train is equipped with a shut-off valve is connected by pipeline to the air tank semi-trailer, and on the other, to the massive, podpruzhinennom compression spring to the frame of the trailer slider, equipped with a semi-elliptical shaped groove with attached flexible tubing connected to pipelines brake chambers wheels of the semitrailer, and a spring-loaded slider is connected with the rod of the pneumatic cylinder, the body of which is attached to the frame of the trailer, and its cavity through a pipeline connected to the pipelines mentioned brake chambers of the wheels of the trailer.

Figure 1 shows a General view of a combination in rosapenna condition, figure 2 - part of the fifth connection node device of the towing vehicle with the trailer in section, figure 3 - part of the connection node of the king pin of the trailer with the item fifth of the device in section, figure 4 - schematic of the pneumatic circuit for controlling the brakes of the semitrailer, figure 5 is a section along a - a of figure 2 and figure 6 is part of the same section a-a, but at the angular rotation of the trailer relative to the towing vehicle at an angle α.

The rig consists of the towing vehicle 1, on the frame 2 which has the saddle device 3, are interconnected with the supporting sheet 4 frame 5 of the semitrailer 6. On the supporting sheet 4 is rigidly fixed to the bolt 7 with a through hole 8, snabzhentsami valve 9. Shut-off valve 9 is in contact with shut-off valve 10, is placed in the Cup 11, which is mounted in the saddle device 3 has a sealing element 12 and biased by compression spring 13 relative to the saddle device 3. The Cup 11 through line 14 is connected with an air cylinder 15. On the outside from the saddle device 3 side of the support sheet 4 frame 5 of the semitrailer 6 in the guide 16 movably installed the slider 17 in which the groove 18 semi-elliptic shape, connected by means of a flexible pipe 19 to the pipe 20, connected to the brake chambers 21 of the wheels 22 of the trailer 6. The slider 17 on the one hand are biased by compression spring 23 relative to the guide 16, and the other pivotally connected with the rod 24 of the cylinder 25, which is also pivotally mounted on the same guide rail 16. Pneumatic cylinder 25 through pipe 26 is connected to the pipeline 20. The pipe 20 and the pipe 27 of the air cylinder 15 is connected to the air distributor 28, through the valve manual control 29 is connected with the conduit 30 is connected to the conduit 31 pnevmotormoznyh system of the towing vehicle 1. The semitrailer 6 has a support device 32. Pin 7 is fixed on the saddle device 3 using the lock 33.

Works in combination as follows.

For coupling of the towing vehicle 1 with trailer 6, which is made of on the supporting device 32 so that as shown in figure 1, the vehicle 1 is moved in the direction of arrow b and, as soon as the vertical axis saddle device 3 will coincide with the vertical axis of the king pin 7, is widely known in the art by way of the supporting device 32 raise the arrow C, causing the trailer 6 their support sheet 4 is placed on the surface of the fifth wheel device 2, and the bolt 7 is in the Cup 11 and occupies such position, as shown in figure 2. This pair of bolt 7 and the glass 11 at the same time, the elastic deformation of the compression springs 13, which provides a tight connection between these parts and the connection holes 8 with the cavity of the pipe 14, so as shut-off valves 9 and 10 sink on the arrows D. as soon As this happens, the compressed air from the air tank 15 through the pipe 14 will fill the hole 8 of the bolt 7. After that widely known in the art by way of the lock 33 is fixed with a pin 7 relative to the saddle device 3. Then manually connect the pipes 31 and 30 (see figure 4), which ultimately unites pnevmotormoznyh system of the towing vehicle 1 (in the drawing it is not shown) with a similar semi-trailer 6.

In a further rectilinear movement of trains on the arrow E and the situation in which it is necessary to drastically slow down the rig is widely known in the art how the driver of the car-is agacha 1 reduces the pressure of compressed air in pnevmotormoznyh his system, what also contributes to the reduction of air pressure in the pipe 31, and hence in the pipeline 30. The pressure drop in the pipe 30 contributes to the overlap of its distributor 28 from the atmosphere (the process pnevmotormoznyh system semi-trailers are widely known in the art and described, for example, in the book Maslyakova specified in the analog) and receiving compressed air from the air tank 15 through the air distributor 28 in the pipe 20 in the direction of arrow F and then to the brake chamber 21, and also on the arrow To the through line 26 into the pneumatic cylinder 25. As sudden braking of the trailer, under the action of inertial forces, the slider 17 is moved in the direction of arrow L in the guide 16, elastically deforming the compression spring 23 (see figure 4, figure 2 and figure 5), which ultimately provides the connection through holes 8 with the cavity of the groove 18. Such combination of these elements allows the compressed air in the air cylinder 15, in the direction of arrow M to enroll in the flexible tubing 19, and hence in the pipeline 20. The increased air pressure in the pipe 20 will create a greater braking force to the brake chambers 21, significantly greater than the force generated by the brake chambers of the towing vehicle 1. Therefore, the rear wheel of the semitrailer 6 will be blocked, as a condition of impossibility "roll" it on and the car-truck 1, that is, will be excluded knifing.

It should be noted that the slider 17 after termination or reduce the effects on the forces of inertia during deceleration of the train may not return to its original position, as the cylinder 25 through the connection pipe 26 with the pipe 20 will create a force precluding movement of the piston in the direction of arrow N. as soon As the driver of the tractor 1 release the pedal tap the brake, the pressure of compressed air in the pipes 31 and 30 increases instantly that provides actuation of the air distributor 28 which connects the pipe 20 with the atmosphere. This connection leads to the release of the brakes and release of compressed air from the cavity of the cylinder 25 through the pipes 26 and 20, and then under the action of the compression spring 23, the slider 17 is moved in the direction opposite to the arrow L, overlapping the through hole 8 of the bolt 7, i.e. occupies the initial position, such as that shown in figure 2.

In practice, the operation of road trains may also sharp braking when driving in a curve path. In this case (see Fig.6) slide 17 as in the first case, under the action of inertia forces will move in the direction of arrow L (see Fig.6), which will create conditions for the lock of the rear wheels 22 of the semitrailer 6 and, therefore, prevent the folding of the parts of the trailer. PR is the set of normal operating conditions braking trains (without sudden braking) as in the straight sections, and in curves, the movement of the slide 17 is not due to selection of the elastic properties of the compression spring 23 and the force generated by the cylinder 25, so that would provide a fixed position of the RAM 17 under the influence of insignificant magnitude of inertia forces. When rassledovanie parts of a combination carrier unit 32 is moved in the direction opposite to the arrow C, dismissing this lock 33, which ultimately contributes to the output pin 7 of cups 11 and as soon as this happens, shut-off valves 9 and 10, block the flow of compressed air from the pipe 14 into the through hole 8 and in the atmosphere. After which the vehicle 1 away from semitrailer 6, which relative to each other occupy such position, as shown in figure 1. Next, the above process can be repeated.

Feasibility advantage of the proposed technical solutions in comparison with the known obvious, since it allows to improve the safe operation of trains by eliminating the folding their links when braking.

The combination consisting of the towing vehicle with a fifth wheel device, interconnected with trailer using king pin rigidly mounted on the supporting sheet of the ledge of the frame of the trailer, and are equipped with pneumatic braking system, including the surrounding compressor, connecting lines, brake valve, air cylinders, air valves and the brake chamber of the wheel, characterized in that the bolt is made hollow, hosting the shut-off valve and with one hand tightly adjoins podpruzhinennom relatively saddle saddle device glass, also equipped with a shut-off valve and connected through a pipe to the air tank semi-trailer, and on the other, to the massive, podpruzhinennom compression spring to the frame of the trailer slider, equipped with a semi-elliptical shaped groove with attached flexible tubing connected to pipelines brake chambers wheels of the semitrailer, and a spring-loaded slider is connected with the rod of the pneumatic cylinder, a housing which is attached to the frame of the trailer, and its cavity through a pipeline connected to the pipelines mentioned brake chambers of the wheels of the trailer.



 

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