Protective element

FIELD: production of optically diffraction protective elements.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of optically diffraction protective element. The protective element with a sample formed out of the separated surfaces and having the form of a laminated structure used for notarization of authenticity of a document contains, at least, a transparent protective layer, a transparent varnished layer and an adhesive layer. The separated surfaces of the sample consist of the background surfaces and elements of the sample. At that in the field of the background surfaces the varnished layer is formed smooth and even and in the field of elements of the sample the relief structures with the definite optically effective depth "h" are formed in the varnished layer. The background surfaces for the light illuminating a laminated serve as the even reflecting planes and the relief structures are two-dimensional diffraction gratings, which are formed out of the bas gratings with the periods (dx;dy) and the periods (dx;dy) are smaller, than the given limiting wavelength (λ) in the shortwave part of the spectrum of the visible light so, that elements of the sample absorb and disperse the illuminating light. At that in each relief structure the ratio of the absorbed and the dispersed light is given and depends on the given optical effective depth (h) in the relief structure. Thus the invention ensures a high protection of an element against its reproduction by copiers.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a high protection of an element against its reproduction by copiers.

25 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to optical diffraction protective element corresponding to the object of paragraph 1 of the claims.

Protective elements are used to authenticate documents, such as securities, Bank cheques, banknotes, credit cards, identification documents of all kinds, tickets, driver's license, etc. and the protective element is affixed to the document, for example, as a thin lamina (connections).

Modern copiers for color copies represent a significant potential hazard to the documents produced by the printing method, since the visual difference between the original and the copy so minor that only a specialist with appropriate assistive devices can distinguish the original from the copy, and other criteria of authenticity, such as gravure printing, watermark, fluorescence, optically variable security elements with a diffractive structure, etc. should be used frequently as a form of an image printed form (print).

From patent application EP 0522217 B1 it is known that located on the document reflecting pieces of film provide good protection against illegal copying of such documents. The difference between the original and reflective pieces of the film and a copy of etka shows because copying machines reproduce the reflective surface in black. However, the reflective film can easily be purchased. Therefore, black surface on such copies, you can easily stick with a reflective film to copy looked like the original.

Patent application DE 4410431 A1 describes an advanced solution regarding the above-mentioned pieces of film. The protective element is a piece of film cut from the laminate with a smooth reflective layer. On parts of the surfaces that form the individual identification sign on the surface of the piece of film reflecting layer is removed so that there is a black layer, located under the reflective layer. On copies made copy machine, black disappears the identification when playing the remaining reflective surfaces, as part of the surface, which removed a reflective layer, and the remaining reflecting surface seem to be on the up evenly black. Another protective element has instead of the smooth reflecting surfaces the structure of the hologram identification sign and behaves in the case of copying as diffraction patterns, discussed later in the description. Therefore, copies of visible identification sign on the reproduced image of the hologram.

For example, from patent application GB 2129739 B that is also known provision of valuable documents optically variable protective element with a diffractive structures (for example, holograms made in the form of mosaic elements inlaid ornament, occupying a large area, of the diffractive surface elements corresponding to, for example, the document EP 0105099 A1, EP 0330738 A1, EP 0375833 A1 and so on). These protective elements have the pattern, which varies depending on conditions consideration. For outsiders it is possible to forge these protective elements only with high costs. Unfortunately, color copies, you can pass some of the patterns or pattern protective element that is visible on the original subject of consideration, the mode (condition) consideration is installed in a copying device for image transfer. Of course, the copies cannot recognize a change of pattern or picture in the case of change of terms of consideration, but when the negligence of the receiver (recipient) copy could easily be mistaken for the genuine article.

Run-layered material for protective elements and designed for the materials described in patent applications EP 0401466 A1 and US 4856857.

The basis of the invention lies task is to provide a cost-effective optically variable security elements, which cannot be reproduced copy device and which also cannot be copied holographic methods.

The aforementioned task is solved by the characteristics specified in paragraph 1 of f is rmula of the present invention. Preferred embodiments of the invention follow from the claims.

Examples of execution of the invention represented in the drawings and described in more detail with reference to the drawings:

Figure 1 - the document;

Figure 2 - the document is inclined relative to the axis;

Figure 3 is a protective element in the incision;

Figure 4 - boundary surface relief structure;

5 is a first condition of the proceedings;

6 is a second condition of the proceedings;

Figa, 7b - protective element with levels of gray (Graustufen) and

Fig - relief structure.

Figure 1 presents the document 1, the protective element 2, the background surface 3, item 4 of the sample (pattern) and the imaginary axis 5 of the slope, located on the plane of the paper 1. Document 1 lit directed artificial light side and at an angle to the plane of the paper and reviewed the top so that the viewing direction is perpendicular to the plane of the paper. The document 1 is fixed to the protective element 2. The protective element 2 is to identify a sample of 25 (pattern) of the elements 4, which are surrounded by background surfaces 3. For clarity, Figure 1, a sample of 25 consists of a single element 4 of the sample and forms a simple V-shaped sign. In the practical implementation of several background surfaces 3 and item 4 sample form a sample 25. When upomyanutykh lighting and consideration for the observer pattern 25 is not visible, as between the element 4 and the back surface 3 with no contrast and both surfaces, and the background surface 3 and item 4 of the sample, seem to be dark, for example, metal Matt. In diffuse daylight or, on the contrary, in the diffuse lighting in the room and when referred to certain conditions, the lighting element 4 of the sample is allocated a dark colour on a white background surface 3 and, therefore, is for the observer is well visible.

If, as shown in figure 2, document 1 with the protective element 2 is tilted about the tilt axis 5 so that the background surface 3 reflects the light in the eye of the observer, the observer detects (recognizes) a sample of 25, because the element 4 of the sample remains dark and high contrast from the background surface 3. Under such conditions, monitoring the condition of reflection to the observer made. The rotation of the protective element 2 in its plane does not change for an observer view of the sample 25 in the condition of reflection, i.e. the azimuthal alignment of the protective element 2 may be omitted.

Figure 3 shows the protective element 2 (Figure 2) in section, the plane of the section contains, for example, the axis 5 of the slope (Figure 2). The protective element 2 consists of a layered structure 6 of the many layers 7, 8, 9 and 11. Samples for the formation of the layered structure 6 and intended for materials described in patent the x applications EP 0401466 A1 and US 4856857.

In the simplest case, the layered structure 6 contains at least the protective layer 7, the adhesive layer 8, the lacquer layer 9 located between the protective layer 7 and an adhesive layer 8. The adhesive layer 8 connects the protective element 2 with a document 1. Boundary surface between the adhesive layer 8 and the lacquer layer 9 reflects the incident light 10 through the protective layer 7 and the lacquer layer 9, if the refractive index on the surface of the section varies sharply at the transition from the lacquer layer 9 in the adhesive layer 8. According to table 6 of the patent US 4856857 the difference in refractive index is too small to get the full reflection. Therefore, the reflectivity is increased by the reflecting layer 11 located on the boundary surface, which is a thin layer (<from metal or applied as a coating metal with a suitable inorganic dielectric layer, and a dielectric layer located on the side of the metal susceptible to incident light 10.

The material for the reflective layer 11, are in tables 1-5 patent US 4856857; table 1-6 specifically included in this description. Not mentioned in table 5 tellurium (Te) is also suitable for the reflecting layer 11. In this case, the incident light 10 see the light of day or polychromatic visible light the wavelength from 380 nm to 780 nm.

While providing a layered structure 6, the surface of the protective layer 7 layer 6 to prevent damage, is connected with the lacquer layer 9 through the insulating layer 12 is connected with the layer 13 of the base, to facilitate the transfer of delicate layered structure 6 on the document 1. Layer 13 basics of paper or a polymeric film, for example, PC or PETP can be removed after gluing layered structure 6 so that the sample 25 (2) visible through the protective layer 7 and the lacquer layer 9. Besides references to the mentioned first patent GB 2129739 B.

As can be seen from Figure 3, the lacquer layer 9 in item 4 of the sample formed a relief structure 14 with geometric chord. In the background surfaces 3 of the lacquer layer 9 given a smooth shape and the lacquer layer 9 parallel to the other layers of the layered structure 6. The material (substance) of the adhesive layer 8 fills the depressions of the relief structure 14. Boundary surface with or without additional reflective layer 11 should for relief structure 14 and the reflecting planes of the background surfaces 3.

The relief structure 14 is a two-dimensional diffraction grating, consisting of two base gratings with a period ofless than the maximum wavelengthin the short wavelength the spectrum of visible light, i.e. fromto, and has an optically effective depthpatterns, this chord profilemultiplied by the refractive index of the lacquer layer 9, preferably in the range fromto. Such a relief structure 14 absorbs almost all visible light 10 incident on the elements 4 of the sample, and diffuse (back, back) in the half space above the element 4 sample a small fraction of the incident light 10. The percentage of absorbed light 10 depends on the depthpatterns are not linear and can be adjusted by selecting the depthpatterns in the above-mentioned range between 50% and about 99%, and rightly, if the relief structure 14 is more flat, more of the incident light 10 is dissipated and the less light 10 is absorbed. The above percentages are valid for relief structure 14 with a reflective layer 11, for example, aluminum (Al). Therefore, to each other adjacent the Toolbox 4 sample different depthsstructures exhibit a gray shade.

Embodiment of the relief structure 14, are presented in figure 4, is a two-dimensional diffraction grating formed by pore the CTV two rectangular crossed sinusoidal basic arrays.

Lying along the coordinatesthe sine function of the first basic lattice has a periodand amplitude, while lying along the coordinatesthe sine function of the second underlying lattice has a periodand amplitude. Above the plane fixed by coordinatesandgoes boundary surfaceformed by two-dimensional diffraction grating in layered material 6 (Fig 3), for example, functions

In other embodiments, executionrectangular or pyramid structure is applicable as a boundary surface

In an embodiment both periodsand depthpatterns are equal, in other embodiments perform different. Depth patternsh=[hx+hy] may be chosen greater than the periodbut the relief structure 14 is difficult to get a modern production methods. Boundary surfacesimilar is and carton for eggs and are presented in figure 4.

Using Figure 5 discloses the optical properties of the protective element 2 in the first condition monitoring. Incident light 10 forms with the normal 15 to the plane of the protective element 2 angle equal to about 40°. In the above example, the elements 4 of the sample with the above-described relief structure 14 absorb in the visible range up to 95% of the incident light 10, with the remainder scattered. And reflective background surface 3 absorbs only about 10% of the incident light 10 and reflects the remaining light. As part of the surface elements 4 of the sample adjacent to a reflective background surfaces 3, the observer sees a strong contrast that items 4 sample located on a given background surface 3 of the protection element 2 in a given sample 25 is easily recognizable as information. Sample 25 is a graphical symbol, text, image or some other graphic symbol.

The drawing of Figure 5 corresponds to the light mode in the copy device. According to the model of the copy device, the incident light 10 copiers, aimed at document 1 and the protective element 2, formed with normals 15 the angle of incidence α within about 40° to 50°. Document 1 scatters incident light 10 in the half-space. As a consequence, the scattered (diffuse) light reaches the light receiver 16, the location is spent in the direction of the normal 15, the copy device. In contrast to this light 17 reflected from the background surface 3, is deflected by the law of reflection with the same angle α in the direction of the eyes 18 of the observer 19 and misses the light receiver 16. If the light 10 falls under the same angle of incidence α element 4 of the sample, the incident light 10 on the contrary almost absorbed; and the light receiver 16 and the observer 19 does not register the light from item 4 of the sample. Therefore, item 4 of the sample is dark.

Background surface 3 is formed for the light 10 incident on a layered structure 6, a flat reflecting surface 25, while the 4 elements of the sample as absorbing surface substantially ”swallow” incident light 10. Therefore, the observer, 19 detects the reflected light 17 background surface 3 as very light surface section and the elements 4 of the sample as the dark surface of the partition pattern 25. In other directions as the directions of the reflected light 17 of the protective element 2 scatters only a small portion of the incident light 10. Values of light intensity per unit area, scattered on the background surfaces 3 and 4 elements of the sample are almost equal so that there is no contrast between the background surfaces 3 and 4 elements of the sample. When illuminated directional incident light 10 pattern 25, about sovanny background surfaces 3 and 4 elements of the sample, in contrast to the black and white image produced by the printing method, is visible only in the specular reflected light 17.

In the copy device background surface 3 and element 4 sample reject such a small fraction of the incident light 10 in the light receiver 16 that copier reproduces the background zone 3 and item 4 of the same sample as the black surface. The advantage of this protective element 2 is that the copier is unable to reproduce the information provided by item 4 of the sample, while the observer 19, which almost automatically tilts the protective element 2 by directional incident light 10 so that it considers the background surface 3 in the reflection, you see 4 sample with strong contrast over the background surface 3. Thus, a careful observer can easily distinguish the protective element 2 from a reflective metal foil on a good color copies of the document 1. Another advantage is the use of protective element of the relief structure 14 with periods(Figure 4),(Figure 4), which are shorter than the lengths of the waves from the coherent light sources, designed for holographic copy methods; therefore, the copy protection is on item 2 cannot be manufactured holographic methods.

Figure 6 presents the second lighting mode for both observers 19, 20 of the protective element 2. The source 21 of polychromatic radiation, for example a halogen lamp, incandescent lamp, etc. is located on the second observer 20 and directs incident light 10 on item 4 of the sample at a large angle α fall from about 60° to 80°. The first observer 19 sees the sample 25 (2) of item 4 of the sample over the background surface 3 (Figure 5) at an angle α reflection, as previously indicated. If the periods(Fig. 4),(4) the relief structure 14 lie within half or a maximum allowable wavelength λandorpart of the incident light 10 is deflected at a large angle β the minus first diffraction order as denied the light 22. The second observer 20 can see the rejected light 22. Rejected light 22 contains the short wavelength part of the visible spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore rejected the light 22 is dependent on the angle β diffraction and periods,on the part of the spectrum from blue-green to purple. The color observed at a certain angle β diffraction to normal is 15, rejected light 22 in intensity also depends on the azimuth. Note: in the above case (observation) the refractive effect of the protective layer 7 is left without attention.

The first observer 19, on the contrary, looking in the direction of the reflected light 17 and sees the background surface 3 as shiny bright surface section and the elements 4 of the sample as the dark surface of the partition of the sample 25.

If periodorless than λ/2, then the second observer 20 can no longer be seen in the direction of the coordinatesorrejected light 22 as relief structure 14 is no longer rejects visible light 22. The first observer 19, which monitors the protective element 2 at an angle α reflection, sees under these conditions, the elements 4 of the sample without changes to dark brown or black color.

The color elements 3 of the sample, visible angle α reflection, depends on the structure of the reflecting layer 11, as different combinations of materials in and on the reflective layer 11 reflects evenly incident light 10 is not in the whole spectral region of the visible electromagnetic radiation. Elements 3 sample rich black color have the advantage of a gradual transition of the refractive index from the lacquer layer 9 to reflect the he layer 11; the transition is formed by at least one layer of inorganic dielectric 23 between the lacquer layer 9 and the metal coating 24 on the reflecting layer 11. On a flat reflective surface (mirror plane) background surface 3 of the reflecting layer 11 formed of dielectric material 23 and the metal coating 24, operates quietly. When the relief structure 14, on the contrary, this reflecting layer 11 is because of the interference almost complete damping of the incident light 10, which is carried out primarily evenly over the entire spectral region of the visible electromagnetic radiation. Example (sample) has a dielectric layer 23 with a thickness of 50 nm of ZnS and 100 nm of aluminum (Al) as the metal coating 24. Another advantage is depthpatterns, increased by a high refractive index for ZnScompared with the refractive index of the lacquer layer 9 fromwhen the same chordthe relief structure 14.

In addition to gradations of gray scale with items 4 sample different depthspatterns in the embodiment, the protective element 2 is produced gradation gray scale by forming a raster of different density with age the new point size, less than 0.4 mm, however insignificant, are dot as a background zone 3 in item 4 or item 4 of the sample in the background zone 3.

On figa and 7b shows other examples for education grayscale color inside the protective element 2 from dark element 4 of the sample to a brilliant background zone 3. On figa in constant raster with a maximum interval of 0.5 mm was used, respectively grayscale color dots of different sizes. In slightly illuminated area 26 dots touch each other, in an enlightened area 27 dots have an average size from about 0.25 mm, while in a slightly darkened area of 28 dots have a size of approximately 0.15 mm To fig.7b used instead of a point raster line raster with a maximum interval of 0.5 mm Here gradation gray scale in areas with 26 (Figa) 28 (Fig.7b) promotes appropriate line width.

In one of the zones 26-28 dot plot (plane area) 4 sample have the same dimensions. Very accurate gradation gray scale is achieved by means of respective stepped depthspatterns in relief structures 14 (6), which is sufficient to reproduce black-and-white photographs.

On Fig presents as a simple example, two samples of 25 casinoroulette 2. On the top half of the protective element 2 sample 25 consists of a belt 29 with a star 30. The tape 29 is formed from a dark element 4 of the sample. The environment of the tape 29 and the stars 30 are bright background surface 3. Without limitation so far described the background surfaces 3 and 4 elements of the sample are replaced, as shown in the bottom half of the protective element 2.

The protective element 2 in figure 1 will be more difficult to forge, if the sample 25 is the background for the element 31 of the artificial ornament, in the form of a mosaic, with diffraction structures, the spatial frequencies which have values in the range of 300 lines / mm up to 2000 lines per mm Such elements 31 of the artificial ornaments, mosaics, mentioned at the beginning is known from patent applications EP 0105099 A1, EP 0330738 A1, EP 0375833 A1. The contents of these patent descriptions are included in the description by reference.

1. Protective (2) element sample (25) of the split surfaces and in the form of a layered structure (6), to confirm the authenticity of the document (1)that contains at least a transparent protective layer (7), transparent lacquer layer (9) and adhesive layer (8), and the varnish layer (9) is located between the protective layer (7) and an adhesive layer (8), and the refractive index changes abruptly at the boundary surface between the adhesive layer (8) and the lacquer layer (9), and divided the sample surface (25) comprising the background of surfaces (3) and item (4) of the sample, characterized in that in the background surfaces (3) lacquer layer (9) formed smooth and even, and in the Toolbox (4) sample a relief structure (14) with a specific optically effective depth h formed in the lacquer layer (9), while the background surface (3) of the incident light (10) of the layered structure (6) are smooth reflective surfaces and embossed patterns (14) are two-dimensional diffraction gratings, formed from the base gratings with periods (dx; dy), and periods (dx; dy) are lower than the specified limit wavelength (λ) in the shortwave part of the spectrum of visible light (10), so that the elements (4) of the sample absorb and scatter incident light (10), with each relief structure (14) the ratio of absorbed and scattered light is defined and depends on the specified effective optical depth (h) of the relief structure (14).

2. The protective element (2) according to claim 1, characterized in that the two-dimensional diffraction grating embossed structures (14) consists of two base gratings with periods (dx; dylocated essentially perpendicular to each other.

3. The protective element (2) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the underlying lattice is made in the form of a sine wave.

4. The protective element (2) according to one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that at least one of p is Ritov (d x; dy) is greater than half the limit wavelength (λ), but less than the maximum wavelength (λ).

5. The protective element (2) according to claim 3, characterized in that at least one of the periods (dx; dy) is greater than half the limit wavelength (λ), but less than the maximum wavelength (λ).

6. The protective element (2) according to one of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the maximum wavelength (λ) is selected in the range between 380 and 420 nm.

7. The protective element (2) according to claim 3, characterized in that the maximum wavelength (λ) is selected in the range between 380 and 420 nm.

8. The protective element (2) according to claim 4, characterized in that the maximum wavelength (λ) is selected in the range between 380 and 420 nm.

9. The protective element (2) according to one of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the periods (dx; dyboth basic gratings have the same value.

10. The protective element (2) according to claim 3, characterized in that the periods (dx; dyboth basic gratings have the same value.

11. The protective element (2) according to claim 4, characterized in that the periods (dx; dyboth basic gratings have the same value.

12. The protective element (2) according to claim 5, characterized in that the periods (dx; dyboth basic gratings have the same value.

13. The protective element (2) according to claim 6, characterized in that the periods (d x; dyboth basic gratings have the same value.

14. The protective element (2) according to claim 7, characterized in that the periods (dx; dyboth basic gratings have the same value.

15. The protective element (2) according to claim 8, characterized in that the periods (dx; dyboth basic gratings have the same value.

16. The protective element (2) according to one of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the values for the effective optical depth (h) relief structures (14) is selected in the range from h=50 and h=500 nm.

17. The protective element (2) according to claim 3, characterized in that the values for the effective optical depth (h) relief structures (14) is selected in the range from h=50 and h=500 nm.

18. The protective element (2) according to claim 4, characterized in that the values for the effective optical depth (h) relief structures (14) is selected in the range from h=50 and h=500 nm.

19. The protective element (2) according to one of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that a reflective layer (11) contains a metal from the group of: aluminum, silver, gold, chromium, copper, Nickel and tellurium.

20. The protective element (2) according to claim 19, characterized in that a reflective layer (11) on the side facing the lacquer layer (9)has a metal layer (24), at least the layer (23) inorganic dielectric.

21. The protective element (2) according to claim 20, characterized in that the layer (23) inorganic dielectric consists of ZnS and the metal layer 24) of aluminum.

22. The protective element (2) according to one of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the sample (25) has a zone (26; 27; 28) with levels of gray, and that the elements (4) sample areas (26; 27; 28) with different levels of gray color different effective optical depth (h) relief structures (14).

23. The protective element (2) according to claim 3, characterized in that the sample (25) has a zone (26; 27; 28) with levels of gray, and that the elements (4) sample areas (26; 27; 28) with different levels of gray color different effective optical depth (h) relief structures (14).

24. The protective element (2) according to one of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the sample (25) has a zone (26; 27; 28) with levels of gray that the elements (4) of the sample have the same value of the effective optical depth (h) and that zone (26; 27; 28) are forming a raster of different density halftone dots with sizes smaller than 0.4 mm

25. The protective element (2) according to one of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the sample (25) forms the background surface to be made in the form of a mosaic element (31) of the artificial ornaments of the diffraction structures with spatial frequencies in the range from 300 to 2000 lines per mm



 

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