Atmospheric oil refining plant

FIELD: oil refining; plants for production of gasoline, diesel fuel, mazut and bitumen.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant includes 1st and 2nd heat exchangers connected in series, first fractionating apparatus 3, second fractionating apparatus 4, third, fourth heat exchangers 5 and 6, furnace 7, oil supply system, system for discharge of separated fractions 9, 10,11, 12, 13 (accumulators inclusive), third fractionating apparatus 14, vertical partitions 15, cooling systems 16 and preheating systems 17 connected with heat-transfer agent inlet 18. All fractionating apparatus are made in form of horizontal apparatus divided into combined condensation and evaporation stages.

EFFECT: reduced power requirements; reduced overall dimensions of plant.

4 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the refining, in particular to installations for production of gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oil and bitumen.

There are various installation distillation of crude oil, allowing to allocate gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oil. In particular, it is known technical solution for the fractionation of oil in horizontal multi-stage apparatus is divided into a combined degree of condensation and evaporation of vertical and transverse walls and provided along the length of the heat sink devices in the upper part for the sequential condensation of vapor and heat sink at the bottom to sequential evaporation of the liquid. The mixture is heated in a furnace and sent for fractionation (See. RF patent №2058368 on CL With 10 G 7/02, 013/32, B 01 D 3/24 declared 1993.08.02 published 1996.04.20. “A method of fractionation of oil”).

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is to obtain three fractions of one horizontal fractionation apparatus, which does not allow to distinguish the quality of the faction, in addition, as the fuel is used the raw material (oil), which entails the formation of soot in the installation and makes it an explosion and fire.

Closest to the technical essence and the achieved effect and is selected as the closest analogue is the atmospheric setting the distillation, containing serially connected first and second heat exchangers, the first fractionation apparatus, the second apparatus fractionation, third, and fourth heat exchangers, furnace, a supply system oil system drain of the selected fractions (See. RF patent №2205055 on CL 01 D 3/14, C 10 G 7/00, declared 2002.01.21 published 2003.05.27. “Installing the atmospheric distillation of crude oil”).

However, the known technical solution, on the one hand, contains two distillation apparatus in the form of distillation columns, which creates complexity and large size of the installation. In addition, the use of distillation columns requires increased energy costs fractionation.

The present invention is to reduce energy costs, reduce the size of the installation.

The technical result that allows to solve the problem is to optimize the design of the atmospheric distillation of crude oil. This object is achieved in that in the known installation, atmospheric distillation, containing serially connected first and second heat exchangers, the first fractionation apparatus, the second apparatus fractionation, third, and fourth heat exchangers, furnace, a supply system oil system drain of the selected fractions, according to the invention it is additionally introduced the third apparatus fracc is onirovaniya, in this case, all devices fractionation are horizontal devices divided by the combined steps of condensation and evaporation by vertical partitions, provided in the upper part of the cooling system, and in the lower part of the heating system with heat transfer fluid, and the entrance of fluid to the installation connected to the input of the heating system of the third fractionation apparatus, the output of which is connected to the input of the heating system of the second fractionation apparatus, and the output of the heating system of the second fractionation apparatus is connected via the third heat exchanger to the input of the heating system of the first fractionation apparatus, the output of which through the fourth heat exchanger and expansion tank is connected with the furnace, the system for oil supply connected with installing via the first heat exchanger first outlet which is connected to the first input of the second heat exchanger, which is its first output connected to the upper part of the first fractionation apparatus, equipped with a drainage system of the selected first fraction and connected with the upper part of the second fractionation apparatus, equipped with a drainage system of the second fraction through a second heat exchanger and sequentially connected to the fourth and third heat exchangers and the middle part of the first fractionation apparatus, ninjacat first fractionation apparatus is connected to the middle part of the second fractionation apparatus, and the lower part of the second fractionation apparatus connected to the drainage system of the selected third faction, which through the first heat exchanger and the drive is connected to the lower part of the third fractionation apparatus connected to the drainage system of the selected fourth and second fractions.

The cooling system of the apparatus of the fractionation may be performed in the form of a tubular path through which the refrigerant circulates.

The heating apparatus of the fractionation may be performed in the form of a tubular path through which coolant is circulated.

Vertical baffles inside the apparatus fractionation may have a Crescent shape.

Studies on patent and scientific and technical information sources show that the proposed installation of the atmospheric distillation of crude oil is unknown and should not be explicitly studied the prior art, and therefore meets the criterion of “novelty” and “inventive step”.

The proposed installation of the atmospheric distillation of crude oil can be produced in any enterprise, specializing in the industry, since it requires the known materials and standard equipment, widely produced by domestic and foreign industry.

Thus, the claimed install almost the nuclear biological chemical (NBC distillation meets the criterion of “industrial applicability”.

We offer a set of essential features according to the declared unit of atmospheric distillation of crude oil new properties that allow you to meet the goal of reducing energy costs and reducing the size of the installation.

The presence of the third fractionation apparatus allows third distillation fraction of oil allocated to the second fractionation apparatus, and extract the residual diesel fuel is the second fraction and the fourth fraction of bitumen at negligible energy costs, thereby reducing the amount of waste installation to a minimum.

Running distillation apparatus in the form of horizontal multistage vehicles divided by the combined steps of condensation and evaporation by vertical partitions, provided in the upper part of the cooling system, and in the lower part of the heating system, increases the heat exchange surface, can significantly reduce the quantity of supplied fluid, and consequently, reduce energy costs and to reduce the dimensions of the entire unit as a whole.

The presence of consecutive links along the oil allows the cooled heat recovery fractions, which also helps reduce energy costs.

The presence of serial links in the course of heat carrier, the new opposite direction relative stroke oil provides optimal conditions for selection of the required fractions in each fractionation apparatus, that also helps to reduce energy costs for the operation of the atmospheric distillation of crude oil.

Perform cooling system in the form of a tubular path through which the refrigerant circulates, increases the contact surface of the gasoline vapor in the first fractionation apparatus, diesel fuel vapor in the second and third fractionation apparatus with cooling system and thereby provides a rapid condensation of gasoline and diesel fuel, which again leads to lower energy costs.

Performing a heating system in the form of a tubular loop, which circulates coolant, provides rapid heating of the oil to the desired temperature sufficient to highlight each device fractionation in two fractions: the first unit fractionation - first fraction is gasoline and a mixture of diesel fuel and fuel oil, in the second apparatus of the second fractionation fraction of diesel fuel and third fractions of the oil, in the third fractionation apparatus - fourth fraction of the bitumen and the second fraction - diesel fuel (residual), which also reduces the energy costs of the whole installation.

Implementation of vertical partitions Crescent shape provides optimal conditions for separation of the fractions within each fractionation apparatus while simultaneously the current reduction in energy costs.

Thus, the set of essential features of the proposed facility atmospheric distillation of crude oil can reduce energy costs and reduce the size of the installation.

The invention is illustrated by drawings. Figure 1 shows the flow chart of installation atmospheric distillation of crude oil, figure 2 - image of the combined stages of condensation and evaporation apparatus fractionation (without housing).

Installing the atmospheric distillation of crude oil contains serially connected first 1 and second 2 heat exchangers, the first fractionation apparatus 3, the second fractionation apparatus 4, the third and fourth heat exchangers respectively 5, 6, furnace 7, the system flow of oil 8, the drainage system of the selected fractions 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, (including drives), the third fractionation apparatus 14, a vertical partition 15, the cooling system 16, the heating system 17 connected to the input of the carrier 18.

In addition, each of the fractionation apparatus may be connected to the system vacuum 19 through an additional cooling system to increase the speed of the processes of fractionation. Connect vacuum is most effective on the third fractionation apparatus, where is the separation of residual diesel fuel and bitumen from oil.

Installation works follow the way. Oil under pressure from a pump (not shown) through the first heat exchanger 1 runs, the cooling oil from the second fractionation apparatus 4 itself when it heats up, then gets to the second heat exchanger 2, where it cools the diesel fuel from the second fractionation apparatus 4, warming itself, and into the upper portion of the first fractionation apparatus 3, where in the inner space of the gasoline cools the first fraction, also heated from her, then goes to the upper part of the second fractionation apparatus 4, where in the inner space cools the diesel fuel is the second faction, continuing to be heated enters the fourth heat exchanger 6, is associated with the carrier, where it is heated and enters the third heat exchanger 5, which also heats up and gets into the inner space of the first fractionation apparatus 3, which is allocated a first fraction, where it goes into the exhaust system 9. From the lower part of the first fractionation apparatus 3 a mixture of diesel fuel and fuel oil gets to the second fractionation apparatus 4, where the second group gets to the second heat exchanger 2, where it gives off its heat and goes into the exhaust system 10. From the lower part of the second fractionation apparatus 4 is given the third faction is the oil, which, passing through the first heat exchanger gives up its heat to the incoming is Efti, and he falls into a third fractionation apparatus 14, where the selection of the fourth fraction of bitumen and residual second fraction of diesel fuel.

In the opposite direction with respect to the flow of oil on the installation through the inlet 18 is fluid (high temperature oil), starting from the third fractionation apparatus 14, which require higher temperatures to ensure that the process of fractionation of residual fuel oil second and fourth fractions, then the coolant enters the bottom of the second fractionation apparatus 4, and thence through the third heat exchanger 5 in the lower part of the first fractionation apparatus 3, where through the fourth heat exchanger 6 and the expansion tank into the furnace 7 for reheating.

In addition, it should be noted that the proposed installation of the atmospheric distillation of crude oil can work, using as a raw gas, which is confirmed in the results of the tests.

1. Installing the atmospheric distillation of crude oil containing serially connected first and second heat exchangers, the first fractionation apparatus, the second apparatus fractionation, third, and fourth heat exchangers, furnace, a supply system oil system drain of the selected fractions, characterized in that it additionally introduced the third apparatus fracc is onirovaniya, in this case, all devices fractionation are horizontal devices divided by the combined steps of condensation and evaporation by vertical partitions, provided in the upper part of the cooling system, and in the lower part of the heating system with heat transfer fluid, and the entrance of fluid to the installation connected to the input of the heating system of the third fractionation apparatus, the output of which is connected to the input of the heating system of the second fractionation apparatus, and the output of the heating system of the second fractionation apparatus is connected via the third heat exchanger to the input of the heating system of the first fractionation apparatus, the output of which through the fourth heat exchanger and expansion tank is connected with the furnace, the system for oil supply connected with installing via the first heat exchanger, the first output of which is connected to the first input of the second heat exchanger, which is its first output connected to the upper part of the first fractionation apparatus, equipped with a drainage system of the selected first fraction and connected with the upper part of the second fractionation apparatus, equipped with a drainage system of the second fraction through a second heat exchanger and sequentially connected to the fourth and third heat exchangers and the middle part of the first fractionation apparatus, the lower is the portion of the first fractionation apparatus is connected to the middle part of the second fractionation apparatus, and the lower part of the second fractionation apparatus connected to the drainage system of the selected third faction, which through the first heat exchanger and the drive is connected to the lower part of the third fractionation apparatus connected to the drainage system of the selected fourth and second fractions.

2. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the cooling apparatus fractionation is made in the form of a tubular path through which the refrigerant circulates.

3. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the heating system is made in the form of a tubular path through which coolant is circulated.

4. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the vertical walls have a sickle shape.



 

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2 ex

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EFFECT: the invention allows to raise quality of alcohol.

2 ex

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EFFECT: the invention allows to raise quality of alcohol.

2 ex

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