# Mode of location target(variants)

FIELD: the invention refers to the technique of detection of a target and determination of the direction at a target.

SUBSTANCE: the mode is realized by way of receiving of ultra wideband impulses reflected from the target, of delaying them on various time multitude in various channels of surveillance and multi channel processing. In the first variant of the current mode variation of the form of receiving impulses on a great number of discrete time positions are carried out by way of averaging-out by channels of surveillance at known direction of incoming reflected impulses in a beforehand designed control sector and then found valuation of the form of receiving impulse is used as a base signal in multi channel correlation processing. In the second variant valuation of magnitude of receiving impulse is formed in concrete moment of time for each base direction in beforehand given angular sector of control, valuation of the form of the receiving impulse is found according to formed valuations of magnitude 0f the receiving signal for various discrete moments of time; found valuation of receiving impulse is used as a base signal in multi channel correlation processing; out of multitude of results of correlation processing correlation maximum is chosen. This maximum is used as preliminary threshold decision statistics in the procedure of detection of the target; the direction of incoming reflected impulses with the help of interpolating valuation of the position of the correlation maximum in the environs of that base direction for which the largest result of multi channel correlation processing.

EFFECT: the use of this invention at location of a target with the help of ultra wideband impulses allows to receive signals incoming not only from in advance chosen base directions.

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The scope of the invention

The present invention relates to techniques for target detection and direction finding it. In particular, the present invention relates to variants of the method of locating targets using ultra-wideband pulses, and software to implement these methods.

The existing level of technology

Recently delineated increased interest in the establishment of radar systems using ultra-wideband signals, i.e. signals, the bandwidth of which is comparable with the Central frequency of the spectrum. Also relevant is the creation of similar systems for probing the earth's interior, the depths of the sea and atmosphere (the Issues of long-term radar. - M.: Radio Engineering, 2003 (Series Radar). - S-25). This is due to the physical nature of UWB signals, generating a number of useful properties. For example, when the reflection of ultra-wideband signals become carriers quite a large amount of information about the sensed objects (Borzov A.B. Analysis of the contributions of individual elements of an object of complex shape in the General field of electromagnetic waves scattering on complex objects. - Electromagnetic waves and electronic systems, 1998, No. 10, ñ.38-54). UWB signals are almost impossible to suppress when passing through a medium with changing with what properties permeability. In radar systems, their use opens up the possibility of remote detection goals and overcoming antiradar technology "Stealth".

However, the nature of UWB signals and generates difficulties impeding the use of the known technical solutions for the implementation of ultra-wideband radar systems. One of the key problems is the problem of optimal or suboptimal with unpredictable distortion of the signal. Indeed, in real terms, the reflective characteristics of the object, and often the properties of the propagation medium, cannot be determined with a degree of accuracy to at least approximately to predict the distortion that will occur in the reflected UWB signals observed at the reception. Traditional radar technique involves the full a priori information about the shape of the reflected signals and, accordingly, the organization receive by agreed filters. It is clear that the effective reception of UWB signals is only possible when the transition from traditional methods to adaptive processing.

The known method location using ultra-wideband pulses emitted and received antenna array, in which the division of all the strip light is shirokopolosnykh pulses at a particular frequency sub-bands for the convenience of forming the angular deviations of the beam using vasodilatory (EPO application No. 0618641, publ). The disadvantage of this method is the lack of consideration of the distortion of the reflected signals.

The closest analogue of the present invention is a method of locating targets, namely, that: emit ultra-wideband pulses with a grid of antenna elements; receiving echo pulses in a predetermined angular sector of the control delay of the signal passed by each antenna element of the mentioned grid antenna elements, using series-connected delay elements in each of the multiple channels used for the observations; follow the procedure of the detection of a target by using a multi-channel correlation processing of signals at the outputs of the above elements of the delay mentioned in different channels surveillance (U.S. patent No. 6515622, publ. 04.02.2003). The disadvantage of this method is the lack of instructions on how to generate the reference signals and receiving signals coming from directions other than the reference directions.

The invention

The purpose of the present invention is to provide such a method of target location, which would be free of the above disadvantages.

To solve this problem and achieve the technical result in the way the location of the goal, namely, that: from ucaut ultra-wideband pulses with a grid of antenna elements; when the reception of the reflected pulses in a predetermined angular sector of the control delay of the signal passed by each antenna element in the array of antenna elements, using series-connected delay elements in each of the multiple channels used for the observations; follow the procedure of the detection of a target by using a multi-channel correlation processing of signals at the outputs of delay elements in different channels for the observations in the first variant of the method, when it is known direction of arrival of the reflected pulses, in accordance with the present invention in the multi-channel correlation signal processing: perform an assessment of the shape of the received pulse at the set of discrete time positions by averaging over the channel observation signal on subsets of the outputs of those elements delays in different channels of the observations correspond to the same discrete time position at a known direction of arrival of reflected pulses in a predetermined angular sector of control; then use the evaluation forms received pulse as a reference signal in a multi-channel correlation processing.

In the second variant of the method, when the direction of arrival of the reflected pulses is unknown, in accordance with the present invention in the multi-channel the correlation signal processing: produce separate estimates of the magnitude of the received pulse at the set of discrete time positions for each reference direction of the pre-selected finite set of reference directions in the angular sector monitoring and evaluation values of the received pulse at discrete points for each of the reference directions form by averaging over the channel observation signal on subsets of samples, which for a given reference direction correspond to the same discrete positions; find the evaluation forms received pulse generated estimates of the magnitude of the received pulse at different discrete points in time; use the evaluation forms received pulse as a reference signal in a multi-channel correlation processing; many of the results of the multi-channel correlation processing selects the correlation maximum, which is used as priporogovoi crucial statistics in the detection targets; assess the direction the arrival of reflected pulses in a predetermined angular sector control using interpolation estimates the position of the correlation maximum in the vicinity of in reference to the direction of the selected set of reference directions for which to obtain the greatest result multichannel correlation processing.

Thus the formation of many of the counts in each channel monitoring can be done using linear interpolation due to the fact that they are finding the weight of inany combinations of signals at the outputs of delay elements in different channels of the observations and use the resulting weights of the linear combinations of the signals for the formation of the conditional estimates of the shape of the received pulses at a given the set of discrete time positions consistent with one of the selected set of reference directions.

This task, achieving the same technical result is achieved through software products, each of which when executed on a computer enables the implementation of these multi-channel correlation processing of signals in one of the above methods.

In the existing level of technology not identified sources of information, which would contain information about the objects the same destination with the specified set of distinctive features, which allows to consider the method according to the present invention is new and inventive.

Brief description of drawings

The present invention is illustrated by drawings, where the same elements in all the drawings are denoted by the same reference position, and where:

Figure 1 is a block diagram of a conventional device for forming the probe of ultra-wideband pulses and receiving echoes;

Figure 2 illustrates the shape of the probe pulse generated by the device of figure 1;

Figure 3 illustrates the various types of reflections of the probe pulse in figure 2 from the real object;

Figure 4 is a block diagram of a device for suboptimal detection of the reflected UWB signal is fishing, coming from a known direction, for implementing the method according to the first embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 5 illustrates the case of reception of the reflected ultra-wideband signal from the object, the direction of which is not known in advance;

6 explains the implementation of the second variant of the method according to the present invention;

7 is a block diagram of a device for implementing the method according to the second variant of the present invention.

Figa is a block diagram of the device 7 in the case of a General interpolation type for the recovery of samples of the received pulse in the intermediate positions.

Figb is a block diagram of the device 7 in the case of applying linear interpolation to recover samples of the received pulse in the intermediate positions.

A detailed description of the preferred embodiments

Usually ultra-wideband radar system is implemented using a multi-element antenna array, the block diagram of which is depicted in figure 1. This multi-element antenna array, in this case, the selected linear (one-dimensional) for simplicity of explanation. It contains channels 1 observations from the first (1.1) M-th (M). Each channel 1 observations contains series-connected antenna element 2, unit 3 controlled delay switch 4 mode slave whom you switch transfer), filter 5 lower frequencies and line 6 delay, which consists of L identical delay elements 7, each with time T of the delay, and has L+1 taps. Blocks 3 controlled delays are used to set the main directions of sensing both during transmission and during reception. Filters 5 lower frequencies are used for selection of the reflected signals in the frequency range. Line 6 delay are used to perform the optimum processing of observations for the detection and estimation of direction of arrival of the reflected pulse.

In this invention does not address the issues of formation and radiation from high-power ultra-wideband pulses (discussed, for example, in the work of Shearman AD and other Techniques of radar recognition and modeling // Foreign Radioelectronics. The successes of modern electronics. 1996, No. 11, page 3). Actually the form of pulses is close either to the bell, as shown in figure 2, or type of cosine on a pedestal. Noted subtle differences in the shape of the radiated UWB pulses can only to some extent affect the recognition results distant targets, but not on the measurement results of the radar parameters (target range and direction to the target). Indeed, when the reflected when passing through a medium of sverkhshirokopolosnoi the data pulses are distorted so radically,
that the above mentioned differences in source form can be considered insignificant. The only restriction is that you can navigate with the description of the reflected pulses in terms of working with non-relativistic objects is that their range is within the original frequency range sensing (0-1 GHz), which corresponds to the pulse duration, is presented in figure 2, equal, Δt_{and}≈1 NS.

Because of the relatively small duration, the length of the pulse in space is usually much smaller than the real object. As a consequence, when the reflection occurs in a group of pulses with a pseudo-random distribution of delays, amplitudes and different form. Figure 3 is a schematic representation of the process of reflection of one of the probe pulse from an object with non-uniform surface. In order to ensure the effective summation of the energy of the reflected signals in an adaptive reception system constructed on the basis of the diagram of figure 1, the duration of the delay lines (L×7) you should choose a few more (about 2-2,5 times) the maximum "stretch" of the reflected pulses in time.

Figure 1 perform the following operations:

emit ultra-wideband pulses antenna elements 2 (switch 4 mode of operation in which ogenyi "transmission" i.e. down to 1);

when the reception of the reflected pulses (switch 4 mode in the "reception", i.e. up to 1) delay the signal passed by each antenna element 2, with series-connected delay elements 7 forming a line 6 delay in each channel 1 observations;

follow the procedure of the detection of a target by using a multi-channel correlation processing of signals at the outputs of the delay elements 7 in different lines 6 delay.

These operations are performed as in the method according to the present invention, and the closest equivalent.

Let us now consider those operations that distinguish the first variant of the method according to the present invention, i.e. the case of detection of a target at precisely known direction of arrival of the reflected pulse.

Denote the sample counts, adopted a multi-channel system, through. Due to the fact that the direction of an object accurately set, each individual sequencein the presence of the reflected pulse contains an additive mixture of the same signal and noise. In the absence of the reflected pulse sequencecontain independent noise samples. In mathematical form it can be written aswhen SP is eventualy hypothesis H_{
0}(no signal),

in fairness hypothesis H_{1}(signal is present),

where S(t) is the reflected UWB signal of unknown form, t_{0}- the point in time at which is formed the sample of observations- sample noise component, distributed by the normal law with zero mean and variance σ^{2}observed at the outputs of the delay lines 6.

Let us dwell on the statistical characteristics of the noise, since these are crucial in solving the problem in conditions of a priori uncertainty. Firstly, due to offline channels 1 observation of the receiving system noise components present in them will be statistically independent. Secondly, when technically optimal organization line 6 delay taps at intervals determined by the Nyquist theorem, the noise components of the counts present in the same channel 1 observations at various outlets, will also be statistically independent.

As a result, when there is a reflected signal of the conditional probability density of the observation samplepresent on the cut branches with the same indexes delays i (same delay in channels 1 i T), is as follows:

Due to the fact that relative to the signal componentthere is no a priori information, the score for each index delay i can be formed only on the basis of the criterion of maximum likelihood

Solution (2) can be found by differentiation.

In operation of the sensing system with ultra-wideband signals of figure 1 is periodic formation and processing samples

.

The recurrence interval of the formation samples should not exceedwhere m is a positive integer, to ensure that when processing the full energy of the reflected pulses having a duration of no more thanFor example, if we take the maximum delay lines (LT) with a double stock relative to the valid duration of the reflected pulse, the upper border of the necessary repetition period will bewhich coincides with the top edge of the duration of the received ultra-wideband pulse.

Equation (3) determines the maximum likelihood estimation of the received signal for each periodically generated sample .

Assuming that the reflected signal has a shape that exactly matches with (3), can be arranged suboptimal detection. Indeed, if the form S{t) of the received signal is known, it is optimal in the sense of the criterion of Neyman-Pearson detector should be of the form:

where

is the logarithm of the likelihood ratio calculated with precision multipliers do not depend on observations, P is the threshold on the noise level and providing the specified probability of false detection.

Substituting in (5) evaluation of the maximum likelihood (3), we obtain the desired detection rule:

Above a threshold of P must be reached a decision about the presence of a signal. This rule detection of the reflected UWB signals coming from a known direction, corresponds to the system block diagram of an antenna array which is shown in figure 4. Compared with the scheme of figure 1 in the system added the adders 8 to sum the signals with the same bends in lines 7 delays in different channels 1 observations, blocks 9 squaring to obtain the second degree signals summed at each adder 8, the total adder 10 to sum obtained in blocks 9 values and resh is in store block 11 to compare the totals with the total adder 10 with a threshold of P and the corresponding decision about the presence or absence of a reflected signal from a given direction.

In this case, as it is easy to verify, assess the shape of the received pulse at the set of discrete time positions by averaging over channels 1 monitoring signals on subsets of the outputs of those elements 7 delays in different channels 1 observations correspond to the same discrete time position at a known direction of arrival of the reflected pulses; and use the evaluation forms received pulse as a reference signal in the above-mentioned multi-channel correlation processing.

The detection rule (6) and the resulting structure of the detector in figure 4 are obtained under the assumption of coincidence of form useful components in the channel 1 observations. This is only possible when setting latencyin exact accordance with the direction of arrival of the reflected pulse (i.e., the direction of the controlled object). In practice, however, this situation is quite rare. The most typical is the situation with random location of monitored objects within a certain angular sector. This raises the problem of detecting the reflected signals with simultaneous estimation of direction of arrival. Next, we shall only consider the cases when the location of the sensed object in the plane. Spatial task is prinzipialno not differ from tasks in the plane, only requires a more complex model to describe the transformation of signals in an antenna array. In addition, to simplify the conclusions will focus on linear equidistant antenna array with separation of sensitive elements on the distance d.

Figure 5 shows the situation of the reception of the reflected ultra-wideband signal from an object located in some unknown direction, characterized by the angle αcounted from the direction of radiation of the probe pulse. Figure 5, each channel 1 observations connected with the device 12 detection and estimation of direction of arrival of the reflected pulse, the structure of which will be obtained in the following analysis.

Because technically implement the reception of a continuum of directions is impossible, the only possible way is to use a finite set of controlled areas withwhere k_{0}the angle specifying the direction of the radiation pulse, measured from the normal to the antenna array. In the case of a linear equidistant antenna array with distributed elements 2 at a distance d to each of these areas has its own set ofcompensating delays in the channel 1 observations. That is, delays, consistent with the selected direction of the probe is of the α
_{0}additional amendments

Additional delay (7) can be implemented either by using special blocks, or on the basis of the corresponding linear transformations of counts in channels 1 observations. The second of these methods does not require the use of individual set of delay lines for each of the monitored areas. But the first method provides a more simple and understandable form to perform the synthesis of the desired joint algorithm. Therefore we will focus on the first method. The ultimate results will be the same in both cases.

In accordance with the General conclusions of the statistical theory of detection, which is also valid for the problem under consideration, in terms of parametric a priori uncertainty is asymptotically optimal method of correlation reception using reference copies, in which the unknown parameters of the signal are replaced by the maximum likelihood estimates. In our case, the unknown parameter is the αsetting the direction of the parish. For him, based on appropriate processing of observations obtained for multiple control areas,you need to create a maximum likelihood estimation (WMD). Since in General the true healthy lifestyles is tion will not match with any of the control,
to calculate the required interpolation methods. In the classical theory of estimation of signal parameters such a task is well understood. It is generally recognized that an estimate of the maximum likelihood estimator can be obtained on the basis of decomposition in a Taylor series at the estimated parameter likelihood ratio accurate to members of the second (or higher) order. In the problem under consideration to use the specified approximation is possible if the angular separation of the control and directions of Δα will not lead to a relative delay in the extreme elements 7 delays, great length Δt_{and}the emitted pulse (see figure 2). To clarify formulated requirement will help Fig.6, which shows the detainees in the channel 1 observations of elementary reflected pulses in the case of two neighboring control areas.

Analytical formula for the relative delays between the extreme elements 7 delay for neighboring control areas with indices k and k+1, is:

As can be seen from the last formula, the biggest relative delay in the extreme elements 7 delay occurs sounding normal to the antenna array α_{0}=0. In this case,

On the basis of tog is, thatobtained for step grid control areas the following condition:

Taking into account the fact that from the point of view of the technical requirements the best is the largest grid spacing control areas, from (8) we find the rule of calculation of optimal Δα:

Using a finite set of control directionsassumes that periodically sets are formed, consisting of 2k_{0}+1 samples

Each of the samples in the specified collection meets the control direction with the same value of the index k. It is more convenient to represent an appropriate sample of observations for each of the control areas in the form of a matrix, size M^{*}(L+1)

For each of the control areas in accordance with (3) to form the conditional maximum likelihood estimation of the received signal

obtained as a result of the averaging of observations in columns of the matrix (10). Since the reference direction, in General, do not coincide with the true direction of the backward channel, and evaluation of maximum likelihood signal (11) cannot be considered correct. For the same, the assessments proposed name of the generalized maximum likelihood estimates (OOMP) (see
work Trifonov A.P., Simakov US Joint differentiation of signals and estimation of their parameters on the background noise. - M.: Radio and communication, 1986). However, these OOMP received signals can be used for the calculation of the conditional probability densities and the formation of WMD direction of arrival of the reflected signal. According to model (1), the conditional probability density of observing the sample x(α_{k}for each controlled direction will be

Substituting (11) into (12), we obtain

where

the estimate of the variance based on the sample selected from the i-th column of the matrix of observations X(α_{k}). Using (13), (14), after simple transformations we can obtain an interpolation value of the second order to calculate the WMD direction of arrival of the reflected signal

where- assessment test directions, which produces the largest value of the conditional probability (13) (a rough estimate of the direction of arrival of the reflected signal);

the logarithm of the conditional probability densities (13), calculated with precision component that is not dependent observations;the indexes include the data from the control areas, neighboring- value statistics (16), designed to control directions.

In the position of maximum likelihood direction of arrival of the reflected signal (15) statisticswill have a minimum

In order to form priporogovoi statistics decision rule similar to (6), in the case of WMD direction of arrival of the reflected signal (15), does not necessarily apply to the calculation ofthrough sampling observations. Instead, again, you can use interpolation ratios. This approach leads to the following relation for priporogovoi statistics:

conditional logarithms relations likelihood formed in the assumption that the reflected signal comes from the k-th control direction.

In accordance with (19) is asymptotically optimal, in the sense of the criterion of Neyman-Pearson detection rule reflected signal has the following form:

where P is a threshold decision on the presence of a signal calculated from the acceptable level of false alarms.

Relations (15), (16) and (18)-(20) define the structure of the block is s assessment of the direction of arrival and the detector of the reflected ultra-wideband signal in the sought joint algorithm.
Figure 7 presents a block diagram of the detection system and determine the direction to the goal (see figure 4) for the case when this direction is not known in advance. In this block diagram, the triangles denote the first M-th antenna elements, the chain of rectangles represent delay lines of the first through L-th delay elements, and circles marked weight elements, in weighteach of which i refers to the number of antenna elements (i=1,..., M), j refers to the branch from the output of the respective delay elements (j=0, 1,..., L), connected to the input of a given weight of the element and the index k is a selected number of the reference direction (k=0, ±1, ±2,..., ±k_{0}). Other blocks have the same notation and perform the same functions as in figure 4. Shown in Fig.7. block diagram provides the detection of a target with one of the selected reference directions. For allreference directions this flowchart should be repeated n times to get as least n layers is depicted in Fig.7. a matrix.

In this second variant of the method according to the present invention performs the following operations other than operations closest counterpart:

form an estimate of the received pulse at a particular point in time for each reference direction of the pre-selected final m is Oresta reference directions in the angular sector control, moreover, this estimate of the magnitude of the received pulse is formed by summing the signals at the many outlets that meet the selected specific point in time, line 6 delays in each of the channels 1 observation;

find evaluation forms received pulse generated estimates of the magnitude of the received pulse to specific points in time;

use the evaluation forms received pulse as a reference signal in a multi-channel correlation processing;

many of the results of the multi-channel correlation processing selects the correlation maximum, which is used as priporogovoi crucial statistics in the detection target;

estimate the direction of arrival of reflected pulses in a predetermined angular sector control using interpolation estimates the position of the correlation maximum in the vicinity of in reference to the direction of the selected set of reference directions for which to obtain the greatest result multichannel correlation processing.

Shown in Fig.7. example control reference areas by weighting processing is common to the second variant of this method of locating the target. To simplify this flowchart, you can use different interpolation methods, e.g. the measures methods for recovery of signals at intermediate points in time using the quadratic formula or by using a system of impulse functions, proportional to the expressionused in theorem samples Nyquist-Nyquist. The simplest is a linear interpolation. It applies to a large class of interpolation estimates based on a limited number of control points associated with the desired intermediate (interpolated) position. The basis of such methods is the property, namely, that when a "stock" on the sample rate (for example, linear interpolation of the "stock" means the excess of the boundary values of the Nyquist-Nyquist in 2-2,5 times) with a high degree of accuracy to reconstruct the waveform with linear combinations. In this case, there is no need to consider all the signals present at the taps of the delay lines 6 to restore state in the intermediate position, it is sufficient to use only reference points that coincide with the boundaries of the time interval, which is an intermediate point. On Fig shows a block diagram in Fig.7. for the case of linear interpolation of the signal in the intermediate positions for a given reference direction. While the number of weighing operations, equal in the General case M(L+1), will be reduced to 2M. When such a linear interpolation to find the weights of the linear combinations of the signals at the outputs of the delay elements 7 different is the analy 1 observations and use these found weight linear combinations of signals for forming the conditional estimates of the shape of the received pulses at a given set of discrete time positions consistent with one of the selected set of reference directions.

In contrast to the known methods synthesized above the joint algorithm is designed to work in conditions where the shape of the received signal and the direction of its arrival is unknown.

In this algorithm, the specialist may be the appropriate program for computer processing. These programs into machine-readable data carriers, i.e. being converted in software, when executed on the computer will be to ensure the implementation of appropriate method of locating targets by processing the reflected pulses as described above.

Industrial applicability

The present invention can be used in radar, optical, ultrasonic, and any other location that uses the sensing space of ultra-wideband pulses. In particular, the present invention may find application in the detection of various purposes, such as air or space, as well as in seismography, tomography, when probing the earth's interior, the depths of the sea and atmosphere.

Examples of realization of the method according to the present invention are only illustrative and do not limit the scope of patent claims, which is defined only by the attached claims, taking into account all the prob is the author of equivalents.

1. The way locations goal that emit ultra-wideband pulses with a grid of antenna elements; receiving echo pulses in a predetermined angular sector of the control delay of the signal passed by each antenna element of the mentioned grid antenna elements, using series-connected delay elements in each of the multiple channels used for the observations; follow the procedure of the detection of a target by using a multi-channel correlation processing of signals at the outputs of the above elements of the delay mentioned in various channels of observation; characterized in that with said multichannel correlation processing of signals perform an assessment of the shape of the received pulse at the set of discrete time positions by averaging over the communication channels mentioned observations for signals on subsets of those outputs of these delay elements, which are mentioned in different channels of the observations correspond to the same discrete time position at a known direction of arrival of reflected pulses in said predetermined angular sector control; use the evaluation forms received pulse as a reference signal in the above-mentioned multi-channel correlation processing.

2. The method of target location, make the different in that emit ultra-wideband pulses with a grid of antenna elements; receiving echo pulses in a predetermined angular sector of the control delay of the signal passed by each antenna element of the mentioned grid antenna elements, using series-connected delay elements in each of the multiple channels used for the observations; follow the procedure of the detection of a target by using a multi-channel correlation processing of signals at the outputs of the above elements of the delay mentioned in different channels surveillance, characterized in that with said multichannel correlation processing of signals form the estimate of the received pulse at a particular point in time for each reference direction of the pre-selected finite set of reference directions in the angular sector control, moreover, the estimation value of the received pulse is formed by averaging over the channel observation signal samples on subsets of the outputs of the above elements of the delay that for a given reference direction mentioned in different channels of the observations correspond to the same discrete positions; find the evaluation forms received pulse generated estimates of the magnitude of the received signal for different discrete IOM is now time; use the evaluation forms received pulse as a reference signal in the above-mentioned multi-channel correlation processing; many of the results mentioned multichannel correlation processing selects the correlation maximum, which is used as priporogovoi crucial statistics in the above-mentioned procedure, the detection of a target; estimate the direction of arrival of reflected pulses in said predetermined angular sector control using interpolation estimates the provisions of the correlation maximum in the vicinity of in reference directions of the said selected set of reference directions for which to obtain the greatest result of the mentioned multi-channel correlation processing.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the formation of many signal samples in each of the mentioned channel monitoring is performed using linear interpolation due to the fact that they are finding the weights of the linear combinations of the signals at the outputs of the above elements of the delay mentioned in various channels of observation and use the resulting weights of the linear combinations of the signals for the formation of the conditional estimates of the shape of the received pulses at a given set of discrete time positions consistent with one of the above selected is noreste reference directions.

4. Software that is executed on a computer in the method of target location, which emit ultra-wideband pulses with a grid of antenna elements; receiving echo pulses in a predetermined angular sector of the control delay of the signal passed by each antenna element of the mentioned grid antenna elements, using series-connected delay elements in each of the multiple channels used for the observations; follow the procedure of the detection of a target by using a multi-channel correlation processing of signals at the outputs of the above elements of the delay mentioned in various channels of observation; in fact the software product capable of performing multi-mentioned correlation processing of signals, which carry out the evaluation forms received pulse the set of discrete time positions by averaging over the communication channels mentioned monitoring for signals on subsets of those outputs of these delay elements, which are mentioned in different channels of the observations correspond to the same discrete time position at a known direction of arrival of reflected pulses in said predetermined angular sector control; use the evaluation forms received pulse as a reference what about the signal in the above-mentioned multi-channel correlation processing.

5. Software that is executed on a computer in the method of target location, which emit ultra-wideband pulses with a grid of antenna elements; receiving echo pulses in a predetermined angular sector of the control delay of the signal passed by each antenna element of the mentioned grid antenna elements, using series-connected delay elements in each of the multiple channels used for the observations; follow the procedure of the detection of a target by using a multi-channel correlation processing of signals at the outputs of the above elements of the delay mentioned in various channels of observation; in fact the software product capable of performing multi-mentioned correlation processing of signals, which form the estimate of the received pulse in the time for each reference direction of the pre-selected finite set of reference directions in the angular sector control, and the evaluation values of the received pulse is formed by averaging over the channel observation signal samples on subsets of the outputs of the above elements of the delay that for a given reference direction mentioned in different channels of the observations correspond to the same discrete time n the positions; find evaluation forms received pulse generated estimates of the magnitude of the received signal for the different discrete points in time; use the evaluation forms received pulse as a reference signal in the above-mentioned multi-channel correlation processing; many of the results mentioned multichannel correlation processing selects the correlation maximum, which is used as priporogovoi crucial statistics in the above-mentioned procedure, the detection of a target; estimate the direction of arrival of reflected pulses in said predetermined angular sector control using interpolation estimates the provisions of the correlation maximum in the vicinity of in reference directions of the said selected set of reference directions for which to obtain the greatest result of the mentioned multi-channel correlation processing.

6. Software product according to claim 5, characterized in that the formation of many signal samples in each of the mentioned channel monitoring is performed using linear interpolation due to the fact that they are finding the weights of the linear combinations of the signals at the outputs of the above elements of the delay mentioned in various channels of observation and use the resulting weights of the linear combinations of signals for f is Mirovaya conditional estimates of the shape of the received pulses at a given set of discrete time positions consistent with one of the above selected set of reference directions.

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13 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable in devices of subsurface radar reconnaissance.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that signal A(t) is formed, which represents a periodic train of superwide-band pulses, the transmitting antenna is excited by signal A(t), linearly polarized signal A(t) is radiated by the transmitting antenna, reflected signal B(t) is received by the receiving antenna and a decision is taken on detection of a non-linear scatterer at the preset depth as a result of control of the received signal, the transmitting antenna is additionally is excited by signal A(T-τ), formed from signal A(t) by delaying the latter for time τ, signal A(t-τ) is radiated with linear polarization opposite the polarization of signal A(t), received signal B(t) is delayed by time τ, received signal B(t) is summed up with delayed copy B(t-τ), and summary signal B(t)+B(t-τ) is used as a controlled signal.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of detection and identification of non-linear scatterers, with the possibility of determination of the depth of its occurrence remaining unchanged.

4 dwg

FIELD: determination of position of boundary of treatment of edge of agricultural crops.

SUBSTANCE: signal of proposed locator is transmitted as adjustable magnitude to electrically controlled steering gear of agricultural machine; first locator consists of transmitter and receiver and its zone of reflection lies mainly in uncultivated harvest field; second locator has second transmitter and second receiver and its zones of reflection are directed to edge of treatment on both sides at overlap. Reflection zones are partially overlapped; both transmitters are controlled simultaneously in pulse mode and both receivers receive signals from both transmitters which are reflected from uncultivated field.

EFFECT: smooth control of motion at varying characteristics of reflection of uncultivated field.

14 cl, 4 dwg

**FIELD: radar engineering; systems for searching and tracking airborne targets.**

**SUBSTANCE: proposed device has rotary directivity pattern receiver, azimuth sensor, amplitude-to-code converter unit, and secondary processing unit; output of rotary directivity pattern receiver is connected to input of amplitude-to-code converter unit and group of azimuth sensor outputs is connected to group of secondary processing unit inputs. Newly introduced in device are parallel delay line unit, subtracter, coder, and adder; group of amplitude-to-code converter unit outputs is connected to second group of subtracter inputs and through parallel delay line unit, to first group of subtracter inputs; subtracter also has group of outputs connected through coder to first group of adder inputs; second group of adder inputs and group of outputs are respectively connected to group of azimuth sensor outputs and to second group of secondary processing unit inputs.**

**EFFECT: enhanced precision of finding target direction.**

**1 cl, 2 dwg**