Multilayer wall stone and method for manufacturing the same
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.
5 cl, 6 dwg
The invention relates to the construction, namely, the building materials industry, in particular to a multilayer wall stones used in the construction of civil and industrial buildings, such as houses, cottages and other buildings.
Known technical solution copyright certificate №983219, class E 04 1/00, 1979, "a Method of making wall blocks", in which production units produce group method, perform pre-monolithic wall of aerated concrete, and then cut it into large separate building blocks. However, the proposed method is time consuming, as is the operation of cutting the monolithic walls into separate blocks, which requires additional equipment.
Known technical solution according to the patent No. 2166037 "Building element and tooling for its manufacture", class E 04 1/40, 2000, which describes the construction element and method of manufacture, which consists in the fact that in the manufacture of multilayer construction element pre-made one of the layers, using a cuvette with vibration solution, completing this cell, give the necessary exposure that layer, and then using it as formwork, put on his metal shell, insert it either punches or liners shall fill the whole form solution, subjected to vibrations, set for natural drying to full readiness of the construction element. However, the described technology and technological equipment is very complex, time-consuming, inefficient, so as to produce consistently only one construction element.
Known technical solutions in the construction of buildings and structures use non-removable formwork, representing, for example, of hollow construction element made of concrete, see patent No. 2074296, class E 04 1/00,1993, voids which in the construction of walls are either filled with heavy concrete or insulating material, or structural concrete. In the technical solution according to the patent No. 2158338, class E 04 2/26,1999 also used a permanent formwork, but only made out of fabric-reinforced, multi-layer plaster, and an internal cavity filled with filler coated with glue, after which the whole multilayer dry element, one side of the line and finish. However, this technology is also very difficult, time consuming and costly as material and frame elements.
Known technical solution according to the patent No. 2199637, class E 04 2/06, 2001, "Method of manufacturing slabs of permanent formwork and slab permanent form", which is in the form of post-rod valve,is placed a layer of hard concrete mix, set fibromastopathy, stack the top layer of concrete mixtures by vibroplate produce a casing, heat treatment, cutting the ends of the valve and removing the plate from the tray. Thus obtained permanent formwork is used to place on the site where it is applied concrete mixes, which are void and are concatenated with the shuttering plate. However, this method of manufacture of building elements is time-consuming and not suitable for the manufacture of various building blocks and wall stones.
The technical task of the present invention is to provide such a wall of concrete layered stone and method of its production, where possible joint use of different raw building materials, with obtaining protective surface layer in the monolithic product, as well as reducing the complexity forming operations and raw materials for its production, increasing productivity and lowering the cost of the unit and its manufacture.
The technical result that can be obtained by using the proposed technical solution is to simplify the technology of permanent formwork, the use of a continuous cycle of production of multilayer stone wall at low his sebastain the property.
This object is achieved in that the multilayer wall rock consists of several vertical layers, the outer of which is made of building sand, concrete, formed either by making or vibratory casting with the initial crystallization, and is used as permanent formwork for forming the next adjacent layer, made either of aerated concrete or concrete light-weight fillers. Multilayer wall stone is characterized by the fact that the outer layer is a permanent formwork can be made of concrete, light-weight filler, and the content of light fillers in it does not exceed the number of fillers in the subsequent adjacent to a fixed timbering subsequent layers. The task is part of the method is achieved by the fact that it involves the formation of a permanent formwork by installing a closed outer shape, the sides of which are made with vertical slots on the tray or other flat surface, and then placed symmetrically inside her like her inner box, the sides of which is provided with vertical slits corresponding to the slits form, fixed relative to each other in shape and insert vertical elements that are installed in the slots, fill the space between the insert and the form of construction is entrusted sandy concrete, manalicious it by pressing either the vibratory casting, then remove the form, insert and vertical elements, to form cells within the newly created permanent formwork placing the separation of the interconnected walls, the free ends of which are fixed in the slots of the parties to the retained formwork, obtained from the vertical elements, and then make the fill of a cell or cellular concrete, or concrete with light fillers in the form of polystyrene, expanded clay, sawdust, ash, aged, dried, remove the partition, get ready multilayer wall stone, sent to the stacking. This object is achieved in that the separating partitions perform with vertical slots, equal in height at least half height partitions and width not less than the thickness of the walls, and the height of periodoc equal to the height of the form. This object is achieved in that the outer form, insert and vertical elements can be made as a single unit, for example welded.
Figure 1 shows the form and the insert with a vertical locking elements, figure 2 - the process of filling of the cells formed in the fixed casing, figure 3 - embodiments of the cubicles, in Fig. 4 - ways multi-layered stone wall.
Multilayer Lenovo the stone produce way consisting in the following. Mounted on the pallet or on any flat surface such as the floor of the shop, the outer form 1, representing a closed geometric figure with vertical walls 2, the height of which is chosen equal to the height of the stone wall, and walls made 2 vertical slits 3, the distance between which is chosen equal to the length of the stone wall. In this form placed symmetrically similar to the form 1 inner box 4 with vertical walls 5, which is equal to the height of the walls 2 form 1 and which also made the slots 6 located opposite the slots 3. In slots 3, 6 are inserted into the connecting vertical locking elements 7, which perform two functions: record form 1 and box 4 relative to each other and simultaneously divide the internal space formed by the form and pasting it on a separate partition 8. To reduce the complexity of Assembly of the outer form 1, the inner insert 4 and vertical elements 7, they can be executed as a single unit, for example made of welded. Section 8 can either be D-shaped, or linear, or any other depending on the configuration of the form 1, (e.g., circle, polygon etc). Section 8 fill or sand, concrete, or other building with concrete filler, and then subjected to a flooded section vibro is escolania, but you can fill sections 8 vibratory casting, which leads to monolithic whole structure. After the initial crystallization of the concrete mix in sections 8 delete a form 1, box 4 and connecting the locking elements 7, receiving a fixed casing 9, which is used in the future as a layer of building stone and as formwork for obtaining multilayer stone wall. When making use of the form is removed after the primary crystallization of the concrete mix, and the application of vibratory casting form is removed after partial solidification of the concrete mix. The use of a single weldment outer forms 1, the inner insert 4 and vertical elements 7 to obtain permanent formwork significantly reduces the time of the preparatory work and increases the productivity of manufacturing multilayer stone wall. In the gaps between the sections 8, at the location of the elements 7, insert the metal walls 10,11 and fix their retainers 12, thereby forming the internal cell 13 inside the casing 9, in which either one or two sides are elements of permanent formwork made of concrete. Deleted form 1, the insert 4 and the elements 7 is again used, which ensures the continuity of the process without unnecessary stops. Metal partitions are made either of prodol who scored 10, or transversal 11, wherein the longitudinal partition 10 in length equal to the length of the form 1, and transverse 11 equal to the width of the form 1. In the longitudinal walls 10 made of vertical slots 14, the distance between which corresponds to the slits 3 in the walls of the mold 1, and the transverse partitions 11 are also made of vertical slots 15, and if the slot 14 is made from the bottom to a height of not less than half the height of the walls, the slits 15 are made from above to a height of not less than half the height of a partition, and width of all slots equal to not less than the thickness of the walls, see figure 3, 4. After installation of partitions 10, 11 formed cell 13 is filled or foamed concrete, or concrete with light fillers, such as polystyrene, expanded clay, sawdust, ash. After the executed works flooded cell 13 can withstand, dried, remove the partition 10,11, get ready multilayer wall stone, which is sent to the stack.
Received stone wall 16 is a double-layered product, one layer of which 9 are made of solid concrete mixture, is used as a permanent formwork, as well as the layer 9 is used only for initial crystallization of concrete, while its further use as formwork, i.e. the interaction with subsequent poured concrete forming PEFC is blowing layer 17, is durable adhesion of one layer to another, which ensures a good, reliable connection educated. In the manufacture of stone can be used not only 4-wire form, as shown in figure 1, and with a large number of cells 13, thus should be used in the partition 10, as shown in figure 4, with multiple slits 14. In this case, get a stone wall 16 not only with an angular casing, see figure 5, a and stone wall 18, see Fig.6, where the retained formwork is only on one side of the stone. In the manufacture of permanent formwork may use the same type of concrete mixtures used for the subsequent adjacent layers on both quantitative composition of light fillers, and density. However, the number of light fillers in a fixed timbering should not exceed the number of light fillers in subsequent adjacent layers. When using cellular concrete density of permanent formwork must not be lower than the density of the next adjacent layers. Such usage is also greatly simplifies the manufacture of the multilayer wall of stone. The use of metal molds 1 and metal partitions 10, 11 provides a flat, smooth side surfaces of the stone, and the use of pressing or vibratory casting excl which includes the possibility of voids and sink inside the stone that also greatly increases the strength properties of the stone, and also allows you to reduce the cost of the stone through the use of permanent formwork, which is one of the layers of building stone.
1. Method of manufacturing multilayer stone wall, including the formation of permanent formwork by installing a closed outer shape, the sides of which are made with vertical slots on the tray or other flat surface, and then placed symmetrically inside her like her inner box, the sides of which is provided with vertical slits corresponding to the slits form, fixed relative to each other in shape and insert vertical elements that are installed in the slots, fill the space between the form and the insert construction sand concrete, manalicious it by pressing either the vibratory casting, then remove the form, insert and vertical elements, to form cells within the newly created permanent formwork by bookmarks the separation of the interconnected walls, the free ends of which are fixed in the slots of the parties to the retained formwork, obtained from the vertical elements, and then make the fill of a cell or cellular concrete, or concrete with light fillers in the form of polystyrene, expanded clay, sawdust, ash, aged, dried, delete partition the active partition and get ready multilayer wall stone sent to stacking.
2. The method according to claim 1 characterized by the fact that the partition is performed with vertical slots equal to the height of not less than half the height of the partitions and the width not less than the thickness of the walls and the height of the partitions is equal to the height of the form.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer form, insert and vertical elements can be made as a single unit, for example welded.
4. Multilayer wall stone, consisting of several vertical layers and performed by the method according to any one of claims 1 to 3.
5. Multilayer wall stone according to claim 4 characterized by the fact that the outer layer of permanent formwork can be made of light-weight concretes, the content of light-weight aggregates in it does not exceed the number of placeholders in the subsequent adjacent to a fixed timbering subsequent layers.
SUBSTANCE: method comprise preparing cellular concrete mixture, filling the mixture, staying the mixture for a time period, dismounting the formwork, cutting, and autoclave treating. The cutting is carried out in two stages. In the first stage, when the mixture reaches plastic strength, A1, the "crust" is cut out. In the second stage, upon the strength reaches the plastic strength A2, the article is cut into blocks of given sizes The ratio of the strength values should be A1/A2 = 3.2-4.1. The cut concrete part is used for preparing cellular concrete mixture. The mixture for cellular concrete comprises cement, sand, water, aluminum powder, and lime. The water mass required for preparing the mixture is determined form the formula proposed.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions.
FIELD: producing shaped articles.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises filling the casting mould with ceramic slip based on thermoplastic binder or water. Before filling the slip, the casting mould is provided with the reinforce preliminary coated with a shell made of a fiber material. The shell is burnt out during the thermal treatment of the blank.
EFFECT: simplified method.
FIELD: production of building materials, in particular, equipment for molding of brick, building stones, tiles.
SUBSTANCE: the device for delivery of free-flowing raw material to the mould has an accumulator, installed under whose unloading hole is a loading carriage for horizontal reciprocating motion on the fixed bottom, the carriage is provided with a gate for the accumulator unloading hole made in the form of a horizontal table rigidly secured at the level of the top of the loading carriage on its wall, transverse with respect to the direction of motion of the loading carriage and remote with respect to the mould. The accumulator wall that is transverse with respect to the direction of motion of the loading carriage and remote with respect to the mould is made with a window, whose bottom is positioned at the level of the accumulator bottom, and the main driven door is fastened above the window, it is installed for closing the window. The device accumulator may be provided with an additional driven door hinge fastened above the window for turning in the vertical plane inside the accumulator, and closing the door.
EFFECT: optimized design of the device.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: construction and is designed for consolidation of constructions of stiff concrete.
SUBSTANCE: the device is applicable for intensification of the process of consolidation of stiff concrete (stiffness within 30 to 50s) with employment of an inventory molding device. The vibroimpulsive device for molding of monolithic constructions of stiff concrete has a movable plate with an exciter of vibrations, baseplate with hole-forming cores with core vibroleads located inside them. The movable plate is spring-loaded and freely moves on the guide cores with springs. The vibration frequency of the movable plate is adjusted by changing the speed of rotation of the vibroexciter with the aid of a rheostat. The baseplate plate is fixed on detachable forms with the aid of guide cores with locks. A plate engageable with the massive bottom of the hole-forming cores is positioned in the foundation of the core vibrolead.
EFFECT: mechanized process of concrete stiffening and reduced labor content of falsework operations at concreting of monolithic constructions.
FIELD: manufacture of products of precast concrete and reinforced concrete of constructions mixes.
SUBSTANCE: the table vibrator consists of a movable frame of an axial beam and right-hand and left-hand longitudinal beams connected to it by cross-pieces. The axial beam rests on a foundation by means of central hinged flexible supports. Exciters of circular vibrations are installed on the vertical inner surfaces of the right-hand and left-hand beams. The right-hand and left-hand beams rest on the foundation by means of the main and additional side flexible supports. The main side flexible supports consist of rigid anvils adjusted in height and fastened on the lower surfaces of the right-hand and left-hand beams and periodically engageable with them flexible limiters installed on the foundation. The additional side supports are positioned at equal distances from the axis of the movable frame.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and durability of the table vibrator.
FIELD: manufacture of large-size cement-fiber plates used for facing buildings and making roof covering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of mixing cement, sand, micro-filler, reinforcing synthetic fibers, plasticizing additive and water; shaping and drying; using wollastonite as micro-filler. At first in turbulence mixer dry loose components such as cement, sand, wollastonite are mixed. Then reinforcing synthetic fibers are added and composition is mixed. Plasticizing additive and water are added at next relation of ingredients, mass.%: cement, 68 -81; sand, 9.5 -13.5; wollastonite, 9.25 - 12.50; synthetic reinforcing fibers, 0.16 -0.55; plasticizing additive, 0.38 -0.43; water, the balance. Articles are dried in air in natural condition. Polypropylene fibers are used as synthetic reinforcing fibers. Mixing of cement, sand and wollastonite in turbulence type mixer is realized during time period no more than 30 s at using water heated up to temperature no lower than 40°C. Size particle of wollastonite is in range 100 -170 micrometers.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of plates.
5 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: building industry branches, namely apparatuses for heat treatment of constructions of reinforced concrete erected in building site with use of automatic control of heat treatment processes.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes concrete form having electric heating units mounted in its boards for convection-irradiation heating of concrete mixture and heating members mounted in bottom of concrete form for convection-irradiation heating; temperature pickups having individual control circuits and connected to inlets of heat regulators. Outlets of heat regulators are connected through switching units having magnetic starters with respective electric heating units. Each control circuit includes at least six temperature pickups placed in monolithic construction and pickup for measuring temperature of environmental air. Said pickups are connected with inlets of respective programmed heat regulator for supplying control signals.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of constructions.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction industry; devices for a small-serial production of a building decor made out of gypsum.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a device for a small-serial production of a constructional decor out of gypsum and is dealt with construction industry. The technical result is a contact-free molding of the decorative items out of gypsum. The device contains a pneumatic cell with a molding surface made in the form of two perforated plates, between which the space is filled with spherical grains of an elastic material, and a tool to control consumption of gas at an outlet of the pneumatic cell. The upper plate forming a pneumatic cell is in addition made profiled, equipped with injectors for application on a surface of a molded item of a coloring substance and is fixed in the body. The lower plate is capable to move in respect to the upper plate in a vertical plane. The pneumatic cell is supplied with a valve for removal of condensate. The body is supplied with a loading pocket for preparation of a mortar and is equipped with rabbles of anchor type, a metering device, connecting pipes for feeding of hot and cool water. The body is rigidly fixed on a frame, inside which there is a chain gear.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a contact-free molding of the decorative items out of gypsum.
FIELD: construction industry; production lines of three-layer panels.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with construction, in particular, with the lines of production of three-layer panels. The technical result is improvement of quality of the heat-resistant panels. The line of production of the heat-resistant panels has a located on a deep profiling unit tool of formation of the outside heat resistance and an adhesive strength of the sidings made in the form of the small-profiled rollers mounted - above and beneath the shafts. The upper rollers are displaced in respect to the lower rollers in the vertical and horizontal planes and are made of hinging back type and supplied with a handle hinging back.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved quality of the heat-resistant panels.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: construction industry; production lines of three-layered panels.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with construction industry, in particular, with the lines of production of three-layered panels. The line has a device located in front of a stacking filler unit and used for formation of the connecting lock of the filler. The device is made in the form of a mounted on the transversal cross bar longwise - mobile and spring-loaded pushers of lamellas of the filler. Pushers have different sizes in length and are mounted interleaving among themselves. A unit of sawing of the panel is supplied with a tool of damping vibration of clearing of the vibration of the panel ends, which is mounted in front of the drive of the unit of sawing of the panel and is made in the form of an additional shaft with carrying rollers. The technical result is increased quality of the panels joint.
EFFECT: the invention insures increased quality of the panels joint.
14 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in preparation of fine grained concrete mix with the use of quartz aggregate with the size of the grains not exceeding 10 mm, with the gradation factor (M) being within 1.75 to 3.0 and the content of the clay and powdered particles not exceeding 3 percent by mass. Filling of the mould with the concrete mix, striking, and cure in the temperature-moist conditions providing for solidification of the concrete mix. The mould is filled with the concrete mix by laminar ramming of the concrete mix laid in the mould by layers not thicker than 200 mm. The water-cement ratio - W/C is selected depending on the gradation factor of the quartz aggregate in accordance with dependence W/C=(0.9-1.1)(0.72-0.2M), and at an action by the ramming means on the layer of the concrete mix being rammed a pressure within 1.8 to 2.9 kM/cM2 is provided.
EFFECT: manufactured concrete products with a surface resistant to abrasion.