Hollow part pressing out method

FIELD: plastic working of meals, possibly manufacture of hollow parts such as sleeves, tubes, bushes by cold pressing out.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of plastic deforming of blank at translation and rotation of deforming tool; realizing said motions of tool from separate drive units; setting speed of translation less than that of rotation and selecting relation of said speed values less than 2.5.

EFFECT: enhanced manufacturing possibilities of method.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used for the manufacture of hollow billets type sleeves, tubes or cups, as well as details of the H-shaped section by cold extrusion method.

There is a process of cold extrusion (Reference: Forging and stamping./Edited Gasparikova. M: Engineering. Vol.3, 1987, table 1, p.9), in which the tool performs only the translational motion. It is known that with this method of extrusion, you need to create high specific strength, the value of which is four or more voltages fluidity of a deformable material. For cold backward extrusion of the value of the contact stress reaches 2,000 to 2,500 MPa (Reference: Forging and stamping./Edited Gasparikova. M: engineering Vol.3., 1987, s), which is one of the reasons that hinder the use of cold extrusion for medium-carbon steels because of the low durability of the tool, in particular of punches, this limits the range and dimensions of the extruding products. When this occurs, the uneven distribution of deformation, and hence the mechanical properties section of the object.

As the prototype accepted method of extruding hollow parts is carried out on the stamp (ed. mon. The USSR №1509166, B 21 J 13/02, 1989). Stamp for Vidalia the Oia consists of a matrix, cage installed in the matrix for rotation about its axis by a bearing fixed bearing ring, the upper tool is equipped with a drive rotational movement of the lower tool.

After loading, the stamp of the upper tool begins to move downward with a constant speed, so that the metal begins to plastically deform. At the contact of a deformable metal clip she begins to perform a rotational movement around the axis of the punch in the direction of movement of the upper tool, which reduces technological power and reduces the unevenness of deformation of the metal. The reduction of the axial force occurs due to the execution of a depression on the frontal surface of the rotating upper tool, which contribute to the destruction of the hardened contact metal layer, and also by reducing friction between the workpiece and the wall of the cage.

In the as. shown that technological power and the uneven deformation of the metal is achieved by the independent rotation of the cage relative to the matrix, which is made from longitudinal and rotational movement of the punch.

The known method, adopted as a prototype, has the following disadvantages:

in the author's evidence not disclosed the ratio of translational and rotational skorsteyperedach tool and is not given the obtained characteristics and the strength of the deformation.

Experience shows that the possibilities of this method is limited because of the impossibility of regulating the speed ratio.

Therefore, the task of improving the known method in terms of expanding its technological capabilities.

The technical result - the reduction of the force of deformation, and hence improve the stability of the deforming tool due to the possibility of regulating the speed ratio of translational and rotational motion of the deforming tool that is necessary for different item details on their size and material.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method of extruding hollow parts, including plastic deformation of metal at the translational motion of the deforming tool, one tool performs independent rotational movement. Translational and rotational motion carried by independent drives, the speed ratio of the translational and rotational movements of the tool (setting i=ν/n, where ν - speed translational motion, mm/sec; n is the speed of the rotational motion, 1/s) are less than 2.5.

Because the movement points of a deformable body in surface contact with the tool per unit time from the translational motion deformylase what about the tool less movement from rotational motion (for example, for sample ⊘32×10 mm at ν=5 mm/min and n=2 1/min, moving from translational motion for 1 min will be 5 mm, and the rotational -where r0and h0- the initial radius and height of the sample, r and h be the radius and height of the specimen during deformation), thus, the velocity of the translational motion is less than the speed of the rotational motion.

Figure 1 shows a circuit example of executing a drive with independent velocities of translational and rotational movements of one of the deforming tools (in this case the matrix).

Figure 2 shows a diagram of the method in the experiment. The unit consists of an electric motor 1 with reverse, belt transmission 2, the variator 3, a clutch 4, a worm shaft 5, the worm wheel 6 with a pre-installed matrix (figure 1 not shown), bearing 7. The variator 3 is equipped with a speed controller 8. The unit is mounted on the hydraulic press. Longitudinal displacement of the matrix is carried out by moving the head plate 9 of the hydraulic press by 10 columns.

The method is realized in the following way. Before feeding a workpiece on the inner and outer part of the cage, and on the end face of the punch and the ejector is applied technological grease. The workpiece is placed in the matrix. During extrusion of the matrix rotates and moves in the axial direction the AI towards the punch. After completion of the extrusion process, the matrix goes down, while the ejector removes the finished part from the die. Translational and rotational motion of the tool starts immediately after switching on and off at the end of the extrusion process.

The effect of combined loading during extrusion of hollow parts with independent velocities of translational and rotational motions of the deforming tool was set as follows.

Curves "power - stroke" (figure 2) were recorded during extrusion glasses schema S (backward extrusion) and COVE (combined backward extrusion) as continuous loading (let us call them "S", OECS - const"), and when changing modes (S→ING S→...) on the same sample (cyclic test).

Cyclic testing eliminates the influence on the force of deformation, possible differences in the initial mechanical properties, hardening, various at S and S (as in fast turn on/off the rotation of the tool temperature and the metal structure does not have time to change), as well as the influence of external factors (eccentricity, coefficient of friction etc).

On the indicator diagram R-N (2) circular test clearly reveals the difference between the power P in modes S and ERS. Note that by the extrusion was changed in that moment, when the curve R-N corresponded to the stable period of the extrusion. After the beginning of the rotation (S→S) tool marks the transition period - the reduction of the load and the period of its growth with the stop of rotation (COVE→S). The decrease in the load, or the dimensionless parameter η=PS/PCOVEfirst increases with decreasing h (cf. loops I and IV, and then, with a small value of h begins to decrease (cycle V).

Examples of the method

Example 1. During extrusion parts like "glass" outer diameter D=32 mm, inner diameter d=27 mm, height H=35 mm, a bottom thickness h=0.5 mm lead sample ⊘32,5×11.5 mm with a speed ratio of translational and rotational movements of the tool i=2,16, the force of deformation compared to extrusion without rotation of the tool below 1.6 times (η=PS/PCOVE=1,6).

Example 2. During extrusion of the glass of the following dimensions: D=25 mm, d=15 mm, H=18 mm, bottom thickness h=0.5 mm of copper sample ⊘23,5×10 mm at i=1,08-η=1,4.

Example 3. During extrusion of the glass of the following dimensions: D=32 mm, d=27 mm, H=22 mm and a thickness of the bottom h=3.2 mm alloy AMC ⊘32×10 mm at i=1,45-η=2,1.

Therefore, when dispensed in this way with the best combination of speed ν and n decreases the required power of deformation and uneven distributed the I strain in the wall of the part. As a consequence, the decrease of the specific load on the working parts of the die and, hence, increases its resistance. This projected expansion of technological capabilities of the extrusion process, i.e. the possibility to produce parts from medium-carbon steels or to increase the size of the products obtained. The proposed method is recommended to obtain a hollow products with a thin bottom and from end to end of cylindrical billets.

When the speed ratio, equal to 2.5, the axial force of deformation increased, the uniformity of the deformation volume of the glass is increased. The lower values of the ratio was determined by the hardware capabilities.

1. Method of extruding hollow parts, including plastic deformation of the metal at the translational and rotational motion of the deforming tool, characterized in that the translational and rotational motion of the deforming tool carried by independent drives, the speed of translational motion to accept less than the speed of the rotational motion.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the speed ratio of the translational and rotational movements of the tool, taking less than 2.5.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: military equipment, applicable for manufacture of fragmentation ammunition to salvo-fire jet-propelled systems.

SUBSTANCE: the claimed method includes production of a shell by deformation and welding, arrangement of finished fragments and fastening to the ammunition body. The shell is molded of plates until a polyhedron is obtained, mainly of a trapezoidal shape with rounded off ribs, and after welding the polyhedron is deformed to a cylindrical shape by grooving, for example, in rolls with localization of deformations in three points, and a multiple, for example two-operation inner grooving, expansion with a decrease of deformation within 1 to 5 per cent, then the shell is placed in a mould, finished fragments are filled in and cast by thermoplastic material, for example, high-density polyethylene, and radial reduction in thickness is simultaneously performed over the entire outer surface, in separate symmetrical sections, for example, at least two, in the plastic area of deformation, and on the rest surface - in the flexible area, at a pressure of 60 to 80 kg/sq.cm during 44 to 46s.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of combat use of the ammunition by producing of an irregular stressed state in the shell of the set of finished fragments.

6 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of articles having cavity restricted by surfaces determined with use of second-order curves, for example outlet electrode (anode) of plasmotron.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of calibrating initial blank and marking out opening; upsetting blank for forming disc; deforming semi-finished product by extruding cavity in die during two stages; at first stage drawing metal into gap between die and punch and forming lower portion of article by forward extrusion process; at second stage calibrating cavity with use of counter-pressure and forming upper portion of article.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of articles.

4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely radial forging of housings of cylinders of plunger pumps, barrels of artillery guns, pipelines for chemical industry branches.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preliminarily applying onto inner surface of initial tubular blank technological lubricant and radial forging of blank for forming duct in it. Forging is realized on stationary short forging mandrel with cone working surface and simultaneously duct surface is ironed by means of additional mandrel with cylindrical calibration band for receiving final size, shape and roughness of its surface. Additional ironing mandrel is secured to forging mandrel at side of its cone surface. Liquid technological lubricant is positively fed through radial passages of forging die uniformly arranged along perimeter of cone surface and hydraulically communicated with lengthwise duct.

EFFECT: simplified process of making enhanced quality articles.

9 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of upsetting annular blank in die set by means of outer punch for making semi-finished product with flange; shaping semi-finished product by means of inner punch having cone portion and cylindrical surface for creating shear deformations in material of semi-finished product; forming sleeve after such shaping.

EFFECT: simplified technique of making flange with sleeve, enhanced efficiency, lowered metal consumption.

1 dwg

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used to produce hollow parts by forging

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used for the manufacture of parts with a tapered cavity backward extrusion

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used for stamping the extruded products of the type of glasses used, in particular, as preparations of membranes in the production of bimetallic products
The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in military equipment in the manufacture of cumulative facing combat units

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the production of high-strength cylinders and pipes from difficult mechanically alloyed heat resistant steels, working in conditions of high pressure and corrosive environments

FIELD: plastic working of metals with use of intensive plastic deformation, production of nano-crystalline materials with improved mechanical properties.

SUBSTANCE: die set includes band in which cone insert having several parts is pressed; lower support; inlet and outlet ducts; ram. According to first variant of invention contours of parts of cone insert are restricted by means of two mutually normal planes and cone surface portion cut by said planes. Crossing line of said planes does not coincide with symmetry axis of cone surface. Inlet duct is formed by faces of cone insert parts arranged normally one relative to other and mutually joined; walls of said duct are in the form of portions of said planes. According to second variant of invention contours of cone insert parts are restricted by radius surface, by two mutually crossing planes and portion of cone surface cut by said planes. Crossing planes are mutually normal or they are inclined one relative to other by angle 120°. Axis of radius surface coincides with crossing line of said planes. Faces of cone insert parts are mutually joined; inlet duct is formed by their radius surfaces and outlet duct is formed by radius grooves.

EFFECT: lowered number of parts, reduced consumption of material for making cone insert.

4 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly operations for finish working of forgings of double-end box nut wrenches.

SUBSTANCE: die set includes upper and lower plates with guiding columns, punch for punching operation mounted on upper plate, stripper, lower die for punching, half-open trimming lower die and trimming punch. Trimming lower die is mounted on upper plate; it has cutting edge and cavity arranged behind collar of cutting edge and designed for freely placing forging of nut wrench. Trimming punch is mounted on lower plate and it has embracing supporting surface for fixing forging at trimming and straightening operations.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of forging.

9 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: forging and forming processes and equipment, namely manufacture of elongated forgings with thickened portions and lateral branches.

SUBSTANCE: die set includes deforming punch, die with vertical parting, struts in the form of truncated pyramids having wedge-shaped slopes for mounting die; units for securing struts to supporting plate. Die is placed in struts with possibility of motion relative to them. Struts have double-sided mutually opposite slopes. Elastic member is placed under die. Maximum compression value of said elastic member by means of effort corresponding to effort of clamping die halves in struts is equal to value of descending die at forging process.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and rigidity of die set.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: metal working.

SUBSTANCE: hard alloy matrix has casing, bushing pressed in the case and hard alloy insertion. Bushing has multifaced hole. Hard alloy insertion is composed by several sections made in form of trapezoidal-section prisms which have cut angles at their non-working edges. Number of sections corresponds to number of faces of item to be headed. Cuts of angles are made symmetrically to faces of working edge. Slits are made in several places of multifaced hole bushing at the ponts where faces cross each other.

EFFECT: improved resistance of matrix; simplified assembly.

3 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the forging of ingots and billets on hydraulic forging presses and radial crimping machines

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the forging of ingots and billets on hydraulic forging presses and radial crimping machines

The invention relates to the field of forging machinery, particularly to dies for hot die forging of crankshafts

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the manufacture of polyhedral parts, such as nuts

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, and in particular to a tool for radial forging used in forging presses in chetyrehpostovyh forging devices and radially crimping machines

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used to obtain details of method of planting on forging machines and cold machines

FIELD: metal working.

SUBSTANCE: hard alloy matrix has casing, bushing pressed in the case and hard alloy insertion. Bushing has multifaced hole. Hard alloy insertion is composed by several sections made in form of trapezoidal-section prisms which have cut angles at their non-working edges. Number of sections corresponds to number of faces of item to be headed. Cuts of angles are made symmetrically to faces of working edge. Slits are made in several places of multifaced hole bushing at the ponts where faces cross each other.

EFFECT: improved resistance of matrix; simplified assembly.

3 cl, 1 dwg

Up!