Method of cleaning industrial gas emissions from hydrocarbons
FIELD: cleaning waste gases from hydrocarbons; oil refining industry, petrochemical industry and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes oxidation with atmospheric oxygen at elevated temperature in presence of catalyst performed at temperature of 270-280°C in presence of cement-containing catalyst at the following composition of components, mass-%: copper oxide (CuO), 30-50; zinc oxide (ZnO), 19-30; manganese oxide (Mn3O4), 0.5-16; the remainder being technical calcium aluminate.
EFFECT: high degree of cleaning waste gases from hydrocarbons.
The invention relates to a method for cleaning exhaust gases from hydrocarbons and may find application in the oil refining, petrochemical and other industries.
Known methods for deep oxidation of hydrocarbons with oxygen using a variety of catalysts prepared on the basis of the expensive precious metals Pt and Pd, and cheaper transition metals valence (I.E. Popov, the Catalysts for purification of gas emissions from industrial productions. - M.: Chemistry, 1991, 175 S.; Pletnev EV and other Catalytic oxidation of organic compounds in gaseous emissions from industrial productions. APAR. chem. technology. cleaning the airbag. environment. - Saratov, 1992, p.32-33).
Closest to the proposed method to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method of deep oxidation of hydrocarbons in the presence of the cement-containing catalyst based on oxides of transition metals si, Mn, Ni (U.S. Pat. No. 2163836, Russia from 19.04.1999).
The known method is implemented by the oxidation of hydrocarbons with oxygen of air at 280-300°C in presence of cement-containing catalyst based on oxides of transition metals si, Mn, Ni, with full oxidation (100% conversion) is achieved when the concentration of hydrocarbons ˜ 5000-8000 mg/m3and flow rate up to 4·103h-1; Velicina hydrocarbon concentration to 6000-8500 mg/m 3and the speed of flow of cleaned gases to 4.3·103h-1at lower process temperatures up to 270-280°To reduce the degree of conversion of the hydrocarbons to 97-98,5%.
The technical result of the present invention is to increase the degree of purification of exhaust gases from hydrocarbons.
This technical result is achieved by the proposed method for purification of exhaust gases from hydrocarbons, which consists in the oxidation of the latter with oxygen at a temperature of 270-280°C in presence of cement-containing catalyst, which is characterized by the following chemical composition, wt.%:
|the copper oxide (CuO)||30-50|
|zinc oxide (ZnO)||19-30|
|manganese oxide (PM3O4)||0,5-16|
|talum (high alumina technical cement THE 6-03-339-79)||rest|
The method is as follows.
Charged to the reactor the catalyst is heated it in a stream of air up to 250°C, after which air serves a mixture of hydrocarbons.
Model steam-air mixture (air and oxidizable component) with the concentration of hydrocarbons 840-8600 mg/m3passed through a static layer of si, Zn, Mn - cement catalyst (5 cm3 ). At the reactor exit gases are analyzed by gas chromatography using a chromatographic column with 5% SE-30 on inerton. Experience time is 120 hours.
Studies have shown that in a long time, the activity of the catalyst is not changed.
|№ p/p||Oxidizable hydrocarbon||The concentration of hydrocarbons in the vapor mixture, mg/m3||The temperature oxidation; °||The speed of the steam-air mixture, h-1||The degree of conversion of the hydrocarbon. %|
According to the proposed method, the degree of purification increases to 100% against 97-98,5 at a known method.
In addition, the proposed method is much cheaper catalyst than in the known (the first 1.5 times less than the cost of a second).
The way the eyes of the TCI exhaust gases from hydrocarbons by oxidation with air oxygen at elevated temperature in the presence of a catalyst, characterized in that the oxidation is carried out at a temperature of 270-280°C in presence of cement-containing catalyst, which is characterized by the following chemical composition, wt.%:
|the copper oxide (CuO)||30-50|
|zinc oxide (ZnO)||19-30|
|manganese oxide (Mn3O4)||0,5-16|
FIELD: chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to the field of chemical industry, in particular to production of a catalysts and processes of oxidation of ammonia in production of a weak nitric acid. The invention offers an ammonia conversion catalyst on the basis of the mixture of oxides of unitized structure and a method oxidation of ammonia in production of weak nitric acid. The catalyst represents a mixture of oxides of the over-all formula (AxByO3Z)k (MmOn)f, (NwPgvOv)r where: A - cation of Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Be, Ln or their mixtures; B - cations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, V, A1 or their mixtures; x=0-2, y=1-2, z=0.8-l.7; M - A1, Si, Zr, Cr, Ln, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Be or their mixtures; m=l-3, n=l-2; N - Ti, Al, Si, Zr, Ca, Mg, Ln, W, Mo or their mixtures, P - phosphorus, O - oxygen; w=0-2, g=0-2, v=l-3; k, f and r - mass %, at a ratio (k+f)/r=0-l, f/r=0-l, k/f = 0-100. The catalyst is intended for use in a composition of a two-stage catalytic system generated by different methods, also in a set with the trapping platinoid screens and-or inert nozzles. The technical result ensures activity, selectivity and stability of the catalyst to thermocycles at its use in two-stage catalytic system with a decreased loading of platinoid screens.
EFFECT: the invention ensures high activity, selectivity and stability of the catalyst to thermocycles at its use in two-stage catalytic system with a decreased loading of platinoid screens.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the fields of chemical industry, in particular to a method of conversion and an apparatus for conversion of at least one nitric oxide such as NO, NO2 or N2O, which covert an oxide in presence of the catalyst deposited on a metal grid-type structure. The grid-type structure preferably is filamentary and formed by metal or ceramic fibers. It has porosity making more than approximately 85 %. The grid is formed so, that makes channels - mainly crimps, includes generators of turbulence to create a difference of pressure across the grid to stimulate a medium stream running through the pores of the grid, which is not watched at absence of such difference of pressure. The invention offers preferable alternatives of realization of a structured nozzle and monolithic structures, each of which contains a catalyst for conversion of nitric oxide preferably in pores of the grid and-or deposited on the fibers. In one realization the crimped sheets made in the form of grids are placed in series with a ceramic solid monolithic structure. At that the medium containing at least one nitric oxide, which should be converted, is fed in the beginning on the crimped sheets, and then is fed in the monolithic structure for completion of conversion. In other alternative versions of realization the grid-type structure can have the different configurations including a honeycomb structure and may contain metal, metal and ceramics or ceramics, and may be filamentary. The invention ensures a heightened degree of nitric oxides conversion.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a heightened degree of conversion of nitric oxides.
15 cl, 9 ex, 19 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: petrochemical process catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: preparation of catalyst comprises applying palladium compound onto silica cloth and heat treatment. Palladium compound is applied by circulation of toluene or aqueous palladium acetate solution through fixed carrier bed until palladium content achieved 0.01 to 0.5%. Palladium is introduced into cloth in dozed mode at velocity preferably between 0.1 and 5.9 mg Pd/h per 1 g catalyst. Heat treatment includes drying at temperature not higher than 150oC under nitrogen or in air and calcination in air or nitrogen-hydrogen mixture flow at temperature not higher than 450oC. Original silica cloth can be modified with 0.6 to 6.5% alumina. Palladium is uniformly distributed in silica cloth and has particle size preferably no larger than 15 Å. Invention can be used in treatment of industrial gas emissions and automobile exhaust to remove hydrocarbons.
EFFECT: deepened oxidation of hydrocarbons.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: purification of the steam-gaseous medium discharged into the atmosphere from hydrocarbons.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to the field offluidics and intended for use in the systems of purification of the steam-gaseous medium discharged into the atmosphere from hydrocarbons formed during storage of petroleum and at filling up containers with oil products. The method includes pumping a liquid medium in the liquid-gaseous jet device, the steam-gaseous medium pumping out by the jet device from the container filled with petroleum and-or from a reservoir used foe storage of petroleum, the steam-gaseous medium squeezing in the liquid-gaseous jet device at the expense of power of the liquid medium, feeding of the mixture of steam-gaseous and fluid mediums formed in the liquid-gaseous jet device into a separator, separation in the separator of the mixture for a gas phase and a liquid medium with withdrawal from the separator of the gas phase and the liquid medium. A gas phase from the separator is fed into an absorption tower, into which in the capacity of an absorbent a hydrocarbon liquid is fed. In the absorption tower they carry out a process of absorption by the hydrocarbon liquid of hydrocarbon from the gaseous phase. Then the purified from hydrocarbons gaseous phase and the hydrocarbon liquid with dissolved in it hydrocarbons of the gaseous phase are separately withdrawn from the absorption tower. In the capacity of a hydrocarbon liquid they use gasoline or kerosene fractions of a crude distillation and before feeding the hydrocarbon liquid into the absorption tower is cooled to the temperature located in the range from minus 10°C to minus 50°C. At that the gaseous phase after its withdrawal from the absorption tower is fed into a membranous apparatus, where the rest gaseous hydrocarbons are separated from it. Then the depleted hydrocarbon gas and the enriched with hydrocarbon gas are separately withdrawn from the membranous apparatus. The invention ensures reduction of losses of the oil products and an increased efficiency of purification from hydrocarbons of the steam-gaseous medium formed during storage of oil products and at filling containers with them.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of losses of the oil products, increased efficiency of purification.
8 cl, 2 dwg