Complex method and device for cleaning and utilization of flue gases

FIELD: heat-power engineering; cleaning flue gases from toxic admixtures.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes cooling of flue gases to temperature below dew point, condensation of water vapor, mixing of cooled flue gases with ozone-and-air mixture, oxidation and absorption of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides by condensate thus obtained and discharge of cleaned flue gases and condensate from zone of treatment. Flue gases and acid condensate are cleaned from carbon dioxide in perforated units of cassettes coated with layer of slaked lime [Ca(OH02] for forming calcium nitrite [Ca(NO3)], calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)]. Device proposed for realization of this method includes zone of treatment in form of box with heat-exchange and absorption-and-heat exchange sections located in this box in way of motion of flue gases. These sections are provided with air and flue gas inlet and outlet branch pipes where heat exchangers-air preheaters of 1st and 2nd stages, horizontal and vertical perforated cassettes units made from rough corrosion-resistant material coated with layer of slaked lime [Ca(OH2)], mixing chamber with perforated distributing tube and air duct with ozonizer are located.

EFFECT: enhanced ecological and economical efficiency and reliability.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a power system and can be used in the purification of flue gases of thermal power plants from harmful impurities.

There is a method to remove impurities (oxides of nitrogen and sulphur oxides from flue gases, carried out in a device representing a portion of the flue (treatment area) hosting the heat exchanger and absorber sections, representing a tubular heat exchanger, and which consists in the fact that the flue gases are cooled to the dew point temperature with the condensation of water vapor in a tubular heat exchanger is mixed with the gas containing ammonia to neutralize the acid components and assign the resulting condensate and the cleaned flue gases [1].

The disadvantages of this method and device are low ecological, technical and economic efficiency of the process flue gases from harmful impurities caused by the use of ammonia to neutralize the acidic constituents in the treatment zone, unreacted part of which is discharged into the atmosphere, placement of equipment in the flue of the boiler, the lack of equipment to prevent entrainment of droplets of condensate and utilization of trapped impurities.

The closest to the technical essence of the present invention is a method for the cleaning of flue gases from harmful impurities (oxides of nitrogen and sulphur oxides (NO xand SOx)), includes cooling the flue gases to a temperature below the dew point, condensation of water vapor in a tubular heat exchanger, the saturation of the condensate recirculation of ozone and oxygen and rise in lifting the pipe airlift mixing with ozonopause mixture distribution of saturated condensate in the absorption section, the oxidation and absorption of oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur in the flue gases, saturated condensation with the formation of acidic condensate flowing into the sump, after which the cleaned flue gases are vented to atmosphere, the removal of the acidic condensate from the sump to anonimowy filter for removal of acidic components, which take in the process of regeneration unionicola filter in the form of a salt solution.

A device that implements this method contains a treatment area in the duct (the duct) placed in her heat exchange section, made in the form of a vertical tubular heat exchanger, absorber section, made in the form of a vertical tubular heat exchanger with a tray, and placed them in coaxial lifting pipe airlift separation section, made in the form of a vertical tubular heat exchanger, and the bottom of the pan pipe connected to Uniontown filter. [2].

the main disadvantages of this method lie in the impossibility of flue gas from carbon dioxide (CO 2) and its utilization, the need to use expensive anion exchange resin as filler unionicola filter for the disposal of the acidic condensate from the flue gases from harmful impurities (oxides of nitrogen and sulphur oxides (NOxand SOx)), resulting in reduced environmental and economic efficiency of flue gas contaminants.

The main disadvantages of the known device is the lack of equipment for cleaning of flue gases from CO2and its utilization, utilization of acidic condensate unionicola filter regeneration which involves the use of additional specialized equipment, which increases the working space heat and power plant as a whole, using as the main equipment in the sections of the treatment area of the tubular heat exchangers, the design of which is too cumbersome and high aerodynamic resistance, which limits the ability to use the device in thermal generating plants of small capacity and reduces its effectiveness.

The technical task to be solved by the invention, is to increase the ecological and economic efficiency of the cleaning process and dia is Altanbulag load device by means of flue gases not only from nitrogen and sulfur oxides (NO xand SOx), but also from carbon dioxide (CO2), utilization along with heat, water vapor, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and carbon dioxide without the use of expensive and hazardous reagents in one compact device.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the proposed integrated method includes cooling the flue gases to a temperature below the dew point, condensation of water vapor, mixing the cooled flue gas with ozonopause mixture, oxidation and absorption of oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur obtained by the condensation, the output of the cleaned flue gases and condensate from the treatment area, and the flue gases are cooled to a temperature close to the temperature of condensation in countercurrent with the heated air plate heat exchanger-heater 2nd stage heat transfer section, after mixing the gas mixture is cooled to a temperature below the condensation temperature of water vapor in the heat exchanger-heater 1 stage absorption heat transfer section, in which the condensation of water vapor flows along the surface of the walls of the gas channels under the action of gravity down and absorb in the counter-current nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO3) from flue gases, further oxidation and absorption of NOxand SOxremaining in the flue gas in the gas is the analy-the gap between the perforated tapes, covered with a layer of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2), in block vertical perforated tape with parallel interaction of NO and NO2(CA(Oh)2with the formation of calcium nitrite (Ca(NO2)2), carbon dioxide (CO2with CA(Oh)2with the formation of calcium carbonate (caso3), which interacts with nitric acid, in carry out the drops of condensate, and on the surface of the perforated tape with the formation of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2), then the flue gases pass between the separating plates and purified from most of the harmful impurities (NOx, SOx, CO2) carry out the drops of condensate removed to the atmosphere, and the drops of condensate saturated acid components, fall down from the separation of the plates, mixed with the condensate flowing in the form of a film on the walls of the gas channels of the heater 1st stage, which passes the mixing chamber, additionally taking acid components, and spreads over the surface of the horizontal perforated tape in the unit horizontal perforated tape, covered with a layer of slaked lime, where three of the above reaction, flowing from one tape to another through the holes, cleaned from acid components, and then flows into the sump, where it healthy lifestyles the Ute for feeding the boiler unit.

The technical problem is solved also by the fact that the device for cleaning and recycling of the flue gas contains a treatment area in a duct placed in her in the direction of the flue gas heat exchanger section, which includes the nozzle of the inlet flue gas and hot air outlet, the plate heat exchanger-heater 2nd stage and reported through the window of absorption heat exchange section provided with a nozzle exit of the cleaned flue gases and the entrance of cold air, tray, which is placed bottom-up block horizontal perforated tape, made of rough corrosion-resistant material, covered by a layer of slaked lime (CA(Oh2), passed through a horizontal slit in the wall of boxes, stacked on top of each other with a gap between a staggered their openings, based on the reference grating and the closed lid of the unit horizontal cassettes, a hollow mixing chamber, placed in her perforated distribution pipe, which is connected via a duct to the inlet of cold air and equipped with ozone, heat exchanger-heater 1st stage, made of corrosion-resistant material and connected air channels heater 2nd stage, block vertical performmove the data tapes, similar in design to the horizontal tapes passed through vertical slots in the wall boxes installed in guides trays and closed the lid unit vertical tapes, separating plates.

Implementation of the proposed integrated method for the purification and recycling of flue gases is carried out in the device represented in figure 1, containing a treatment zone having the form of a box 1, which is placed in the direction of the flue gas, the heat exchange section 2 with pipes entrance of hot combustion gases and hot air outlet 3 and 4 respectively, in which is placed a vertical plate heat exchanger-heater 2nd stage 5, soamsawali through the window 6 with absorber-heat exchanger section 7, provided with a nozzle exit of the cleaned flue gases and the entrance of cold air 8 and 9, respectively, of the pallet 10 with the drain fitting 11, which are placed in order from the bottom upwards in the direction of the flue gas block horizontal perforated tape 12 with holes 13 made of rough corrosion-resistant material, covered by a layer of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2) 14, passed through the horizontal slit 15 in the wall of the box 1, stacked on top of each other with a gap between a staggered their openings 13, resting on the support bars 16 and sealed to the cap unit horizontal cassettes 17, perforated distribution pipe 18 connected through a duct 19 with the ozone generator 20 with a pipe cold air 9, placed in a hollow mixing chamber 21, the plate heat exchanger-heater 1st stage 22, made of corrosion-resistant material and connected air channels heater 2nd stage 5, block vertical perforated tape 23, a similar design to the horizontal tapes 12, passed through vertical slots 24 in the wall of the box 1, is installed in the guide trays 25 and closed by the lid unit vertical cassette 26, and the separator plate 27.

The proposed integrated method for the purification and recycling of flue gases is carried out in the proposed device, as follows. Flue gases from the pipe 3 are received in the upper part of the heat transfer section of the duct 1, which distributes gas channel plate heater 2nd stage 5, the construction of which in comparison with the tube allows to intensify the heat transfer process [3, pp.272; 4, s], moving from top to bottom, being cooled to a temperature close to the temperature of condensation in them of water vapor due to heat transfer through the wall with the heated air moving along the air channels from the bottom up, fall through the window 6 in specialno the chamber 21 of absorption and heat transfer section 7, where it is mixed with ozonopause the mixture flowing from the perforated distribution pipes 18, after which the gas mixture is distributed on the gas channels corrosion-resistant plate heater 1st stage 22, moving upwards, due to heat transfer through the wall with the heated cold air moving over it to air channels, is cooled to a temperature (40-50)°at which condensation occurs mostly located in the flue gases of water vapor on the surface of the walls of the gas channels in the form of a film of condensate flowing under the action of gravity down and communicate with her. In parallel to the process of condensation in the gas phase, due to the advent of ozone and oxygen is quite intensive oxidation of harmful impurities (NOxand SOxin the form of easily soluble in water nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO3), their absorption by the condensate film in a counter, which increases the driving force for absorption [5, C; 6, C], followed by the formation of nitric acid (HNO3and H2SO4) [7, C; 8, C], then saturated acid components of the condensate flows down into the mixing chamber 21, interacting similarly with the above gas mixture, and partially purified from the NOxand SOxflue gases are looking which are stated in the gas channels-the gaps between the vertical perforated cassettes 23, which is covered with a layer of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2) 14, which also occur above oxidation reaction and the absorbance of the remaining nitrogen oxides in the gas and liquid phases, and additionally, on the surface layer of CA(Oh)2the reaction mixture of NO and NO2with CA(Oh)2with the formation of calcium nitrite (Ca(NO2)2), carbon dioxide (CO2)in significant quantities (up 14%) in flue gases with CA(Oh)2with the formation of calcium carbonate (caso3) [7, C; 9, s], which, in turn, interacts with nitric acid, in carry out the drops of condensation with the formation of calcium nitrate (CA(NO3)2) [10, s], and then peeled from most of the harmful impurities (NOx, SOx, CO2), the flue gases pass between the separating plates 27, where are exempt from carry out drops of condensate, and through the pipe 8, finally peeled, removed to the atmosphere. Condensate saturated acid components, dripping down from the separation plate 27, through the gaps between the vertical perforated cassettes 23 is mixed with the condensate flowing in the form of a film on the walls of the gas channels of the heater 1st stage 22, passes through the mixing chamber 21, additionally taking acid components, and falls on the horizontal surface of the block p is hariramani cassettes 12, covered with a layer of slaked lime 14, flowing from one cassette 12 to the other through the holes 13, cleans it from the acid components in the above chemical reactions [10, s], and then flows into the sump 10, where through the fitting 11 of his direct for feeding the boiler unit.

Upon completion of the active cycle of the cassettes 12 and 23, which can be determined by the increase of the leakage of harmful impurities in the atmosphere, waste cassette 12 and 23 replaced without stopping the boiler unit on regenerated through slots 15 and 24 one thing, in order not to disturb the aerodynamic mode. The regeneration process is that the waste cassette 12 and 23 clear of the coating layer 14 consisting of a mixture of calcium carbonate (caso3), calcium nitrite (CA(NO2)2), calcium nitrate (CA(NO3)2), which are nitrogen-containing fertilizers used in agriculture [10, s], and again covered with a layer of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2), then re-used for cleaning flue gases in the proposed device.

Thus, the proposed method allows cleaning of flue gases not only from nitrogen and sulfur oxides (NOxand SOx), but also from carbon dioxide (CO2), be disposed of along with the heat, water vapor, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and carbon dioxide is without the use of expensive and hazardous reagents in a single compact device, allowing it to be used in large and small generating facilities, enhance the ecological and economic efficiency of the cleaning process and the reliability of the device.

Bibliography

1. U.S. patent No. 4753784, Ál.401 D 53/00,1988.

2. RF patent №2186612, Ál4. 01 D 53/60,2000.

3. Maechee and other fundamentals of heat transfer. - M.: Energy, 1973, 320 S.

4. Water heat network. Handbook / Edited. edit Nkhoma and others - M.: stroiizdat, 1988, 376 S.

5. Plonowski A.N., Nikolaev P.I. Processes and apparatuses of chemical and petrochemical technology. - M.: Chemistry, 1987,496 C.

6. Kafarov V.V. fundamentals of mass transfer. - M.: Higher school, 1962, 655 S.

7. Nenitzescu K. General chemistry. - M.: Mir, 1968, 816 S.

8. Kutepov A.M. and other General chemical technology. - M.: Higher school, 1985,448 C.

9. Abramov NN. and other Water. - M.: Gastrolyzer, 1960, 579 S.

10. Posin ON the Technology of mineral fertilizers. - L.: Chemistry, 1983, 360 S.

1. Integrated method for treatment and disposal of flue gas, comprising cooling the flue gases to a temperature below the dew point, condensation of water vapor, the mixture is partially cooled flue gas with ozonopause mixture, oxidation and absorption of oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur obtained by the condensation, the output of the cleaned flue gases and condensate from the treatment area, wherein demoniality cooled to a temperature close to the temperature of condensation in countercurrent with the heated air plate heat exchanger-heater 2nd stage heat transfer section, after mixing the gas mixture is cooled to a temperature below the condensation temperature of water vapor in the heat exchanger-heater 1st stage absorption heat transfer section, in which the condensation of water vapor flows along the surface of the walls of the gas channels under the action of gravity down and absorb in the counter-current nitrogen dioxide NO2 sulfur dioxide SO3 from flue gases, further oxidation and absorption of NOx and SOx, remaining in the flue gas in the gas channels of the gaps between the perforated tapes coated with a layer of slaked lime CA(Oh)2, in block vertical perforated tape with parallel interaction of NO and NO2 with CA(Oh)2 to form calcium nitrite CA(NO2)2, CO2 (carbon dioxide) with CA(Oh)2 with the formation of calcium carbonate CaCO3, which interacts with nitric acid, in carry out the drops of condensation on the surface of perforated tape with the formation of calcium nitrate CA(NO3)2, then the flue gases pass between the separating plates and purified from most of the harmful pollutants (NOx, SOx, CO2) carry out the drops of condensate appear into the atmosphere, and the drops of condensate saturated acid components, Padawans from the separation of the plates, mixed with the condensate flowing in the form of a film on the walls of the gas channels of the heater 1st stage, which passes the mixing chamber, additionally taking acid components, and spreads over the surface of the horizontal perforated tape in the unit horizontal perforated tape, covered with a layer of slaked lime, where three of the above reaction, flowing from one tape to another through the holes, cleaned from acid components, and then flows into the sump, from where it is sent for feeding the boiler unit.

2. Device for cleaning and recycling of flue gases containing the treatment area in a duct, in which is placed a heat-exchange and absorption section, characterized in that the heat exchange section includes a nozzle inlet flue gas and hot air outlet, the plate heat exchanger-heater 2nd stage and reported through the window of absorption heat exchange section provided with a nozzle exit of the cleaned flue gases and the entrance of cold air, tray, which is placed bottom-up block horizontal perforated tape, made of rough corrosion-resistant material, covered by a layer of slaked lime CA(Oh)2 skipped through horizontal slots in the wall of boxes, stacked, etc is g on each other with a gap between a staggered their openings, based on the reference grating and the closed lid of the unit horizontal cassettes, a hollow mixing chamber placed in her perforated distribution pipe, which is connected via a duct to the inlet of cold air and equipped with ozone, heat exchanger-heater 1st stage, made of corrosion-resistant material and connected air channels heater 2nd stage, block vertical perforated tape, similar in design to the horizontal tapes passed through vertical slots in the wall boxes installed in guides trays and closed the lid unit vertical tapes, separating plates.



 

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