Food product with cellular structure artificially imparted by backward and forward extrusion of multiplicity of components, method and apparatus for producing the same
FIELD: food-processing industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing backward and forward extrusion of at least two various materials, preferably food materials, through adjacent apertures of extruder; cutting flows of two materials transverse to direction of flow to provide parts of flows; mixing said flows so as to connect front and rear sides in direction of flow of each part of flow of first material with part of flow of second material; preferably forming boundary cellular wall between two rows, with material of said boundary being commonly converted into more solid material after each extrusion step. Walls of cells made from more solid material may surround in two or three dimensions cells of softer or porous material. Joint extrusion method involves providing synchronous displacement of dividing members transverse to extruder apertures while applying extrusion pressure to material through respective aperture for dividing flows into parts. Dividing members may effectuate backward and forward motions or may turn relative to apertures. In this case material may be fed into movable part from respective vessels in immovable part of extrusion head. Method and apparatus are useful for producing of confectioneries, such as chocolate, marzipan or dough products.
EFFECT: improved quality and wider range of novel products.
100 cl, 23 dwg, 5 ex
The invention concerns a food product in the form of a sheet, ribbon or fiber comprising at least two components, which are extruded together for their mutual dispersion (on each other) and education row structure, and method and device for manufacturing such a product.
The term "food" product covers animal products, confectionery products, medicines. Such products are described in the two U.S. patents of the applicant 4115502 and 4436568 (terminated). In the first patent describes:
a) strands of viscous syrup infused with strands of dough;
jointly extruded sheet-like product is then baked, and
b) strands of very viscous, dissolved or whipped protein and viscous syrup, caramel and/or test; jointly extruded sheet-like product is then utverjdayut (see column 6, line 65 to column 7, line 5 of the patent).
In the other above-mentioned patent provides a working example of the manufacture of such food product, such as the example 4. In this case the alkaline solution of soybean protein isolated, close together ekstragiruyut with a solution of carboxymethyl cellulose with added caramel (for sweetening and flavoring). To obtain the ordered structure of the two solutions have the same ve the bone.
Jointly extruded sheet-like product is collected on transporting polyester film (later to be used as a wrapper for a product) and utverjdayut by rinsing with NaCl solution of lactic acid. This leads to coagulation of the protein.
In each of the above examples, each Yves mixed strands is a continuous strand. In U.S. patent 4436568 this is certainly evident from the text of the example when viewed in connection with the drawing, to which it refers. In U.S. patent 4115502 device and method for mixed co-extrusion (see figure 4 and the related description) will always be to ensure the production of only continuous strands. In EP-A-0653285 and WO-A-9934695 describes other ways of co-extrusion components of the food product in the form of multiple layers on top of one another, and each patent provides examples of components suitable for such structures.
A food product according to the invention is characterized by the features set forth in paragraph 1 of the claims.
Certain cellular structure preferably extends essentially around the product.
In the food industry is usually carried out measuring the resistance of deformation, especially when defining the properties of the gels.
However, as far as is known this applicant, there is no standarty the new technique of such measurements and no features, what is "soft"and "hard", but the internal standards and specifications used by companies that produce food products. In addition, it is well known that the pressure required for permanent deformation in the form of distortion or destruction ("yield"), may not be an absolute value, but depends on the time scale at which measurements are made, and to a lesser extent from the method used and the device. For "feel" in the mouth usually believe that is appropriate time scale of about 0.1 seconds, but in this application to measure the selected time scale of 10 seconds, which is a more stringent requirement.
In the description in connection with Fig explains the device, which is constructed by the applicant data to measure yield stress in compression, and a method for its use. For the purposes of this description the minimum pressure for 10 seconds provides at least 10%compression (in excess of the instantaneous elastic deformation), is considered as the yield strength. However, if is microporous, as it can be, then you should neglect the deformation occurring to the seal material. In the following table, which is prepared for the correlation of subjective experience with objective values are typical values yield strength in compression for a variety of products is different to conventional products:
|Sweet product (for example, crème caramel)||about 3 g/cm2|
|Marzipan||about 400 g/cm2|
|Cooked hard-boiled white of egg||about 900 g/cm2|
|Amentally cheese||about 3 kg/cm2|
|Apples||about 3 kg/cm2|
|Carrots||about 20 kg/cm2|
|Dark chocolate||about 50 kg/cm2|
|Fresh pine wood|
|in the weakest direction||about 80 kg/cm2|
In the present invention, the yield strength of the component or each of the components should normally be not less than 200 g/cm2and preferably not less than 500 g/cm2, while he should be preferably not more than 150 kg/cm2.
Extruded food patterns, where fine particles or phases of the same material randomly distributed in the mass of other material known, for example, from CH-A-0538814 (cheese), USA 4697505 (biscuits), USA 3671268 and 2231060 (ice cream), EP-A-0258037 and USA 4358468 (meat), EP-A-0775448 (caramel and chocolate). However, well-ordered structure of the product obtained thanks por the signs of the way, described below, provides an improved modification of the "mouth feel" and taste.
In addition, it is known manufacture of individual glazed with a food product or a single row or line of glazed food (see for example, EP-A-0246667, USA 4828780, column 9, lines 43 to 58 and U.S. 4469475). However, the nature of such products is very different from those that get through the present invention.
In the finished product component And at 20°may be in the liquid state. On the other hand, As can be plastic or viscoelastic, for example in the form of a soft gel. The liquid or gel may contain dispersed solid particles, such as short fibers, nuts, grain or shell particles, pieces of film or flakes in a liquid or gel dispersion medium, for example in aqueous solution, gel or oil. The liquid may contain dissolved thickener. In another embodiment, And is an expanded substance, formed, for example, by the presence of baking powder in the extrudable substance. Component or components should preferably belong to one of the following three groups of substances:
a) dense gels with the possible inclusion of small, pre-formed solid particles,
b) connected together, a pre-formed solid particles,
the substance on the basis of fats, for example chocolate.
The yield strength in compression component In URB20at 20°preferably equal to at least 500 g/cm2for example, in the range of 500 g/cm2- 80 g/cm2usually less than 60 kg/cm2.
Product And preferably is a liquid, gel or plastic or pseudo-plastic material that has a yield strength in compression URA20at 20°With less than 1000 g/cm2and preferably less than 500 g/cm2.
In this study, the gel realize a three-dimensional grid, which is formed of a polymeric components connected by chemical bonds, crystallites or some other form of communication and swollen under the action of fluid, and which is essentially retains its shape, for example, when placed on a flat surface, and is not fluid.
You will immediately understand that the invention offers a new concept of obtaining a food product, which generally has a solid and mechanically stable consistency and nevertheless is nice razjevivayu and in all respects creates a natural feeling in the mouth, whether he is a meat substitute, chocolate with filling, other confectionery products, dry Breakfast medicinal product under the form of dry Breakfast or a completely new combination of food ingredients. Although maybe for the EP, continuous soft gel plastic nature in each plate or piece, it is important that also was continuous, but in this case hard gel.
Below this description will be further described possible compositions a and B.
In paragraphs 25-38 claims specific examples of components a and B.
In some of these claims in connection with the components a and b is said about short reinforcing fibers, grain, shell or film particles or flakes, which are preferably, but not necessarily digestible or valuable for digestion, for example, a short protein fibers. An important example is applicable shell particles (shells) are bran. They may contain adsorbed aromatic substances or protein used in the fiber or film particles can be introduced into the reaction with the hydrocarbon to form a connection caramel.
As is clear from the foregoing, it creates a "wall cells" and "cell contents". Usually the highest average cell size is about 1-30 mm, and the smallest size is about 0.1-3 mm Due to the peculiarities of the extrusion process cells almost always have a curved shape, although it is possible and preferable to avoid excessively curved shape. The maximum size defined is elaut measurement on a curved surface of a cell.
The cross-section of the cell component in the x-z plane usually has an average size in the z-direction, comprising 0.5 to 10 mm, preferably 1-5 mm Cell component And typically have an average cross-sectional area in the x-z plane, comprising 0.5 to 100 mm2preferably 1-25 mm2.
Most cell wall thickness, cell should preferably be anywhere equal to not less than 2% of the average thickness of the bundle or plate, which is contained in the corresponding cell, as otherwise the mechanical stability may be insufficient. This thickness should preferably be not less than 5%, and still more preferably not less than 10% of the specified average thickness.
According to the invention, the average distance between the rows is preferably 1-25 mm and preferably 3-15 mm, for example, 5-10 mm. Boundary walls of the cells typically have a minimum thickness in the x-direction in the range 5-50% of the average separation of the rows, preferably more than 10%.
Bridge walls of the cells, i.e. the walls of the cells In between cells, Rather than boundary walls of the cells have a minimum thickness of 0.1 mm, preferably 0.5 mm
On the other hand, to obtain a product corresponding to the consistency of the average wall thickness of most cells usually should not exceed the average thickness of the cell A.
In basinstoke, when a is a liquid, nests And In preferably should be completely closed in three dimensions, at least for the majority of the plates and lumps. This is the more useful, the more liquid is A.
The most useful cellular structure formed by the series is a composite structure with the boundary walls of the cells, which is essentially in the x-direction branches bridge the walls of the cells, for example, as described in paragraph 3 of the claims and shown in figa. This drawing shows the two-component B1 and B2 (why use shown In two components will be discussed below), but the drawing should be understood so that B1 and B2 may be the same component.
The process of co-extrusion to obtain this structure may cause some thinning, as well As In the vicinity of the junction of the walls of the cells, see figure 3. By an appropriate choice of the mode of extrusion preferably should be limited to such refinement, so that the thickness of the branch, and the boundary walls of the cells, measured at the place of junction, on the merits was not less than 1/15 the portion of greatest thickness of the branches, preferably not less than 1/10, and more preferably not less than 1/5 of a specified maximum thickness.
To facilitate chewing food is the product and feel it the most natural in the mouth, In can be selected with more cohesion than adhesion to A. This effect can be achieved by adding to the substance, which contributes to the slide, for example, fat hydrophilic substance Century.
On the contrary, may require the strengthening of links between a and b, and this can be achieved by giving the boundary walls of the cells In a wavy or zigzag form essentially about the plane z-y.
The product, having boundary walls of the cells In each cell And can cover the entire length between the boundary walls of the cells. This is shown in figa and in many cases will provide better consistency of product. However, cells can also depend on the method of manufacture and further treatment, if it is enabled as shown in figure 2, or less orderly fashion, but still showing Radney structure.
Additional wall of the cell, as set out in paragraphs 6 and 8 of the claims, is used for the formation of nests And In shown in fig.1b, c, and d.
In fact, a and b each can be more than one component. A very useful example that contains two components B1 and B2 (stuck with each other), set out in paragraphs 3 and 4 of the claims and shown in figa and b, 6A and b, B2 yield strength in compression is preferably at least twice greater than that of B1. Por the Affairs of fluidity UR B120the B1 at 20°preferable is 0.1-0.5 yield strength URB220at B2 at 20°C. Thus, B2 may be, for example, is stronger than B1 (finished product) depending on the method of manufacture and further treatment, so that B1 can easily tear when chewed with the release of (delicious) A1, while for consumption B2 require more chewing work that feels like a good combination. In addition, when B2' is less deformable than B1' in the state during or immediately after the separation in the process of co-extrusion, B2' contributes to the achievement of the most ordered cellular structure. (This description of the invention extrudable substance used for production And in the finished product, referred to as A' during the process; similarly extrudable In' forms after processing, B1' forms B1, B2' forms B2 and so on)
These aspects are discussed in connection with claims for a method.
In one variant embodiment of the invention, the component B1 twisted around cells of A. This twisting may be provided with only one course, if you choose the mode of extrusion so that was the rotation of the segments And'. This is further explained in connection with figa. b and C.
Boundary walls of cells In continuing essentially in the z-n is the Board, can be molecular oriented essentially in the z-direction. This is achieved by using appropriate methods and devices for the extrusion. Orientation helps to perceive the product as meat during grinding.
The introduction of a mass of short protein fibers or particles of a protein film But serves the same purpose as the orientation, and the objectives associated with taste and nutritional value. On the other hand, component a can consist of other short fibers, pieces of film, nut, grain or shell particles or flakes. In connection with this very appropriate may be the grain. When a is a fermented milk product, he may be given or sweet taste, or aroma for use in, for example, the confectionery product or sour product, or maybe spicy sauce, as in "chutney" (spicy Indian sauce)for products used as the first or main dish.
The introduction of gas in the cell And is usually achieved by using a blowing agent, for example, the leavening of dough in the bakery production or swelling of vegetable protein evaporating water under normal extrusion meat substitute.
In bakery products In component (wall cells) on the basis of the protein is used to retrieve a product with good mechanical stability even when the content is my cell is very fragile (second-grade flour or high content of grain or product is very swollen. The use of cheese to the walls of the cells is mechanically fit and provides an interesting taste combination.
In one embodiment, the invention is a porous agglomerate of particles containing water in the pores, and these particles are composed of short fibers, grain, shell or film particles or flakes, which are connected together by a polymer microfilaments, for example, consisting of coagulated gluten or of natural or synthetic rubber obtained by coagulogram latex.
In another embodiment of the invention, where the product can be a substitute for meat, And consists of two separate components:
A1) semi-solid fat or component-based oils containing fat or oil-soluble ingredients, and
A2) juice containing water-soluble flavoring ingredients,
In component, suitable for grinding.
In the independent clause 44 of the claims, the claimed method, suitable for the production of a new product (though not limited to them). In this method, cells And form the extrusion of extrudable material And' and joint extrusion of extrudable component', which forms In, and in this way the threads And' and' are adjacent to each other in a direction transverse to the z-direction, and orderly divided essentially the Popper the flow direction through the separation element, for ows And' and'split in the z-direction, in this part of the thread In the' front and rear in the direction of flow connected with each part of the flow A. In this way In' after extrusion transform into a more solid material that has a yield strength of, e.g., at least 20 g/cm2.
In this first variant of the method according to the invention, In the' after exiting the extruder is formed around the part a', being completely surrounding part a' in the plane x-z. In addition, A' is preferably formed in at least two threads, and to obtain a new product are formed two rows of parts And separated boundary wall of the cells of the Century
In the formula of the invention is also a second variant of the method according to the invention. This aspect is described in the second independent claim on the way, namely, in paragraph 62. It is preferable to form multiple streams of components a', alternating with the flow'. Separating items undergo reciprocating or rotational movement relative to the output of the extruder for the formation of split streams, forming In' around And'.
The second variant of the method according to the invention can be used for the extrusion of food products or, on the other hand, it may be useful for the extrusion of other extrudable materials, such as, for example, t is roplasts. When this method is used for the extrusion of food product,' after extrusion is preferably converted into a material having a higher yield strength, as in the first embodiment of the method according to the invention.
There are several ways to create relative movement between the separating element (elements) and output openings of the extruder.
In one preferred method according to the invention, relative movement is provided at a stationary position of the parts of the extruder, including the channels and outlet openings, and the movement of the separating elements. For example, x-direction can be positioned essentially vertically, one or more threads from A' are when the threads In the' above and below, and the outlet of the extruder are made on a circular cylindrical surface having essentially horizontal passage. The separating element is rotated around a specified horizontal passage, so that the separating elements are moving reciprocating on the specified cylindrical surface. On figa and b there is shown an extruder suitable for the implementation of this variant embodiment of the invention.
In another embodiment of the second aspect of the method according to the invention the x-direction is essentially
g is horizontal, and streams And' and' are arranged in a horizontal manner, while flows' are between threads And', and separating items undergo reciprocating or rotational movement essentially in the horizontal direction.
It is clear that the direction of extrusion of the components A' and' is essentially the z-direction, i.e. it is necessary to have a component of movement in the z-direction. However, you can optionally have a component of movement in the x - or y-direction. In addition, the components a' and' may have movement in a direction having components of movement in the same or different x - or y-directions.
Although the invention has been described and will be described in the subsequent description in terms of conventional slit of the extrusion head and with ingredients and directions defined with reference to a rectangular coordinate system with axes x, y and z, extrusion heads, on the other hand, can be a ring, and in this case, the coordinates can be replaced by r, θ and z. The direction of extrusion, i.e. flow And' and' of the outlet openings of the extruder can be z-direction, r-direction (facing inward or outward) or essentially θ-direction. When extrusion is carried out essentially in the z-direction or substantially in the r-direction, the separator elements are preferably rotated or dwights is reciprocating in θ -direction. When the material leaves the extruder in the r-direction or θ-direction, on the other hand, perhaps the reciprocating movement of the separating elements in the z-direction. In such embodiments, embodiments of the invention could be used in the device, which is adapted from the device previously proposed by the inventor and described in U.S. patent 3511742 or 4294638, and in both instances the annular extrusion heads.
This type of co-extrusion belongs to the "family", for which the inventor in the past introduced the term "layered extrusion". It refers to the process of co-extrusion, in which two or more extrudable components initially distributed between each other when sheet-like arrangement of threads, and then mechanically cut through transversely moving parts of the extrusion head so that the formed sheet of thin layers is continuous or intermittent, which are located at an angle to the main surfaces of the sheet.
As far as known to the inventor, the only published inventions related to this family, are inventions that are contained in the French patent 1573188 issued Dhow kemikl Inc., as well as those patented by the inventor of the present invention and contains the two U.S. patents mentioned in the introduction of this description of the invention (and the patents-analogues, issued in other countries), and which, moreover, contained in the following U.S. patents 3505162, 3511742, 3553069, 3565744, 3673291, 3677873, 3690982, 3788922, 4143195, 4294638, 4422837 and 4465724.
Only in the two patents mentioned in the introduction of this description of the present invention, describes the use of layered extrusion process for the manufacture of food products, and, as mentioned in the descriptions of these patents are not talking about the separation of components. Other patents are limited to the description of synthetic polymers for the manufacture of textile or textilepeople materials, and in some cases reinforced cardboard materials. Does not describe the formation of one component around the other component parts, and does not describe any education in these synthetic materials of the honeycomb structure is comparable to that of the honeycomb structure of the present invention.
In EP-A-653285, which were mentioned earlier in this description of the invention uses a method of distribution described in the aforementioned U.S. patent 3511742 and a few other aforementioned patent descriptions and intended for the production of multilayer food product in the form of a sheet or tiles. Layers are not "records"and parallel to the main surfaces of the sheet/tile and prasuti.
To create a cellular structure according to the present invention it is important that the part b is formed around the parts of A. One way to achieve this formation is the need to' when the treatment conditions had viscosity and yield stress, which is significantly lower than that of A'. It is preferable that, when the processing viscosity and/or yield strength was less than 0.5 parts viscosity or yield point A. Further improvement is achieved by reducing to a minimum adhesion And' separation elements through the introduction of oil or fat in A'.
Alternative or additional way to achieve the formation of' around And' is the Union of a stream And' flow' on each side (x-direction) in front of the outlet opening of the extruder. This variant of the invention will be described in more detail below.
During the separation And' preferably should not be liquid and may be plastic, pseudo-plastic, gel, in the form of a dry powder or other powdered material. In each case this means that, generally speaking, requires a certain minimum amount of effort shift to cause residual strain under the conditions in the extrusion head.
On the other hand, In' (or B1', if there is a two-component at the location shown on figa and 6A) at this stage about the ECCA must be liquid or plastic consistency and essentially to show less resistance to permanent deformation. He preferably should have a plastic consistency to provide self-maintenance extruded product as it comes out of the extrusion head.
The methods of mixing the components with each other and movements that cause flow separation And' and', can be based on patents on layered extrusion listed above.
Along with the implementation of the relative reciprocating motion between the channels and holes, on the one hand, and the dividing elements, on the other hand, it is possible to successfully provide the relative reciprocating movement or rotation between the adjacent separation elements and the output of the camera (which is in itself known from the above-mentioned patents). This serves to position the fibers in the finished product essentially in the transverse direction (if this is desirable) and/or to increase the connection between the fibers.
To optimize the molding parts in the separation process, it preferably should occur through a shift between, on the one hand, bores, through which ekstragiruyut vzaimosvyazannie narrow streams, and, on the other hand, near the dividing elements and in addition better just by cutting (see paragraphs 79 and 80 of the claims). In paragraphs 81-83 of the claims of the presentation what are the different methods of cutting. On figa and 9 show examples of the shape and the arrangement of the knives for the cutting. By cutting and/or microplane"referred to in paragraph 83 of the claims, it is possible to form very thin slices of components, even when they contain the fiber or fibers.
The narrow separation of the flow at part preferably carried out at a rhythmic operations using the separation of elements, acting as closures (i.e. having such a width that it can completely disable the holes), and, in addition, throbbing extrusion, at least, the component' so to venerate the maximum driving force of the material And' through the channel, while the open holes And'. These features are shown and additionally explained in connection with figa, b and C and Fig.
Ripple can be created by the plunger for each narrow flow component, located at the entrance to the camera for a narrow stream - see figa, b and C, and possibly continuing into the camera. On the characteristics of the process and component selection will depend on whether the thread is created mainly conventional feed means (for example, a pump or extruder) optionally in combination with an intermittently operating valve or the above-mentioned plungers.
The use of intermittent extrusion in connection with layered ex what RUSIA known for other purposes of the above-mentioned U.S. patent 3788922, see column 2, lines 51-64, column 3, lines 4-13, column 4, lines 45-53, example 1 and example 2. This patent describes the use of gates to achieve intermittent extrusion, but does not describe that a partition can be used as paddles. In addition, it describes the use of the vibrating piston to create a ripple, but it is the piston between the extruder and the extrusion head, and not (as in the embodiment of the invention, one plunger for each thread, installed at the extrusion head.
In paragraph 70 of the claims set out a very useful way to achieve the formation of' around the part a', and in paragraph 71 is the preferred method of carrying out the invention. Generally speaking, two essentially yz-surface of each part And' covered mainly part', which is connected with a' to split, and two Hu-surface part And' covered mainly by means' of those inner holes that allow only'component. This provides the best opportunity to control the thickness of the layer In the' in contact with the separating element.
A modification of this alternative method is the use of two'components - B1' and B2'. This is set out in paragraph 72 of the claims and shown mainly on figa and b, as well as in other drawings because of the extra details of the entire extrusion process, which will become apparent from the detailed description of the drawings. In connection with the description of the product already discussed the advantages of this modification, and, as mentioned, if B2' is less deformable than B1' in his condition during and immediately after the separation, B2' contributes to the achievement of the most ordered structure. It should be understood thus: B1' is usually easier should be reported to flow than A1'. However, higher turnover will mean that the back pressure will tend to press B1' to the walls of the separating elements, resulting in the edge wall of the cell can be made thicker than is desirable, while "bridge the walls of the cell can be made thinner than is desirable. The use of component B2', which shows a greater resistance to flow than B1', can completely solve the problem. In addition, if desired, B2' may have the same composition as that of the B1', but to go in the extrusion device at a lower temperature to create a greater resistance to deformation, for example, it may be poluzakonnym.
As already mentioned, in many cases, the most useful education nests of parts And' in' is a full lining. This method according to the invention has two alternatives (which can be together is s) achieve such structures: one of them is set out in paragraphs 91 and 92 of the claims and shown in figv and 11b. Discussed here is the use of internal openings that extend or are terminated, it is known from earlier patents of the inventor on layered extrusion, but not for the production of food, nor to receive any cellular structure, comparable to the geometrical parameters with the structures according to the invention.
After the extrusion process component or components' should be transformed into strong cohesive form (possibly this conversion may be carried out before the separation process), while component a' can remain essentially the same as it was in the time of the separation, or to be converted to become a more "liquid", or swollen.
In paragraphs 46-60 outlined other options are' (which in some cases can be combined).
In preferred variants of the method' transform into a more solid by cooling, usually after extrusion from the melt. Examples are: chocolate, expanded soy protein or gums. In some cases, when the process is slow, for example, is the formation of the gel, the cooling liquid or plastic solution formed at a relatively high temperature, for example about 100°can hold up to extrusion, which can then be carried out at normal ambient is ment or cold temperature. Examples: enough concentrated colloidal solutions of gelatin, carrageenan or pectinata calcium. Examples of hardening is performed by heating the colloidal solution: enough concentrated colloidal solutions of egg protein or gluten or dough, which was increased by gluten). Examples of re-education continuity in the previously destroyed gel: thixotropic colloidal solution of carrageenan with the addition of potassium ions (re-education continuity during storage over a short period of time); heating/cooling destroyed gels casein, soy protein or starch.
When turning in' In In the possible formation of a dense gel by chemical reaction, which is slow enough to allow mixing of the reagents (In') to co-extrusion. The reagent may be introduced in solid particles suspended In'. For example, would be useful colloidal solutions of pectin or alginate with the addition of CA ions to the enzyme, which will gradually demethylase polymer, resulting in CA-salt precipitates in the form of a gel. Another example of the enzymatic reaction is associated with a protease, such as renin for decomposition and coagulation of milk protein.
Another way to translate into firm is In the formation of a dense gel, e.g. the measures through a chemical reaction between the components In' and', so that the reagents in A' gradually migrated in'to gilotinirovaniya component', which is a colloidal solution demetilirovannogo pectin or alginic acid, can in the component And to use as reagent ions CA, Mg, or Al. You can also use coagulation by changing pH. As a precaution to assure that the inner hole is not clogged as a result of such gelation, it is possible to apply the method with simultaneous change of the pH value and the introduction of such metal ions. In such cases, use two channels for the component': one to skip these metal ions and their introduction In' - "the walls of the cell, on the one hand, and the other for the change of pH, on the other hand, In' - "the walls of the cell.
Depending on the specific parameters of the extrusion process In'component in the form of colliding solution may become molecular oriented, while it flows to the inner holes and through them passes along the walls of the separating elements. This orientation can be "frozen", if gelation through the use of a reagent from A'component is fast enough. Thus, the material is often focused in the boundary walls of the cells, being on rulenum essentially in the z-direction. This "frozen" orientation may facilitate the manufacture of the product, which when chewed feels like meat.
As another means of becoming' more solid In pre-formed solid particles coagulated in a continuous sustainable material: fine particles of soy protein in a solution containing CA ions. The particles may be short fibers, in particular, flat fiber, which can be so short that are records. For economic reasons, prefer flat fibers or plates of foamed, oriented, fibrillated protein film. This is particularly useful for B2'component in the structure shown in figa and b, 6A and b and received by means of the device shown in Fig. Protein from which the formed fibers can be introduced into the reaction with the hydrocarbon at elevated temperatures to form compounds belonging to the caramel. When there are two-component B1' and B2', arranged as explained above, one way of giving B2' desired consistency before separation process (cutting) is the transformation B2' in the gel, at least partially, when it is in the form of narrow streams flowing towards the process of separating (cutting). In some cases, this may be implemented through the m contact of the reagent immediately before reaching B2' channels for narrow streams, and in some other cases by means of high frequency heating while B2' narrow flow passes to a number of internal openings.
Given that And the final product should be more fluid, or contain a gas, And may in some cases remain in the same, essentially plastic, pseudo-plastic or visco-elastic state, which he had (as A') during the processes of separation and formation, but in most cases it must be converted into a more fluid form, especially when it is desirable feeling of the juice in the mouth when the destruction of the walls of the cell by chewing.
When A' has a high water content, there are two ways to do A' respectively semi - solid at the time of separation stages (cutting and forming, and later more fluid. One way is to freezing and subsequent thawing of the relevant parts of water or crystallization of sugar and/or other substances dissolved in water, after which it is given again to dissolve or melt. Another way is to use depolymerization (hydrolysis) after the extrusion process, preferably by means of enzymes, such as proteolytic enzymes.
When A' during extrusion is frozen or preferably partially frozen state, it is usually SL is blowing to avoid freezing, except for the case when the components are In' or one of them shall also be cooled to below or near the freezing zone, but' should be preferably before extrusion chilled almost to the freezing temperature and the extrusion process should be carried out practically as quickly as possible. In such cases, camera for narrow streams and the rows of the separating elements should usually be made of metal, and then maintained at a temperature near the freezing temperature'. The melting of the film And' while passing through the extrusion head will usually be more helpful than harmful due to the effect of lubrication provided that the extrusion speed is quite high and this film, therefore, is thin.
In order to maintain the ice crystals connected together to the corresponding plastic consistency, it is preferable to admix to A'component some amount of sugar or water-soluble polymer (e.g., a guar gum or partially depolimerizovannogo protein), and in this regard would also be useful dispersed short digestible fiber.
At the exit from the extrusion head product usually will be fed onto the conveyor belt or directly collected on the trays, and before this collection or submission to tape it can be cut in accordance with the adequate pieces. If desired or necessary (to prevent leakage of the liquid And the end surface of the cut ("wounds") can be sealed by conventional means. If desired, the entire piece can be fully glazed, for example, a thin chocolate layer.
If becoming' in solid form by heat treatment, the heat treatment is best done when the product on the conveyor belt or in the above-mentioned trays by means of microwaves, high frequency heating, contact heating or hot air.
You can rationalize the division of the continuous extruded product on the longitudinal part. For example, extrusion And'component can be stopped at intervals of time, long enough for the formation of a transverse layer of conventional components, through which you can cut the product without any "wounds". On the other hand, extrusion' may be interrupted at intervals of time, long enough for the formation of a transverse layer of the conventional a-component, through which can be made the cut, with the "wound" can then rinse completely And component (which can be re-used).
Such precautions are not usually required, And if ready is solid or semi-solid (e.g., marzipan candy or fruit weight, GLA is new in chocolate), as in this case, a simple cut can be quite satisfactory.
Examples of different kinds of products according to the invention
1) A: powdered solid caramel and/or finely ground nuts, "sintered" in the extrusion process,
In: chocolate, semi-molten during the extrusion process,
2) A: marzipan or sweet fruit candy mass, condensed soluble protein. Q: I see (1)
3) And: ice cream, such as chocolate ice cream, or sweetened frozen yogurt, melted after the extrusion process.
In: dense gel pectin in the destroyed dispergirovannom the state during the extrusion process and then regenerated by heating and cooling.
When And based on chocolate ice cream with vegetable fat instead of milk fat, 3) may be an appropriate substitute for chocolate, made without the use of fatty acids.
II) "Hybrids" between confectionery and protein food.
1) As: cheese, extruded in a plasticized condition,
Q: I see(1)
2) A: see I(1)
In: destroyed dense gel soy protein or casein, regenerated by heating and cooling.
III) Macoubrie foods based on vegetable protein
1) A: strong broth or yogurt with herbs and spices ("chutney," with the added who eat small amounts of a thickener; in the frozen pasty state during the extrusion process.
In: see II(2)
2) A: during extrusion: soy flour, dispersed in water, thickened by partially hydrolyzed soy protein, spices and other aromatic substances plus proteinase added after extrusion: hydrolyzed by the protease.
Q: I see(3)
IV) wire Mesh products with content like sausages
And: mass, commonly used in sausages, possibly with the addition of partially hydrolyzed soy protein as a thickener.
In: see II(2) or I(3) or dense starch gel, destroyed before extrusion and regenerated by heating/cooling.
This is, for example, is a new and useful way of using inferior products from slaughterhouses.
V) bakery products
And: normal dough with baking powder
In: see II(2)
The product is baked, whereby the honeycomb structure facilitates the obtaining of bread with small and uniform pores crumb.
Now the invention will be explained in more detail with reference to the drawings. On several figures shows the coordinate system x, y and z. These coordinates correspond to the signs in the claims and in the General part of the description.
Figa and b show in cross-sections respectively along the x-z and x-y partially ordered arrangement of the row structure is s according to the invention with the "cells" of and "walls of the cells from B1 and B2,
figs and d show in cross-section in x-y two different modifications of the arrangement shown in figa and b,
figure 2 shows in cross section in x-z "cellular structure" a/b when less ordered arrangement of numbers, but still falling under the invention for the product
figure 3 shows in cross section in x-z And/-type structure, which should generally be avoided, but which may be useful in cases where the visual effect is the most important,
figure 4 illustrates in cross section in x-z forming component In' around each part of the component', mainly rheological means,
figure 5 shows in cross section in x-z another way of forming In' around And'where' in the beginning together ekstragiruyut with A' dual stream B'-A'-B', and the formation is mainly mechanical,
figa and b show in cross-sections respectively along the x-z and y-z combination of methods, shown in figure 4 and 5, through which the formation can be purely mechanical,
figa and b illustrate in cross-sections respectively along the x-z and y-z modification of the device for co-extrusion, which is intended for the formation of paired threads B'-A'-B' and gives the opportunity to have a yield strength of the component In' significantly lower than that of component A'. At the same time, the drawings show how can be formed in the walls of the cells of the b-component in the x-z plane,
figs corresponds figa and b and shows the inner holes on the form when the remote output part. She is depicted in the plane x-y,
figa, b and C show respectively a perspective view, in cross-section in x-z section y-z slotted head for co-extrusion, which is intended for the manufacture of the product, shown in figa and b, and in which the extrusion of each component is carried out by means of a pulsating plunger, synchronized with the movements, which are transversely separated flows. View fig.8b almost doubled compared with the views of figa and,
fig.8d is a perspective view with a spatial separation of the parts, showing a modification of the device on figa, b and C, in which the pulsations of each thread is created with multivalve, which opens and closes in coordination with the movements, which are transversely separated flows,
Fig.9 shows in cross section in x-z another modification of the device on figa and b, namely the modification of many internal holes and number, dividing elements, whereby is achieved a valid cut for the separation of threads
figure 10 shows in perspective and in partial cuts variant embodiments of methods and devices according to the invention, in which the transverse motion and extrusion of plunge the rum essentially different from those as shown figa, b and C, but suitable for the production of similar products. Drawing does not show all of the extrusion device,
figa and b show cross-sections respectively along the x-z and y-z other variant embodiments of methods and devices suitable for the manufacture of products of a similar kind. In this embodiment, the separating movement and x-direction are essentially vertical, and the y-direction is essentially horizontal,
Fig detail shows four different positions during reciprocating motion, whereby there is a division in the device figa, b and C. This illustration explains the description of the program coordination of the various movements and stops,
Fig shows a test device for determining values of the yield strength in compression.
Typical honeycomb structure according to the invention, shown in figa and b, first formed in the form of a split fiber structures (see, for example, figure 4 and 5), and then a few of these fibers are combined in the form of "tape" or "sheet". Dotted lines (1) shows the boundaries between the fibers, where the coupling may be so weak that the fibers are easily separated from each other in the mouth. This can be useful, but In the material of the two neighboring fibers can also be so closely connected that the product EDV is possible to detect the boundary line.
Refer to the terms in the claims, where the boundary walls of the cells indicated by the position (2), rows And cells (3), bridge In-wall cells, continued essentially in planes z and in the planes x-y, - (4) and bridge In-wall cells, continued essentially in planes x-z - (5).
These images show the presence of two components B1 and B2, where B1 forms, mainly, boundary wall (2) cells and bridge wall (5) cells, which continued essentially in the x-z plane, while B2 forms, mainly bridge wall (4) of cells that continued essentially in the plane z-y plane x-y. However, depending on the design of the device (see below) wall (2) and (5) can also be each partially from B1 and partly from B2. There are various reasons for the use of two components. One of them, which will be discussed in further relates to the manufacturing process and is that a relatively soft or brittle boundary wall (2) cells provide a rapid release liquid (delicious) And a component in the mouth, while relatively strong bridge wall (4) cells require additional work-grinding after release component delicious. Both the pleasant feel in the mouth.
Refer still to figa and b, where B1 which may be the same with B2, i.e. there will be only one component. From drawings of the device and the associated descriptions will become clear as can be made of these different products.
On figs and d rows And cells are mutually shifted in two different ways. The formation of these structures is briefly mentioned in the description accordingly figa+b+C and 11a+b.
Depending on the rheological properties of the components during extrusion, the length of the segment A'-parts and other features of the extrusion process, the structure of the finished product may differ from the ordered structure shown in figa - d, but still satisfying assignments of the product according to the invention. Figure 2 shows an example of a less ordered structure. It should be noted that the cells also can be formed almost spherical, namely, the rotation of each small lump And' in the output of the head for co-extrusion. This is explained later in connection with figa, b, and C.
Figure 2 cells have a relatively pronounced curved shape (tapering in the direction of extrusion), which is the result of inhibition during extrusion. Even in the almost ideal structure for figa some visible curvature. Such forms or "deformation" patterns usually are not intentional, and almost inevitable due to friction, when a split pot is to pass between the separating elements (and they show that product is jointly extruded product). However, if such deformation is excessive (figure 3), they can be harmful. This can occur due to improper choice of rheology for one or more components and/or insufficient formation In' around parts of And'. In one of the claims on the product indicate the preferred limits of such deformations in the structure. At this point the claims listed following dimensions thickness, shown in figure 3: arrows (6) denotes the smallest local thickness of the branches near the branch, arrows (7) is the smallest thickness of the boundary wall of the cell near the branch and arrows (8) greatest thickness In the branches.
The greatest thickness of the branch is determined as follows:
measure the distance from the point on the convex surface to each point on the concave surface and record the minimum distance determined in this way. This is repeated for each point on the convex surface. Compare (indefinitely many) registered minimum value, maximum value, thus defined, is the maximum thickness of the branches.
It should be noted that there are cases, especially in the confectionery industry, when the protective effect is not important the th value, and useful aesthetic value can submit pictures of the different parts when the components have different colors or are black/white, and when the "abstract" figure similar to figure 3, does not could be interesting. In such cases, the product is preferably cut "horizontally"to the best possible way to expose the structure consisting of separate parts. In these very specific cases, it is possible to exclude the formation of' around And so will not be formed no boundary wall from Within', and each part can be "infinitely" thinning at the borders.
Examples: dark chocolate / white chocolate, dark chocolate / marzipan, white chocolate / caramel, two differently colored gum.
Figure 4 shows the simplest (from a mechanical point of view) the method of forming a component In' around the small lumps of component'. It shows the last part of the reciprocating moving to the "distribution" part with inner holes, limited items (9), and a fixed output part (44) with the dividing members (10), each of which is shown here in the form of "double knife". In addition, the drawing shows the transformation of individual And'separate'streams are divided into part a'/'-threads, which are then combined to form the structure of the ur, shown in figa (but with only one'component).
The reciprocating movement marked the two-way arrow (11). The drawing depicts the moment when the internal hole for A'limited elements (9), is connected with the hole, finite elements (10), i.e. immediately before cutting off part of And'. And' the beginning to follow the surfaces of the elements (10). However, the channel bound to these surfaces, expands, and when In' will flow easier than A', and/or A' will be less prone to sticking, And' will tend to slide from surfaces (7) and become surrounded component of the Century
In General, component a' should be plastic, not fluid. In' may be a viscous liquid or, better, to be plastic, but it preferably should be more fluid than A' (i.e. have a lower yield strength in compression as defined above). Thus, the back pressure in the outlet part, however, will squeeze In' to the surfaces of the separation of elements, so that, as shown, part of the component' will become closer to each other while reducing their z-dimension. The refinement In the'layers between A'-parts sets a limit on how low could be the yield In' compared to the yield point A'.
When the location of channels and streams that p is shown in figure 5, components a' and' together ekstragiruyut with the formation of paired flow B A'b' before separating (cutting). In this way the component In' will cover or "lubricate" the edge barrier elements prior to the separation And' (as shown in the drawing), and, thus, significantly reduces the risk of sticking And' separation elements (10).
In order to get the mated threads B A'b'extruded directly from the internal openings limited to elements (9), channels, limited separation elements (10), the dimensions of some elements (9) and the size of the number of separating elements (10) must be properly matched to each other, and, in addition, supply of components And' and' should be coordinated with the reciprocating movements (11), so that the number of elements (9) stopped, at least essentially, while And' and' served pulsations, and to stream from A' and' stopped while driving this series. This is true for devices that shown in figa+b and 7a+b+C and which will be described below, although optional, similar improvements in the apparatus shown in figure 4.
The location of the channels and flows, which is shown in figa and b, is a combination of the arrangement of figure 4 and 5. In this regard, no matter what the dividing elements pokazania sharp edges, i.e. this is done precisely in order to show that the shape of the knife is usually optional (but desirable). As is evident from figa and b without any further explanations, this device, so to speak, mechanically leads to the formation of B1' and B2', taken as a whole, around each of the component A'.
As In' jointly extruded on each side And' with the formation of paired flow V A B2' before the split, he may, in addition, together ekstrudirovaniya on each side B2' with the formation of paired flow V V B1'. In this case, boundary wall (2) of the cell will consist of a simple B1, as shown in figa. Otherwise, these end walls of the cells will consist of a combination of B1 and B2, as is evident from figa.
The use of two'components - B1' and B2'as shown figa+b is a solution to a technical dilemma, which certainly exists, if there is only one'component, namely, that, on the one hand, And' may be the most directly molded into an ordered "cell", if'component is essentially a more liquid than A' (has a lower yield strength in compression), but, on the other hand,'component then has a tendency to Wiimotes to the walls the separating elements (10). This trend has already been mentioned in connection with figure 4. Now, two D components you can choose B2', having the same or nearly the same yield strength as A', while B1' has a lower yield strength (or may be a liquid). The choice of different limits yield for B1' and B2' can be a matter of choice of different compositions, or may simply be a matter of using different extrusion temperatures for these two components. You can rely mainly on partial freezing and/or partial deposition of one or more ingredients in In'components, for example, ice cream (see examples).
If the composition B1' and B2' is selected such that B2 in the finished product shows a higher yield strength than B1, it can be obtained the advantages explained in connection with figa+b. However, the device shown in figa and b, can also be used in cases where B2' and B1' are identical in all respects, in relation to their temperature during the extrusion process.
Still referring to figa+b, we note that, as mentioned above, the yield point B1' should be significantly lower than that of A'. However, in this case, there is a limit to how much liquid can be B1', without causing disturbances in the structure, as B1' is very unevenly distributed across the width of each of the inner holes (12), if it is extruded in relatively small share of the Vah and if at the same time there are large differences in apparent viscosity. This phenomenon is well known in all kinds of co-extrusion.
However, according to the invention this problem can be solved, as shown in figa, a flexible membrane (13), which close the inner hole (12) for B1 at the walls of the channels A', if the pressure in B1' suitably not higher than the pressure in A', and which provide that A' never will flow in the channels B1 (and similarly, if co-extrusion B1' B2'). This device operates in such a way that B1' is injected into B1' when shorter pulses, each pulse during extrusion And, when suitably high pressure. B1' then will first form a "nest" And', but these "nests" will become aligned during the stream. (This refers to the co-extrusion V V B1').
The injection of B1' And' B2' when, as here explained, using B1'component with a relatively low yield strength and a low apparent viscosity, gives the following results:
1) especially smooth separation (cutting) parts A' and B2',
2) reduced the tendency of the parts to deformation during the passage through the output part of the extrusion head, and
3) lower the back pressure and, therefore, opportunities for greater performance.
All these important results are based lubricant component B1' time the ranks of the chamber walls. Note that this version of "formation" And' and B2' should show essentially equal to the limits of fluidity, otherwise B1' can work together to ekstrudirovaniya with only one component, which shows the lowest yield strength.
The elastic membrane may act to an extreme position when they lock the channel to A', with the result that each flow component' becomes discontinuous part of component B1' is already in position (12), i.e. without the use of reciprocating, the separation steps. In this case, the output part (44) can be made in one piece with (9), or if desired only one split stream or several separate threads, then the "output part" may simply be absent, so that (9) will be the end of the extrusion device.
Figa, b+C also serve to show how a bridge formed In the walls of cells, which extend essentially in the x-z plane and is indicated by position (5) on fig.1b. Just at the end of the inner holes for the threads B1'A B1' and V V B1' has edges that are visible in cross-section as (14) on figs and visible to their rear in the direction of flow ends as (15) on figs, with their front edges in the direction of flow shown by the dashed line (16) on figa. As shown in fig.7b, these ribs on the rear end in the direction of flow does not have strannye edges, and made flat. According to them there are edges in the output part (44), shown in cross-section as (17) on fig.7b. These edges are sharpened at both ends, with sharp edges on the front end in the direction of flow is shown by the dashed lines (18) and (19) on figa. Below will be explained how these ribs in a number of internal holes and the output part are used for the formation of bridge B1 - walls of the cells within the product. Similarly, "the ledges" (20) on the ends of the inner holes and the corresponding "depression" (21) at the input to the output part (.fig.7b) serve for the formation of layer B1 on both surfaces of the finished product.
Although each channel for B1' branches to supply, on the one hand, in the channel And' and, on the other hand, in the channel B2', he also continues to supply directly to the output part, ending with 4 slots (21 figs)whose length in the x dimension corresponds to each hole in the input part, and the position on the y-level corresponds to the level of the ribs (17) or "cavities" (21) depending on the circumstances.
When reciprocating motion is stopped in the position in which the component (B1' is served to each cell in the output part, with internal holes for threads B1'-A'-B1' and flows B1'-B2'B1' corked separating elements (10), "depression" is tanut filled component B1', and similarly, the front part of the ribs (17) in the direction of flow will be fully covered component B1'. After the next stage reciprocating motion stream B1'-A'-B1' or stream B1'-B2'-B1' (depending on circumstances) will be submitted in camera to the output part (the inner bore for direct extrusion VG clogged), but due to the geometry of the ribs (14) and (17) and "ridges"and"valleys" (20) and (21) these threads will never come in contact neither with the ribs (17), nor with the xz-surfaces of cells in the output part. These edges and surfaces will always be covered component B1' and, therefore, will form a "bridge walls of cells from B1' in the finished product.
Making adjacent separation elements (10) and/or adjacent edges (17) with mutually different lengths, and at the same time respectively selecting the length of the segments that cut the threads, you can make part of the component' to rotate and acquire essentially cylindrical or spherical in shape.
On figa, b+C shows the most complex, but usually also the best way of handling threads. However, some features that are present here, of course, can be used in other combinations. Thus, the elastic membrane (13) and edge are two different features that need to be together is s. In addition, the joint extrusion B1' in the stream B2' (which requires A' and B2' had almost equal to the limits of turnover) and direct extrusion B1' in the channels in the output portions may both be absent. In this case, there should be no edges (14) and the protrusions (20) in the channels B2', and hence B2' will cover the ribs (17) and xz-surface chambers in the output.
Finally, on fig.7b shows a conveyor belt (22), which takes extruder bath product and on which is usually carried out further operations. In addition, it is shown the door (23), which should be adjustable. It is optional, but can help adjust the pressure in the output side in order to avoid, on the one hand, the occurrence of voids in the extruded product and violations of the combined flow split flow in the output part (44) and, on the other hand, excessive flattening the surface of the parts of components A'.
By modifying the separating elements (10), shown in figa+b, you can use the device for manufacturing the structure shown in figs. With this purpose, the front edge in the direction of flow in (10) should still be straight and substantially perpendicular to a plane defined by multiple threads, but after the separation of the different "levels" split flows due is gradually becoming with quincunx ("level" means the space between two adjacent ribs (17) or "depression" (21) and adjacent edges (17)). The rear edge of each separator element (10) in the direction of flow must have a zigzag shape corresponding to the desired shape of the product, and the side walls of the separator element (10) will gradually take this form. Typically, the execution structure with the location ledges should not continue for the whole x-size device or product, but must be zero on the sides of the device and at x-boundaries product.
Figa+b can also represent the process of manufacturing a product having two different series of "cells", A1 and A2, or just a single component for "the walls of the cells, in other words, the symbols A', B1' and B2' of the drawings should be replaced respectively by A1',' A2'. However, in this case, each of the inner holes In the row of holes shown in figs, should not be interrupted, as in this drawing. One of the two components And can be, for example, water-based, and the other component on the fat/oil based, whereas in the finished product should usually be gelatinising composition.
Head for co-extrusion, shown generally at figa, b+C, consists of a stationary inlet portion (24), the reciprocating moving junction part (25) with channels for the entered narrow streams, limited by walls (26) and ending with many internal holes, the unbounded elements (9), and fixed output parts, equipped with the separating elements (10). "Distribution part (25) is directed paths 102 in a fixed support plate 101. Reciprocating motion of the specified two-sided arrow (11), but now shows the means for the implementation of this reciprocating motion. The device is usually installed so that the cross-section shown in fig.8b, in fact, is horizontal or close to horizontal. Three component' ("cells"), B1' and B2' (both for "the walls of the cells") ekstragiruyut from the inlet portion (24) through 3 relatively long and narrow holes (27 a', 28 B2' and 29 for B1') using conventional means, for example, by pumping or extrusion. Not shown is a device designed for this purpose. The inlet portion (24) represents the outer part shown in fig.8b, the arrangement of the walls for A'camera, B2'and B1'camera in this part is indicated by the dashed lines, respectively (30), (30A), (31), (31A) and (32A). Over conventional pumping or extrusion or in connection with them every component is thoroughly mixed to give it the appropriate plastic state, usually through polyproplene or polyetherimide (the latter is used, for example, in the manufacture of ice cream). Since the rheological properties at such plural is undertaken or paleocurrent condition can very much depend on the temperature, the temperature control may be insufficient and may require measurement of the apparent viscosity to control the back pressure. While passing through (24) the temperature of each of the 3 components, which can be different temperatures, are supported by the circulation of the heating/cooling fluid. Not shown is a device designed to implement this. Similarly supports the appropriate temperature in a reciprocating moving parts (25) and in the output part, while not shown, the heating/cooling means to them.
The flow of components through each of the 3 outputs of the fixed feed part (24) is not constant, and is carried out intermittently by means of a device for changing the pressure, for example by a hydraulic cylinder (33), connected to each thread (the drawing shows only one cylinder). For each component the minimum pressure close to zero, while the maximum pressure can be in the tens of megapascals. Continuously measuring the pressure of each component by means of feedback to the pump/extruder to ensure that the maximum pressure was almost the same for each course. (Device not shown.) The pressure rises when the camera part (25) become filled. During this period the and time stops reciprocating motion part (25), and the two clamps (e.g., hydraulic clamp), one of which is shown with the designation of the item (34) on figa, provide a tight seal between 3 output slotted holes part (24) and the corresponding rows of holes in the inlet plate (24A) on the part (25). After reducing the pressure of the 3 components close to zero to eliminate the seal between the parts (24) and (25) (to achieve this you need to move the clamps (34) for just a fraction of a millimeter) and begin the process of "formation", including the implementation of the reciprocating motion part (25). These processes are further outlined below. Then again create a tight seal and enclose the pressure for feeding components in part (25).
In reciprocating the moving junction part (25) has a number of narrow channels for respectively A', B1' and B2'. On fig.8b noted which component is passed through each channel.
These channels are closed, except for their output end and the above series of holes in the inlet plate (24A), converted to the corresponding holes in the stationary inlet portion (24). Thus, Fig with a slit through one of the A'-channels in a reciprocating moving parts this channel is shown open to A'channel in the input part (24), but closed to B1'and B2'channels in this feed part.
N is against the output of each channel in a reciprocating moving junction part is closed by the plunger (35), moved forward by means of a rope (36) and back pressure extrudable component, when the channel is filled from (24). This action is additionally described below. All plungers for A1' synchronized by attaching a rope, which they are moved forward to the same connecting rod (37), driven actuator (40) through a connecting rod (40A). This design is very schematically presented in figs without showing rails (37). Similarly, all of the plungers for B2'-threads, except B2'-threads closest to the sides of the device for co-extrusion attached to the connecting rod and are driven actuator (41) through a connecting rod (41A), while all the plungers for B1'-threads, except B1'-threads closest to the sides of the device attached to the connecting rod (39) and are driven actuator (42) through a connecting rod (42A). There is typically no more than 3 A'-thread, 4 B2'-thread and 8 B1'-threads, which are shown on these drawings. For reasons that will be clearly from the explanations in connection with Fig mentioned plunger 4 on the sides of the device are in each movement separately by separate actuators.
Fulfill the performance communications mechanisms (40), (41) and (42) are usually, but not necessarily hydraulically acting. The co-extrusion processes and "forming" process, as explained in connection with figa, b+C. Extrusion through plungers preferably is carried out not by a uniform reciprocating motion of the plungers, and when the number of forward pulses (e.g., 2-50 pulses) change (25) its position between each of the pulses, for each number of pulses should be one movement of each plunger back to its original position, while the camera again populated from (24). This is explained in detail in connection with Fig.
During each "push" (or momentum) of the plunger pressure can exceed 10 MPa, and each "push", including "cutting" thread and the "reduction " of the distribution part (25) to the next position ready for the new "push"preferably should be less than 0.1 sec.
Each of the 3 entrances to the channels in a reciprocating driving portion (25), i.e. immediately following the exits (27), (28) and (29) in the input part (24), check valve (43), shown in a transverse section on Fig C. When in the x-direction of the 3 valve continues the entire length of the outputs (27), (28) and (29). This prevents any loss of material due to reverse flow, which otherwise they the AE would arise, when the cylinder (34) partially remove the seal between the part (24) and part (25). In addition, the seal between the reciprocating moving junction part (25) and the output part (44) with the dividing members (10) should be reinforced during extrusion through this connection and during the movement of the plungers ago during filling, however, this seal must be weakened when moving junction part (25), otherwise the friction can create problems. Hydraulic clamps (45) provide the tightening and loosening of the seal by moving the value of only a fraction of a mm. Sharp reciprocating motion of the distributing part (25)that are two-sided arrow (11), typically, but not necessarily can be created entirely mechanically by a Cam (not shown). This is further explained in connection with Fig.
In addition to components A', B1' and B2' also, but in smaller quantities component used for lubrication of the plungers. He is fed under pressure in the usual manner, but not shown the means to implement it. Of course, should be compatible with the other components, i.e. it should not destroy the mechanical stability of the finished product and must be suitable for use in the food (see examples).
Conveyor belt (22), which was already mentioned in connection with fig.7b, preferably intermittently moved with stops corresponding to short periods of time (for example, 0.5 sec)when the channels in paragraph (25) receive the material from part (24).
In the place where the device for co-extrusion delivers the product to the conveyor belt, may be is the knife for cutting the product to the appropriate passages (not shown), or may be other devices in communication with a conveyor belt, for example, for heat treatment of the product.
In many cases, the product packaging can be carried out on this conveyor belt, and for this tape to get it cut off a piece of the product can be stacked packing tape. This tape can be automatically wrapped around each piece of product, and if the tape to accelerate for a short period of time after each cutting operation to separate the pieces from each other, it is possible to wrap all 4 sides. If the packaging film is used aluminum foil, it can sufficiently support the product during solidification In'-component or components (curing by heating or storage).
When negotiating with cutting at the entrance to the conveyor belt can be an interruption of the extrusion As'-kom is Ananta for a short period of time while continuing the extrusion In'component or'components to ensure that what cuts will be made only across In'component. It is useful in that case And in the finished product is a liquid.
On the other hand, the selection And component of all pieces of the product can avoid the usual coating on the ends after cutting or the entire product (for example, chocolate and the like) preferably when the product is in a frozen state.
It should be mentioned that not always require the use of a conveyor belt. In addition, hydraulic clamps (34) and (45) (or similar non-terminals) and check valve (43) is not mandatory, but very helpful for achieving high performance.
Rather than performing a pulsating extrusion through plungers it can also be carried out using a valve device shown in fig.8d,. Between the fixed inlet part (24) and the reciprocating moving junction part (25) is inserted valve (46), which also follows the movements of the junction part) (25)indicated by a double arrow (11), but these movements are superimposed movement of the valve (46) forward and backward relative to the distribution part (25) - see the double arrow (47) through the actuator installed on the junction part (25) (not shown). "Distribution part (25) is estco connected cover (48). As the valve (46)and the cover (48) have 3 rows of slit holes: (49) And'component (50) for B2'component and (51) for B1'component. These slotted holes in the lid (48) accurately coordinated with the corresponding channels in (25), and the slotted holes in (46) accurately mate with the slotted holes in (48), when the valve is in the open position, with the valve fully closes the slotted holes (48) in the closed position. Before this valve is not installed any device to create pulsations in the pressure of extrusion. This device in mechanical relation to simpler device for plunger extrusion, however, because of the problems associated with friction, it is slower.
If you use one valve for all three components, they are, of course, will be ekstrudirovaniya with the same rhythm, but you can also use one valve for each component.
When using modification shown in figure 9, flow separation will occur through very effective "cutting", and it is even possible to separate threads that contain fiber is longer than, for example, 2 mm, since the channels in the output part is displaced at the sight relative to the z-direction of the device, the selection of the product from the device by means of a conveyor belt must be similarly offset.
Acerage presents a modification of a simple way to "formation", shown in figure 4, but this type of "cut" can also be applied to more complex ways of "formation" and even to the way shown in figa, b+C.
In an embodiment of the invention, presented in figure 10 there is a separate "plunger part (52) for plunger extrusion, and this part has only one plunger for each component A', B1' and B2', namely, the plungers respectively (53), (54) and (55). This "plunger part is a fixed part similar to "supply side" (24), and the flow through the slotted holes (56) And', (57) for B1' and (58) for B2'. To make it possible passage B1' secondary camera plunger, the plunger (55) is also provided with a slot hole (59) or next slot.
"Inlet" (24), which are not shown here, contains a device for changing the hydraulic pressure and return valves, and similar devices (33) and (27) on figa+b, but since the piston part (52) is not moving, then there is no hydraulic clamp similar to the clamp (34).
Reciprocating the moving junction part (25) - reciprocating motion indicated two-sided arrow, which slides on "plunger part (52), lays out 3 component and leads them through converging channels (59').
The drawing ends where streams Pref is found in order, but in fact this variant embodiment of the invention also includes a device for separating and "formation" threads, and "distribution part (25) may, for example, completed designs, shown in figure 4, 5, 6A+b or 7a, b+C, with an atom at the end of the device for co-extrusion can be "output part" (44) "separators" (10), as shown in other drawings. In addition, there may be a conveyor belt for receiving the extruded product.
In addition, there may be one or more hydraulic clamps such as clamps (45) on figa and b. In this embodiment of the invention they are used for sealing and disclosure of not only the connection between the distribution part (25) and "output part", but also the connection between the piston part (52) and the distribution part.
In the rest of this variant of the invention usually essentially similar to the variant shown in figa, b+C, and is explained in connection with these drawings.
The device figa+b consists of an inlet part (not shown, but performed as explained in connection with figure 10) and a fixed piston part 4 plungers: (53) A', (55) for B2' and two (54) for B1'. There is no horizontally reciprocating the moving junction part, but for the "plunger part" immediately "in the initial part with the separation elements (10). In this variant embodiment of the invention, the output part is not fixed, and performs a reciprocating rotary movement up and down around an axis (60), as specified two-sided arrow (11). This axis is at the level of the portion of the conveyor belt (22)which is supplied with the product. It is clear that if the output part would perform the horizontal movement of the product would rend (if the conveyor belt is not moving like the same way that it would be very impractical), but the rotary motion, which is shown in these drawings, will not result in such damage to the product, provided that the amplitude is small enough and/or the output part is quite long.
The process of "forming" is essentially similar to that shown in figa, b+C, but note that the x-direction is substantially vertical, and the y-direction is essentially horizontal. Other differences between the design shown here and design on figa, b+from:
a/ only take place one A'-thread, two B1'thread and two B2'thread. (Could be a few more threads.)
b/ There are groups of 9 ribs instead of groups, only 2 ribs (14) and (17), now for the education vertical walls of the cell. (This number may of course vary).
in/ B1' forms only a conjugate flow And'not right passes to the output part. (It is not important what about the values for this variant embodiment of the invention).
As in other embodiments of the invention, there are clamps (45), i.e. the hydraulic clamps (45)made with the possibility tightly pressed output part to the earlier part, when you need an effective seal, and weakening connections in periods of relative movement between the parts.
With appropriate modification of this variant execution device according to the invention can be obtained with the structure shown in fig.1d. Ribs (17) in the output part (44) must not be sent directly to the process stream, and to be at the "top level", for example pointing to the right and on the lower level is directed to the left. This leads to the formation of two mutually offset rows of cells. To achieve three mutually offset rows of cells, as shown in fig.1d, the output should have the three inlet holes instead of only two holes shown. Near the left and right edges of the extruded product these shifts must be equal to almost zero.
Hereinafter will be described the program management process co-extrusion and the "shaping" when using the device shown in figa, b and C. On Fig shows the different positions of the stop reciprocating the moving junction part (25) relative to the fixed output part (44) (Non is Azizi listed on figa-C). There are 4 such position stop, namely:
Position 1, in which the front ends of the distribution elements (10) in the direction of flow cover a number of internal openings limited to elements (9), so that the ends of each of the 3 groups of threads, respectively (B1' As' B1'), B1' (B1' B2' B1') and, moreover, prevents any retraction of the material from the channels in the output part provided that by means of hydraulic clamps (45) formed a tight seal between the two parts of the device (25) and (44).
Position II - symmetric position, in which there are free passes for all simple flows B1' in the output part (44) and covered by all threads (B1' As' B1') and (B1' B2' B1') while still remaining an airtight seal.
Position III, in which part (25) is in the leftmost position and in which there are free passes to the output part (44) for all connecting threads (B1' A1' B1') and (B1' B2' B1'), with the exception of the leftmost stream (B1' B2' B1') which, therefore, should not be subjected to the action of the plunger, and blocked all elementary stream B1' while still remaining an airtight seal.
Position IV in which part (25) is in the right position and in which there are free passes to the output part (44) for all connecting threads (B1' A1' B1') and (B1' B2' B1'), with the exception of the extremely the th right thread (B1' B2' B1') ( consequently, should not be subjected to the action of the plunger), and blocked all simple B1-threads still showing an airtight seal.
If at any camera in the output part (44) during stops in position III will be injected part (B1' As' B1') thread, then in that same camera during stops in position IV will be injected part (B1' B2' B1')-thread (and Vice versa).
Following the program start with a situation in which part (25) is in position I, as a hydraulic clamps (45), and hydraulic clamps (34) are under pressure for the formation of a hermetic seal between the inlet part (24) and the distribution part (25) and between this part (25) and the output part (44) and, in addition, each of the plungers (35) is in the front position, the pressure in the inlet portion (24), adjustable by a device (33) for change the hydraulic pressure is close to zero for each of the 3 components.
1-I the sequence of stages. Through device (33) increase the pressure in the inlet portion (24) for each of the components in order of injection of each of them in the channel part (25) and assign each of the plungers (35) in its most rear position. If the plungers are made with the possibility of forced suck back (which is not available in designs shown in figa-C), t is the train should be initiating this pulling, but it must be terminated when reaching the farthest rear position. After the pressure of these devices (33) on each component in the inlet part is reduced almost to zero, remove the two sealing pressure created by the hydraulic clamps (34) and (45)for driving portion (25), which is then moved to position II. Finally, actuate the clamp (45) to form a hermetic seal between the part (25) and part (44) (clamp (34) is not powered).
2 sequence of stages. Through actuators (42) pushing one step ahead all the plungers for the extrusion B1', then eliminate the seal between the part (25) and part (44), move the part (25) in position III and again create a tight seal between the part (25) and part (44).
3-I the sequence of stages. All plungers for B1', with the exception of one or the extreme left of the plunger, pushing one step further with a very high speed for injection B1' evenly on streams A' and B2'. Then push one step ahead all the plungers for A' and B2', with the exception of one or the leftmost plunger for B2', then eliminate the seal between the part (25) and part (44), move the part (25) in position II and again create a tight seal between the part (25) and part (44).
4-I serial is inost stages. Similar to the 2nd sequence, except that by the end of this sequence part (25) moving to position IV.
5-I the sequence of stages. Similar to the 3rd sequence, except that it is not powered by the most extreme right-wing, plungers for B1' and B2'.
I repeat, for example, from 5 to 9 times 2nd - 5th sequence of stages. However, at the end of this process, the part (25) not moved to position II and position I, then create a tight seal not only between the parts (25) and (44), but also between the inlet part (24) and part (25). Now completed the full sequence of stages (it preferably should not last more than about 1 second), filled all the channels in paragraph (25) and the process continues as described above, starting with "1-th sequence of stages".
The above program is one of the most complex, but in General, the most useful process of "formation"in which B1' before separating together ekstragiruyut with the other two components and also sent directly to the output part (44) through a separate hole. If, for example, will be only 2 groups of threads, extrudable from part (25), namely, the coupled stream B1' And B1' and a simple flow B2', then the position shown in Fig will be replaced only 3 positions, and the position II will be excluded (and the position will be symmetrical position). On the basis of principles that are readily available from the above program, it will be easy to create similar programs for different processes, through which you can "formation".
As already mentioned, the change between different positions part (25), also called reciprocating motion indicated by the arrow (11), it is most convenient to carry out purely mechanically by a rotating Cam (although, of course, can be applied in other ways). In this case, one revolution of the Cam shaft should preferably correspond to the complete sequence of stages from the beginning of the filling channels in paragraph (25) and until the device is again ready to start a new beginning filled. In addition, the mechanical motion of the Cam may consequently determine the beginning of the other operations, while electronic time relays or sensors provisions of Executive mechanisms will determine the termination of these other operations. Actuators for plungers are preferably or mechanical, or driven by a stepper motor in combination with a shaft, while the clamps, referred to here as hydraulic, can also be, for example, a fully mechanical.
In many cases it will be possible to avoid the use of check valves (43) however, this will slow down the production process.
Refer to fig.8b and Fig, where the width of each channel in paragraph (25) - before connecting B1' And' B2' at the end of this extrusion heads may as a suitable example to be equal to 2 mm, and the width of the walls (26) of the channel is 1 mm, This means that the distance between adjacent dividing members (10), measured between their rear in the direction of flow edges is equal to 2+1+2+1=6 mm. in Addition, in this example, the width of each hole (9) in part (25) can be respectively equal to the distance between adjacent front in the direction of flow edges separating elements (10) and to be 1 mm In each of the separating elements surface, which acts as a blocking element will, therefore, close to 5 mm in x-direction.
As mentioned, the methods according to the invention can also be applied to extrusion through the annular extrusion head.
In this case, the most suitable option is shown in figure 10, but modified for rotation. The material can leave the extrusion device in the form of parts of a circle and then be transported by the belts on the two main surfaces.
On Fig part (25) can still be reciprocating, but preferably rotate in only one direction with stops in 4 positions - I, II, III and IV. This does not mean that should octanal the matching engine or other power transmission means, since the actuator can be accessed through sliding or spring clutch, with a short stop rotation part (25) is carried out by hydraulic clamps (45) and other advanced braking systems.
Although the methods of extrusion and the device for them, according to the invention is designed primarily with the aim of co-extrusion of cellular food structures, "formation" In' around And' through appropriate coordination pulsed extrusion and the relative movements of parts of the extrusion head may find other important use in connection with extrusion of porous polymeric or ceramic materials. In such cases, the placement of the cells from a to b should normally be only in two dimensions, in other words, And should last from one main surface of the product to the other main surface. The cellular structure can serve decorative purposes, when a and b have different optical properties, or if a can be completely or partially removed after extrusion. Component a may be, for example, a paste that can be leaching.
The mesh structure may also have real technical purpose, for example, in the production of catalyst products, where a may be a porous material, for example, a ceramic material containing the catalyst, and, being, for example, that the same ceramic material, can act as reinforcement in all three dimensions.
As mentioned in the introduction to this description of the invention known to the inventor, there is no official standard for the measurement of the yield stress in compression. Moreover, there is no standard equipment for performing such measurements, when the test sample weighs only 1 or a few grams, as required in practice to measure the pile of cells walls" of the component In the cut of the product according to the invention. Therefore, it was necessary to construct a test device and to develop test conditions.
On Fig shown this device. The sample (61) is placed on a metal base (62), which is equipped with cooling/heating or temperature control for testing polysemiotic or semi-molten components And' and'. This device has a square heel (63) (see below), which is pressed into the sample through a piston exposed to air, while the air pressure can be accurately adjusted to create a very specific and changing the pressure on the sample. Penetration heels (63) in the sample indicates the pointer (65), which is driven through a rack and pinion gear (66). Shown here is a simple pointer, but before chitaetsa pen to write charts compression/time.
When using the device for testing poluzabroshennaja or semi-molten material is first pressed the heel of (63) to the base (62) over a longer period of time sufficient to achieve them adjusted temperature, remove polusekretnye or half-melted samples from the mixing device, very, quickly cut them in shape and feel.
When the test is made of the component In the cells walls of the finished product cut them in pieces, which should be flat. These pieces are then placed in the device (61) to the foot of the correct form (see below), using a holder or "form". Apply slight pressure to the heel (63) for sealing of the foot without causing any flow, open and remove the holder. Gradually increase the pressure until, until there will be a continued flow exceeding 10%compression per minute. For accurate measurements, the test must be repeated several times after the first approximate tests for determining approximate values.
Size heel (63) and the sample (61):
the heel has a square shape and the measured values of yield strength lower than 200 g/cm2has a size of 20 mm × 20 mm, for values of the yield strength of between 200 and 10,000 g/cm210 mm × 10 mm and for higher values of the deposits yield - 5 mm × 5 mm
horizontal surface samples also have a square shape with sides of a square double the size of the heel, i.e. respectively 40 mm, 20 mm and 10 mm,
sample height equal to half its length and width, i.e. respectively 20 mm, 10 mm and 5 mm
The invention is illustrated by the following examples.
General information regarding the samples.
Equipment. Laboratory extrusion device, generally similar to the device shown in figure 10, but with submission in three chambers in the intake parts without the use of any continuously acting pump or extruder. (it is not required, as when extrusion is used less than 1 kg of each component), but with the use of intermittently acting press, shown with the designation of the item (33) on figa and C.
Merging threads: all of the examples used paired streams B1' As' B1', but there is no co-extrusion on the sides of streams B2', as shown in figa and b. Membranes are used (13), shown in figa, except for examples 2 and 5, where the yield strength of the B1' is less than the yield strength at A', but relatively close to it. (In other examples, the difference is much larger).
Experiments in the preparation examples. The purpose of these experiments is the choice of a simplified way the best limit fluid is tis for each of the components A', B1' and B2'. For A' and' tried clay with different water content, and B1' - dough prepared from wheat flour at different water content. Tried a number of combinations.
Jointly extruded samples were dried with hot air and then razor cut into layers; received photos with the increase in the three components are added to different pigments).
The most suitable selected materials were:
And', clay 26%water content, which showed a yield strength of 1.6 kg/cm2(20°).
B2': the same thing As'
B1': dough 1 parts flour 1.5 parts of water, showed a yield strength of 25 g/cm2(20°).
Therefore, it was decided to strive for these values of yield strength in each of the examples, except for examples 1 and 2, where it may not be possible.
Component a: marzipan
Component B1: dark chocolate
Component B2: the same dark chocolate
Grease plungers: sunflower oil
As has been established, the marzipan had a yield strength of 400 g/cm2. To achieve the same yield strength of the chocolate, the desired component B2'as installed, its temperature must be 29,5°C. To yield 25 g/cm2chocolate has a desirable component B1'as installed, the temperature should be 31°C.
Te is the temperature of the extrusion device: 35° C. Temperature for marzipan at the entrance to the extrusion head is chosen equal to 20°C.
The yield stress of chocolate (component a) at 20°measured on a sample cut from a chocolate bar, is 56 kg/cm2.
Components B1' and B2': turned into a powder Parmesan cheese. The yield strength of the mass measured at 20°C is 1.3 kg/cm2.
Component a': dough that is changed by adding bran to achieve approximately the same yield strength and consisted of 3 parts wheat gluten, 15 parts oat bran, 18 parts of water and a small amount of baking powder.
Grease plungers; white of egg.
Extrusion at 20°C.
Post-processing: heating to about 100°to melt the cheese and baking test, by which it is loosened. The yield strength of the hardened cheese at 20°S: 20 kg/cm2.
Component a', honey, viscous liquid at 20°C. the Preferred yield strength for extrusion, 1.6 kg/cm2was obtained at approximately -15°that, therefore, is the temperature selected for this component.
Components B1' and B2': the same composition, namely, 60 parts of powdered egg whites + 150 parts oat bran + 180 parts of water. When -1,5°marked With approximate limits the yield strength of 25 g/cm 2; therefore, this temperature is selected for B1'. The temperature at which marks the approximate yield strength of 1.6 kg/cm2selected for B2'.
Grease plungers: the white of an egg.
The temperature selected for the extrusion device: +1°C.
Extruded product is heated to 80°to get egg protein in the form of a gel.
The yield strength of the hardened component In: 6.6 kg/cm2.
Component a': 470 parts whole milk yogurt + 25 parts of powdered sugar + 2,5 wesc sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (thickener) + 10 parts of calcium lactate. The latter was mixed into the reaction with pectin components B1' and B2' with a view to their solidification. The thickening agent are pre-mixed with sugar to speed up the process of dissolution.
This component acquires the approximate yield strength of 1.6 kg/cm2at a temperature of -5°that, therefore, selected for the extrusion of this component.
Components B1' and B2': the same composition, namely, 40 parts of pectin (50%hydrolyzed grade) +20 parts of powdered sugar (mixed in dry state with pectin) + 360 parts demineralized water. When -1°marked With the approximate yield strength of 25 g/cm2; this temperature is selected for B1'. When -1,3°marked With the approximate limit of techcast is 1.6 kg/cm 2; therefore, this temperature is selected for B2'.
Grease plungers: cream.
The temperature selected for the extrusion device: +1°C.
Solidification B1' and B2' as a result of their two-day storage at which calcium ions migrate into component a' and turn it into gel. The yield stress of the last - 1.2 kg/cm2.
Component a': 8 parts butter + 9 parts of sesame oil.
At -14°he acquires the approximate yield strength of 1.6 kg/cm2and therefore, this temperature is selected for the extrusion And'.
Components B1' and B2': the same composition, namely 15 weight. including oat bran + 3 weight. including wheat gluten +18 weight. including water.
When you +1°With a yield strength approximately equal to 1 kg/cm2and this temperature is selected for B1'and B2'. The temperature of the extrusion device: +1°C. Grease plungers: sesame oil. Hardening' in the store within a short period of time at 100°C.
The yield strength of solids: 1.0 kg/cm2. Solid In - microporous.
1. Three-dimensional food product, elongated, at least one Z-direction and comprising at least two components a and b are extruded together for their mutual dispersion, one or more cells of the component on which Ruzhany, at least in the x-z plane, one or more components that form the walls (2, 4) cells surrounding the component a, wherein one or each component at 20°is a solid, including a viscoelastic solid, and cell component are at least two distinguishable from each other in rows (3), continuing in the z-direction, and each specified number of cells separated from adjacent rows of continuous (in the z-direction) boundary wall cell component In (2), and either (a) And which is liquid at 20°or has plastic, pseudo-plastic or visco-elastic consistency at 20°With yield strength in compression YPA(20) at 20°constituting less than 0.5 of the yield strength of the component In compression at 20° (YPB(20),or b) And is a porous substance containing at least 50 vol.% gas.
2. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that each cell And continues in the y-direction from one surface of the food product, continuing in the xz-direction or from the site, adjacent to the other surface, continuing in the xz-direction or place adjacent to it.
3. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that the boundary wall (2) cell formed from the In-component B1 and the product has a bridge wall (4) cells, branches off from the specified boundary walls of the cells and prodoljayuscheisya, at least part of the path in the x-direction to the adjacent boundary wall (2) cells, while the bridge wall (4) formed at least partially from the In-component - V2 different from V1.
4. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that the boundary wall (2) cell formed of at least two different components B1 and B2, and the product has a bridge wall (4) cells, branches off from the specified boundary walls of the cells and ongoing, for at least part of the path in the x-direction to the adjacent boundary wall (2) cells, while the bridge wall is formed, at least partially, from the component B2.
5. The product according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the components B1 and B2 have different limits yield strength at 20°and preferably the yield strength B1 (YPB1(20)) is 0.1-0.5 yield strength B2 (YPB2(20)).
6. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the cells And continues on the path between the two xz-planes, two or more cells together span the distance between the xz-plane and separated from each other in the y-direction, the parts or components are located between adjacent cells And are separated from each other in the y-direction, and form a wall (5) of cells around each cell And that cell And surrounded by the walls of the Century
7. The product according to claim 6, characterized in that the components In (5) between adjacent I had akami of A, separated in the y-direction, contain the component B1.
8. The product according to claim 1, wherein the component is a single component, which has a bridge wall (4, 5) cells, branches off from the specified boundary walls of the cells and ongoing, for at least part of the path in the x-direction to the adjacent boundary wall of the cell and around each cell of A.
9. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that if the bridge the walls of the cells, i.e. the wall that is different from the boundary walls of the cells are refined near the boundary(-s) wall(s) of the cell, the local thickness of the refined wall (6) is not less than 1/15 of a thickest part (8) of the said wall.
10. Product of claim 8, characterized in that the said boundary walls of cells of the B-component wave-like or zigzag 5 zy-plane.
11. Product according to any one of p, 4, 8, characterized in that the bridge wall (4) of cells that were branched from the boundary walls (2) cells in the xz-plane branches perpendicular to the boundary wall of the cell at the point of branching.
12. Product according to any preceding clause, characterized in that it further comprises at boundary walls of cells In continuing continuously in the total z-direction along or near each of the front surface of the product, in the y - and z-directions.
13. The product according to claim 1, characterized t is m, each boundary wall (2) of the cell is flat and lies in the yz-plane.
14. Product according to any preceding paragraph, wherein the cells of the A-component in the xz-plane are of an average size in the z-direction of 0.5-10 mm, preferably 1-5 mm
15. Product according to any preceding paragraph, wherein the average cross-sectional area of cells And in the xz-direction is 0.5-100 mm2preferably 1-25 mm2.
16. Product according to any preceding paragraph, wherein the average distance between rows is 1-25 mm, preferably 3-15 mm
17. The product according to item 16, characterized in that the boundary wall (2) cells have a minimum thickness in the x-direction in the range 5-50% of the average distances between the rows, preferably at least 10%.
18. Product according to any preceding paragraph, wherein the bridge wall (4, 15) cells, which are the walls between cells And different from the boundary walls of the cells have a thickness of at least 0.1 mm, preferably at least 0.5 mm.
19. Product according to any one of claims 1 to 18, characterized in that the component cells at 20°is plastic, pseudo-plastic or visco-elastic, having a yield strength in compression (YPA) less than 1000 g/cm, preferably less than 500 g/see
20. The product according to claim 19, characterized in that A-comp the element consists of a mixture of, on the one hand, short fibers, nut, grain or shell particles, pieces of film or flakes, and, on the other hand, from an aqueous solution or gel.
21. The product according to claim 19, characterized in that component a consists of a mixture of, on the one hand, short fibers, nut, grain or shell particles, pieces of film or flakes, and, on the other hand, from the oil.
22. Product according to any preceding clause, characterized In that component is a gel.
23. Product according to any preceding clause, characterized In that component is reinforced by short fibers, grains, shell or film particles or flakes and has a yield strength in compression at 20° (YPB(20))of at least 200 g/cm2preferably 500-80000 g/cm2and more preferably not more than 60,000 g/cm2.
24. Product according to any preceding clause, characterized In that component based on the fat, oil or wax with flavors and preferably consists of chocolate.
25. Product according to any one of claims 1 to 23, characterized In that component-based protein.
26. Product according to any one of claims 1 to 23, characterized In that component is porous agglomerate particles containing water in the pores, and these particles are short fibers, grains, shell or planon the e particles or flakes and are connected together by a polymer microfilaments, for example, consisting of coagulated gluten or natural or synthetic rubber produced by the coagulation of the latex.
27. Product according to any one of claims 1 to 23, characterized In that component contains a gel-based polymer belonging to the group of hydrocarbons and related compounds.
28. The product according to claim 1, characterized In that component is a polymer, and the boundary walls of cells of the B-component, continuing in the z-direction, molecular-oriented in General the z-direction.
29. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that component a is juice, preferably in the form of a soft jelly or thickener and is fluid, with A-component contains the dissolved sugar.
30. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that component a is juice, preferably in the form of a soft jelly or thickener, while the a-component contains hydrolyzed proteins to give it a taste and nutritional value comparable with meat.
31. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that component a contains a lot of short protein fibers or pieces of protein films.
32. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that component a is a fermented milk product.
33. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that component a is marzipan.
34. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that component a is one the Xia meat pie.
35. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that component a contains gas.
36. Product p, characterized in that component a is based on expanded and baked starch, and component-based protein.
37. Product p, characterized In that component contains cheese.
38. The product according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains two different A-component - A1 and A2.
39. The product according to § 38, wherein component A1 is an aqueous solution or gel or contains such a solution or gel as a matrix for solid particles, and component A2 has the fat or oil-based or contains fat or oil as a matrix for solid particles.
40. Three-dimensional solids, including viscoelastic solid food product, elongated, at least one z-direction and comprising at least two components having different appearance and extruded together for their mutual inclusion, which includes parts of component a and component B, wherein one or each component is a solid substance that can be viscoelastic at 20°With, one or each component And is a solid substance that can be viscoelastic, at 20°With, parts of the component are at least two vzaimootnoshenij series, continuing in the z-direction, and the rows of A-component and the prison in-visible component, at least on one surface of the product, continuing in the x-z plane.
41. A method of manufacturing a joint extrusion in the extrusion head cellular product, involving the extrusion of the components in the z-direction from the extrusion head, with at least one extrudable component a', having in common plastic rheology, is formed in the flow through the channel and extrudable component In' form in the flow through the channel, and the stream of the In'-component is related to the flow of A'component in the x-direction, the transverse z-direction, the threads of the A'- and b'components out of the channels through outputs, after which flows of A' and'component ordering is divided in the x-direction through the separator element (10) to form at least two rows of streams A' and'components, and in each of these series streams A' and'components are divided into parts in the z-direction, and in each specified range of the flow from'component before and after in the direction of flow combined with each part of the stream from A'component parts'-component is placed between adjacent parts And'component in the z-direction, and each row is performed in two General continuous in z-direction boundary walls of cells In the'component, with each part a'-component is a cell, about the military In'component on its surface in the z - and x-directions.
42. The method according to paragraph 41, which form at least three rows of threads And' and'components separated in the x-direction.
43. The method according to paragraph 41 or 42, in which A' and'components are food components, and connecting the divided rows are connected to each other along their K-surfaces, and after the connection of separated flows In'components transform into a solid material, which may be viscoelastic, or if'-component is already a viscoelastic solid material, it is converted into the material component having a yield strength of at least two times higher than that In'component.
44. The method according to item 43, in which, after the specified connection material And'component expands to a volume of at least twice the volume And component or material And'component is converted into the material And the component having a yield strength of at least twice lower than that of A'-component.
45. The method according to item 43 or 44, in which the extrusion is carried out at higher temperatures, while converting To'-component is performed during the cooling.
46. The method according to item 43 or 44, in which the indicated conversion To'-component is implemented by coagulation or gelation.
47. The method according to item 46, in which the coagulation or gelation carried out by heating.
48. The method according to item 46, which in front is the process of extrusion In'component is converted into an extrudable material through the continuous destruction of the dense structure of the gel and after co-extrusion again create a continuous dense structure of this gel by heating and subsequent cooling, or if the gel is thixotropic, immediately, or when stored.
49. The method according to item 46, in which the coagulation or gelation is realized by means of a chemical reaction.
50. The method according to § 49, characterized in that slow gelation in'component before the process of co-extrusion enter gelling or coagulant.
51. The method according to item 50, in which solid particles are suspended In'component, enter the gel or coagulant.
52. The method according to item 50, in which the enzymatic gelation or coagulation, for example, the introduction of protease, such as renin for destruction and coagulation of milk protein.
53. The method according to item 46, in which the gelation or coagulation is performed with the introduction of the reagent in A'component migrating to the component In the'when these components are found in the head for co-extrusion.
54. The method according to item 53, in which the conversion is partially carried out by sedimentation in'-component inorganic salts, such as calcium phosphate formed by the reaction between ions in A'component and ions in'component.
55. The method according to item 50, which through a chemical reaction will precede the correctly formed solid particles coagulated in a continuous film material.
56. The method according to item 43 or 44, which at the time of extrusion-component is mainly in the form of particles of solid material suspended in water, and after extrusion, at least part of the particles of the first alloy, and then convert by cooling to obtain a cohesive material.
57. The method according to item 43 or 44 in which to conduct the process of extrusion And'component in a suitable extrudable state, but with the achievement of a more liquid consistency or smaller yield And component in the finished product And component prior to extrusion partially cooled for solidification the most part, at least, of the material component in the form of ground suspended solids, and after extrusion alloys or re-dissolve the crushed solids.
58. The method according to item 43 or 44 in which to conduct the process of extrusion And'component in a suitable extrudable state, but with the achievement of a more liquid consistency And is a component in the finished product, And'-a component used in the extrusion process in the specified state, entering into the a-component polymer in dissolved or suspended powdered form, which will depolymerized at least partially after the end of the extrusion process.
59. The method according to § 58, which uses enzymatic process depolymerizes is.
60. The method according to any of PP-59, in which A' and'components form at least two streams separated from each other in the x-direction, while the threads of the In'-components are placed between the adjacent threads of A'-component.
61. The method according to paragraph 41, in which component a' is supplied from the tanks And'component, the component In the' served from the tank to'-component separation element (10) is moved relative to the channel output from the first position to the second position in which the separating element crosses the channel output, and flows as A'and'components of the extrusion channels are by nature intermittent and controlled either by using a plunger (35, 53, 54, 55) near or within each channel, which intermittently advances stream or opening the valve (46, 48) between the inlet hole to the appropriate extrusion channel and the tank from which component serves under pressure, movement of the plunger or opening of the valve will agree with the relative movement (11) between the separating elements and the outputs of the channels so as to ensure the movement of material through the outlets at the termination of the relative motion in the specified first and second positions and the latency of the material during position changes.
62. The method according to p, in which each plunger (35, 53, 54: 55) bring the action sequence, consisting of more than one step directions inside, preferably at least 5 steps in the direction of the inside, for example, up to 20 steps in the direction inside, and after each sequence step direction inside the plunger is moved back.
63. The method according to p or 62, which serves As'a component from the corresponding capacitance in the input slot associated with each of the channels And'component, serves To'-component of the corresponding capacitance in the input of the slotted holes (27, 28, 29)associated with each of the channels In the'component, are set in motion only the plunger (35) to the supply delavau hole for advancing material through him, with the plunger in motion to the feed delavau hole preferably with a sequence of more than one step directions inside, preferably at least 5 steps in the direction of the inside, for example, up to 20 steps in the direction of inside and after the sequence of steps in the direction inside divert the plunger back and fill the feed slot extrudable material from the container.
64. The method according to any of PP-63, in which part of the flow of the In'-component of both the front and rear in the direction of flow combine with each piece of thread And' component.
65. The method according to p, in which n is at least two adjacent in the x-direction and continuing in the z-direction of a number of parts from A' and'components combine with each other in their zy-planes.
66. The method according to paragraph 41 or 65, in which the rows are combined into the national chamber and in which the formed sheet is preferably selected on the conveyor (22).
67. The method according to PP or 64, in which, after the output of channel form In'-component around the parts And'component to their full circle in the x-z plane.
68. The method according to p, characterized in that the formation exercise choice'component, which under the conditions of the process is a liquid or has a yield strength in compression, which is at least 2 times lower than the yield stress in compression at the component', and if this condition is not enough to prevent sticking And component separation elements, then, in addition, add to the a-component of the release agent acceptable to the food product, such as cream.
69. The method according to p or 67, in which to carry out or facilitate the formation of a component In' around parts of the component And component flows In' connect with each flow component' until they reach the exit channel, and the connection is carried out on both sides in the x-direction And'component for the formation of a composite flow configuration D A'.
70. The method according to p, which use multiple separated in the x-direction composite flow D A', and outputs through which ekstragiruyut such compound flows D A', alternate in the role of x-direction outputs, through which ekstragiruyut simple component In order to directly after the separation of the formed parts flows consisted of the shear number of parts B A'b', alternating with parts of the D Component.
71. The method according to p, which use two'component - B1' and B2' for forming together around each part of A'component, and wherein B1'component is combined with A'-component for the formation of composite threads B1'And B1'and B1' component is similarly connected to B2' component for the formation of a composite stream B1'-B2'B1', and the holes for the composite streams B1'And'B1' alternate in the x-direction with a compound threads B1'-B2'B1', so that directly after the separation of the formed parts flows consisted of the shear number of parts B1'And'B1', alternating with portions B1'-B2'B1'.
72. The method according to p, in which the connection specified is carried out in such a way as to form the configuration of a D A' when considering the composite stream in the cross-section x-a'-component or, optionally, a configuration with a longer sequence of alternating parts In' and' components, in order To'component was in the beginning and end of this sequence.
73. The method according to any of PP-72, in which the reciprocating movement of the separator element (10) relative the part of one or each of the specified output.
74. The method according to p, in which the separating elements move in a plane or on a circular cylindrical surface.
75. The method according to p, in which x is vertical and near - horizontal, and said reciprocating or back-and-swivel perform the movement in a vertical plane x-y or around the horizontal axis.
76. The method according to any of PP-75, in which the separator element (10) mounted in the fixed part of the extrusion head, and move the node with channels and holes.
77. The method according to any of PP-75, in which the holes is performed in the fixed part of the extrusion head, and the separating elements (10) is installed in the reciprocating moving or rotating parts of the extrusion head.
78. The method according to any of PP-77, in which each hole is performed in close proximity or in direct contact with one or each separator element (10), whereby the separation of the threads is performed by the shift between the walls (9) and outputs a dividing element (10).
79. The method according to p, in which separation of each thread to pieces is performed by the cutting.
80. The method according to p, in which the cutting is carried out by running forward in the direction of flow of the end of one or each separating element in the form of a knife, at the ore, one x-directional side of the dividing element, with the sharp edge of the knife is directed parallel to the direction of the specified offset.
81. The method according to p or 80, in which the cutting is performed by the formation of one or each of the walls (9) holes in the form of a knife, at least one x-directional side, with the sharp edge of the knife is directed parallel to the direction of the specified offset.
82. The method according to item 80 or 81 in which to enhance the effect of cutting provide fluctuations separator element (10) relative to one or each hole in the y-direction in addition to the reciprocating motion along the direction (11)defined by a line of holes, whereby the knives perform sawing.
83. The method according to p, in which the pressure in each tank govern in accordance with the movement of the plunger(35, 53, 54, 55), through which the extrudable material is issued from the container when the plunger retracted, and do not issue from the container while moving a plunger of the material through the channel.
84. The method according to p, which use a check valve (43) between each tank and the corresponding channel, preventing the return of the material in the direction of the channel capacity.
85. The method according to p, in which a check valve installed at the inlet of each channel.
86. The method according to paragraph 41 or 61, where R is sdelanie between channels A' and the separation between the dividing members (10) adjusted relative to each other, and at least component a' ekstragiruyut in rhythm, synchronized with the relative reciprocating movement or rotation in the direction (11) between the holes and the dividing elements in such a way as to make the maximum driving force to the component when each of the holes for the component is flush with the channel formed between two separators.
87. The method according to p, in which the node with channels and holes are pressed to a fixed node, which contains the feeding of the slotted holes (27, 28, 29), during the re-filling of the channel extrudable material and the pressure is removed, at least partially, when there is a movement in the direction (11) of the mobile node.
88. The method according to p, in which the separating elements are pressed to the parts of the extruder (44), which is generated from the outputs, during the advance of the material through the outlets and not pressed during this relative movement.
89. The method according to paragraph 41 or 61, where the separation process to form a layer of'component on each of the xz-plane of the product through the completion of one or each of the holes, from which flows the component', continuing in the y-direction for internal holes, from which springs A'-component.
90. The method according to any of PP-89, in which process the components is the separation, in addition, place one or more layers of the component In the' between adjacent parts And'component, separated from each other in the y-direction, through each internal holes And'component interrupted at one or more locations along an axis and not intermittent for In'-component.
91. The method according to p, in which one or each hole And'component perform with ribs (14), continuing through the exit in the x-direction for the formation of these interrupts, and when In'component cut off above the surface of the parts of the tool cutting plates (17), each of which have the same x-z plane, the corresponding ribs.
92. The method according to p, in which the component B2 is at least partially converted into a gel, moving in a stream towards the separation process.
93. The method according to p, in which the lubricant can form a harmless part of the product, inject around one or each specified plunger (35, 53, 54, 55) to follow extrudable component subjected to the action of the plunger device, thereby lubricating the side walls of each channel through which ekstragiruyut component, to reduce the back pressure created by the extrusion through the channel.
94. The method according to p, where'component is implemented with a viscosity lower than the viscosity As'-kom is Ananta, and the connection threads And' and'components carry out internal extrusion head containing a Central channel through which flows A'-component and peripheral channels on each facing in the x-direction side of the Central channel, through each of which flows In a'component, the center channel is performed with the valve device (13)overlapping stream And'components in the specified peripheral chamber for'component'component serves As'a component over a specified valve device pulses, which are shorter each pulse for the extrusion And the component.
95. The method according to p, in which the valve device (13) perform with elastic petals, continuing along each side of the Central channel.
96. A method of manufacturing a joint extrusion of the food product in the form of a sheet, ribbon or fiber, which consists of at least two components a and b, with part of the component In contact with the parts of the component And in which streams A' and' components, each of which has a common plastic rheology, together ekstragiruyut out of the holes of the extrusion head for A' and'components, respectively, and streams A' and'components are combined and divided into parts, after the extrusion of the component In the' transform into a solid material In component or in viscoelastic TV is RDY material, or, if' component is already a viscoelastic solid material, it is converted into the material In a component having a yield strength in compression of at least twice the yield strength of the component In', and the component transform coagulation or gelation triggered by the coagulant or gel, put in A' component.
97. The method according to p, which as a coagulant or gel using an enzyme, preferably a protease, for example, renin.
98. The method according to p, in which the component In the' contains protein, for example, a milk protein.
99. A device for implementing the method according to item 43, containing extrusion head having channels for the flow of two different extrudable materials and the exit port in the z-direction of the material from the channels, which are separated from each other in the x-direction, the separator element (10)made with the possibility of establishment of at least two series of threads by moving these elements transverse to the holes to separate threads in the x-direction, and the product conditions to convert its components from relatively soft to relatively hard material.
100. A device for implementing the method according to p containing extrusion head having channels, providing protekanie least two different materials, means for advancing material through the channels and out of the holes, which are separated from each other in the x-direction, and the separating elements (10), is arranged to move transversely to the specified holes to separate flowing streams of extrudate in the x-direction.
13.04.1999 - claims 1 to 61, 64-82, 86,89-93, 99,100;
28.05.1999 - p-98;
13.04.2000 - PP, 63, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 94, 95.
FIELD: food industry; equipment for extrusion treatment of food products.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of food industry, in particular, to the equipment for extrusion treatment of food products. The equipment may be used for production of extruded articles of food in different branches of food industry, for example, for production of corn rods, combined fodders for animals, etc. The extruder contains a loading bin, a working chamber with heating elements, a screw, a bearing mount assembly, a mixer and a steaming plant. The steaming plant is located in the loading bin and contains a slope double bottom placed at the angle exceeding the angle of a natural inclination of the processed raw material. In the slope double bottom there are bores for a steam supply, the number of which increases along the raw material traffic route. In the extreme lower part of the slope double bottom there is a tube for a condensate removal. The mixer is linked to the body of the extruder with the help of a mobile flanged coupling. On the outer surface of the body there is a crown gear, and inside the body - a cylindrical sleeve. The sleeve has three zones: a zone of transportation with the blades located at an angle of elevation "α", a zone of the product compaction with an angle of blades elevation "β" and a zone of transportation of the product with an angle of blades elevation "α". The invention ensures improvement of quality of the finished products at the expense of preliminary uniform moistening and heating of the raw materials by steam and also its intensive stirring, decrease of time for the raw material treatment and decrease of dimensions of the extruder.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the finished products quality improvement, decreased time for the raw material treatment and dimensions of the extruder.
FIELD: food-processing industry and agricultural-and-industrial complex, in particular, equipment for utilization of high-moisture content food wastes.
SUBSTANCE: extruder has cylindrical screw casing with charging device and die. Torpedo-type head is located at screw end. Compression seal is provided immediately before torpedo-type head and liquid component inlet device is located immediately after compression seal.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in extruding high moisture content products.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: extruders for forest industry, food-processing industry and pharmaceutical industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed extruder has body with loading bin and screw feeder located in body. Extruder is also provided with sleeve having holes on its side surface; this sleeve is mounted on body forming treatment chamber. Volume of treatment chamber is constant or variable depending on motion of sleeve. Section of side holes is adjustable and/or blanked-off.
EFFECT: simplified construction; extended technical capabilities; reduced power requirements.
3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: equipment for recovery of perishable plant and animal product wastes.
SUBSTANCE: extruder die has case and at least one draw plate composed of precombustion chamber and forming channel. Forming channel and transition portion extending from precombustion chamber to forming channel are provided in freely deformable flexible enclosure. Rigidity rib is running along outer perimeter of enclosure at the end of forming channel. Cavity provided on outer surface of enclosure rests upon die case and is loaded with inner pressure. Die has device for measurement of enclosure deformation extent. Cavity is provided with pressure measuring device.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation and improved quality of product manufactured by means of said extruder.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: utilization of wastes of agricultural complex enterprises, may be used in utilization of high moisture content perishable food wastes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grain wastes and distillery dregs to moisture content of from 24% to 28% and extruding through die equipped with at least one spinneret; cooling mixture and drying in flow of air blown through extrudate layer; providing required moisture content by altering share of grain wastes. Air temperature may be lower or higher than ambient air temperature. Method provides for increased shelf life due to reduced moisture content of product owing to joint usage of conductive heat exchange, cooling and drying to moisture content lower than critical value allowing product to be canned.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and prolonged storage life of high moisture content food wastes.
3 cl, 1 ex