Method for determining concentration of proppant in mixtures for hydraulic fracturing of oil-containing beds

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring flow and density of liquid, used for preparation of mixture for hydraulic fracturing of bed, measuring flow and density of mixture of liquid with proppant at output from mixture preparation machine. Current value of mixture density is measured in some time after delay, equal to time of passing of a portion of liquid through mixture preparation machine. On basis of results of measurements of these parameters current value of volumetric concentration of proppant C and mass share of proppant X in the mixture are calculated using formulae:

,

where ρpr - mineralogical density of proppant; ρl - current value of liquid density; ρpil - piled density of proppant; ρmix - current mixture density value; Θ - mixture volume increase coefficient during mixing of liquid with proppant and chemical reagents.

EFFECT: higher precision.

4 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to methods of control without sampling parameters of technological processes, and more specifically to methods of rapid control of the concentration of proppant in the mixture injected at high pressure into wells to hydraulic fracturing Neftegazgeodeziya layers, and can be used in the oil and gas industry.

There is a method of rapid determination of the concentration of proppant in the mixtures, which consists in measuring in the pipeline at the inlet to the mixer flow of the liquid used to prepare the mixture of proppant and chemicals, in measuring the density of the mixture in the pipeline at the outlet of the unit of mixture preparation and calculation of the measured parameters concentration of proppant [US 5441340].

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of changing the current values of the density of the liquid, which is water with different degree of mineralization or different types of oil.

Also there is a method of determining the mass fraction of solid phase aqueous slurries in pipelines, which consists in the simultaneous determination of current density values using a gamma densitometer and the mass fraction of the liquid phase using a neutron sensor, which calculates the current value of the solid phase.

The disadvantage of this method is the tsya insufficient performance (minutes instead of seconds) neutron sensor mass fraction of the liquid phase and its large dimensions, due to the use of biological protection, preventing its installation on the machine mixing, mounted on the chassis of the vehicle type or KRAZ, URAL [EN 2082152].

Closest to the claimed technical solution is a method of rapid determination of the concentration of proppant in mixtures for hydraulic fracturing Neftegazgeodeziya strata, which consists in measuring in the pipeline at the entrance to the Assembly mixture of fluid flow, from which is produced a mixture by mixing it with proppant and chemicals (gel constructor and destructor), the density and flow of the mixture in the pipeline at the outlet of the aggregate mixture and the calculation according to these measurements the concentration of proppant in the mixture [US 4953097].

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of changing the current values of fluid density and compliance portion of the mixture, in which the density is measured, the corresponding portions of the liquid. This leads to the fact that the error of determining the current values of the concentration of proppant by this method is plus or minus 10% or more, at the time of measurement, equal to 15 seconds, while the required accuracy of determining the concentration of proppant no more than plus or minus 3-4%, for the same measurement time.

This disadvantage of the prototype is explained in IG, which shows the dependence of the count rate of gamma densitometer installed after Assembly of the preparation of the mixture, concentration of proppant for various types of liquids, from which is prepared the mixture. From this relation it is seen that the same measured value of the density of the mixture at the outlet of the aggregate mixture may correspond to different proppant concentration (C1 and C2) for mixtures based on oil or water gels. As shown by our calculations, the error in determining the concentration of proppant in the water or oil gel, its dependence, taking into account the error of the gamma densitometer, will not exceed plus or minus 20 g/l, which provides reduced error no worse than plus or minus 3.2%), while every change of the density of the gel (density oil gel is 0.82 g/cm3the density of the water gel is 1.0 g/cm3) 0.01 g/cm3increases the accuracy of determining the concentration of proppant by 2.44%.

Indeed, the absolute error in the determination of volume concentration of proppant Δis:

ΔC=867 g/l-383 g/l=484 g/l

The difference in the densities of water and netlogo gel Δρshown in figure 1, is equal to:

Δρ=(1,0-0,82)g/cm3=0.18 g/cm3.

Determine the percentage of absolute error Δattributable to the change in the PLO the surface of the gel, equal to 0.01 g/cm3:

.

Given the uncertainty With equal to 1100 g/l of Figure 1, will be:

reduced error =.

The objective of the invention is to provide a method of determining, with a given accuracy, the current values of the concentration of proppant in the mixture for hydraulic fracturing, prepared on the basis of all types of liquids, for example water with different degree of mineralization or oil grades, which differ from each other in density.

Technical result in the implementation of the proposed method is to improve the quality of the crack formation and consolidation of an artificial pore space in the body of the reservoir when conducting hydraulic fracturing, due to more accurate determination of current values of the concentration of proppant in the mixtures used in the process.

To solve this problem, as in the prototype, the method of determining the concentration of proppant in mixtures for hydraulic fracturing Neftegazgeodeziya layers includes the measurement of fluid flow prior to mixing with the proppant, the flow measurement and the density of the mixture coming through the pipeline of the Assembly prepare the mixture, and calculating the concentration of proppant in the mixture according to the measurement results. Unlike the prototype advanced measuring the t of the density of the liquid before mixing with proppant, and the current value of the density of the mixture is measured after a time delay equal to the time of passage of portions of liquid through the Assembly prepare the mixture, and the measurement results of the respective current values of the density of the liquid mixture and determine the current value of the volume concentration of proppant and the mass fraction of proppant X by the formulas:

where:

ρCR- mineralogical density proppant;

ρcm- current density value portion of the mixture;

ρW- the current value of the density of the liquid portion;

ρus- bulk density proppant;

Θ - amplification factor when mixing the fluid with proppant and chemicals (gel-destructor).

Mineralogical density proppant ρCRand bulk density proppant ρustaken from the passport data of the party proppant.

Formulas (1) and (2) obtained from consideration of the mass balance and the balance of volumes in the preparation of the mixture. The formulas described in the Annex to the application materials.

Therefore, by measuring the current values of fluid density and the density of the mixture, can be calculated by the formulas (1) and (2) the current values of the concentration of proppant and fraction of total mass of proppant X. In this case, the current is the value of the density of the mixture should be measured after a certain time delay after measuring the current value of the fluid density, equal to the time of passage of fluid through the Assembly mixture.

The amplification factor when mixing the fluid with proppant and chemicals Θfor a particular type of fluid is determined by the formula:

where:

ρcm max- the maximum value of the current density of the mixture in concrete operations hydraulic fracturing;

k is a constant to be determined;

n is the exponent, taking values 0, 1, 2.

Thus, the specific value of the parameters k and n for a particular liquid can be defined in two variants.

Option 1. Specific values of the parameters k and n for a particular liquid is chosen according to the criterion:

where:

Withexcm) - experimentally established the dependence of the volume concentration of proppant from the density of the mixture;

Withcalccm) is the calculated dependence of the volume concentration of proppant from the density of the mixture.

Option 2. Specific values of k and n, required to calculate the amplification factor of the mixture Θ by the formula (3), is determined by the measured mass of proppant MCRpumped into the well, by solving the equation:

where:

T - the time spent on pumping the mixture into the well.

<> MCR- measured mass of proppant;

Qcm(t) - the current value of the volumetric flow of the mixture;

t - the current time flow measurement and the density of the mixture;

ρcm(t) - the current value of the density of the mixture;

X(t,ρcm,n,k) - current value of the mass fraction of proppant.

Thus, the task of determining the current values of the bulk concentration of proppant and the mass fraction of proppant X by measuring the current values of the densities ρcmand ρWwith regard to factor Θfully resolved.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, in which:

Figure 1 - dependence of the counting rate of the gamma densitometer on the concentration of proppant in the working mixtures for water gel and oil gel;

Figure 2 - dependence of the calculated volumetric concentration of proppant density water gel for different k when n = 1;

Figure 3 - dependence of the calculated volumetric concentration of proppant density water gel for different k when n = 2;

4 - numerical solution of equation (4) when n = 1 and 2;

Figure 5 - comparison of experimental and calculated dependences of the volume concentration of proppant from the density of the mixture with n equal to 1 and 2 for water gel;

6 is a structural diagram of concentrator proppant;

Fig.7. a recording parameters of hydraulic fracturing using concentrator p is oppent RIK-01 well 244, the Bush 9 Komsomol deposits of JSC "Purneftegaz", organized by JSC "Purneftegaz".

Practical determination of the optimal values of n and k on the criterion F is illustrated in figure 2 and Figure 3, which shows the calculated dependence of the concentration of proppant from the mixture density for water gel at different n and k and their comparison with experimentally established the dependence of the volume concentration of proppant from the density of the mixture Withexcm). It is seen that for water gel best agreement with experiment is obtained using the formula (3) n = 2, and k, equal to 0.6.

The value of MCRstanding in the left side of the expression (5)is known, so this expression can be regarded as an equation for determining the value of n and k. Numerical solution of this equation for water gel and n = 1 and n = 2 are shown in Figure 4. It is seen that for n equal to 1, we obtain a value of k equal to 0.45, and for n equal to 2, we obtain k, equal to 0.56.

The selection of a more appropriate value of the coefficient k by comparison Withexcm) and Ccalccm), obtained for dierent values of n. This choice is illustrated in Figure 5: selected values of n equal to 2, and k, equal to 0.56 for water gel, and use them to calculate the coefficient of Θ by the formula (3).

The proposed method is implemented. is the operating principle of concentrator proppant, block diagram is presented on Fig.6.

Concentrator proppant contains the first sensor 1 flow rate and the first sensor 2 fluid density, installed in front of the unit preparing the mixture 3, the second sensor 4 flow rate and the second sensor 5 the density of the mixture fluid with proppant installed after Assembly of mixture 3, the outputs of the sensors are connected through a hub 6 computer 7 through the hub 6 is connected with indicators 8 and 9.

Concentrator proppant works as follows: flow sensors 1, 4, and density gauges 2, 5, installed on the piping on the inlet and outlet of the unit preparing the mixture 3 with a step of 15 seconds to measure the current value of the flow rate and density of liquid (water or oil gel), and the mixture through the hub 6 are received in the personal computer 7. In the computer 7, using software, using formulas(1), (2), (3) calculate the current value of the volume concentration of proppant and the mass fraction of proppant X using k and n are previously defined using expressions (4) and (5). The calculated current values of the concentration of proppant, as well as the current values of density, flow, and calculated the mass of proppant cast into the well, and recorded in the memory of the computer 7, shown on the display and digital indicators 8, . This rapid information operators control the process of hydraulic fracturing.

Figure 7 shows the results of the graphic recording of parameters of hydraulic fracturing using concentrator proppant RIK-01 hole 244, the Bush 9 Komsomol deposits of JSC "Purneftegaz", organized by JSC "Purneftegaz". 7 curves indicate the entry defining the following parameters: 10 - the density of the liquid; 11 - the density of the mixture; 12 - proppant concentration; 13 - the flow of the mixture; 14 - proppant mass, given in the well.

Thus, by measuring the current values of fluid density and the density of the mixture, for example using a gamma densitometer, can be calculated by the formulas (1) and (2) the current values of the concentration of proppant and fraction of total mass of proppant X. In this case, the current value of the density of the mixture should be measured after a certain time delay after measuring the current value of the fluid density equal to the time of passage of fluid through the Assembly mixture. This time τ can be pre-determined by the formula:

where: S is the distance between the densitometers;

V - velocity of a fluid.

Estimate the error in determining the concentration of proppant With by the formula (1). The formula for estimating the full error Δ (ρcmthat ρW) is in the d:

The evaluation results are shown errors in the determination of the volume concentration of proppant water gel, using formula (7) when the error of the gamma densitometer plus or minus 0.02 g/cm-3for p = 0.95 and averaging time of 15 seconds, are shown in table 1.



Table 1

The calculation error in determining the concentration of proppant mixture is water based gel
The mixture density, g/cm-3Δ (ρcmthatρW), g×l-1±ΔCcm±ΔCWReduced error, %
1,08121,315,815,11,7
1,18298,717,916,21,9
1,30537,2of 21.217,62,2
1,40823,125,919,22,6
1,481106,431,320,33,0
1,501205,9the 33.420,63,1

Table vidno, the proposed method provides for water gel shows an error no worse than plus or minus 3.1 per cent, i.e. completely solves the problem.

The prototype radioisotope concentrator proppant RIK-01 has been tested at JSC "Purneftegaz" (, Gubkin Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district).

Appendix: formulas for determining the concentration of proppant and the mass fraction of proppant.

The current value of the volume concentration of proppant and the mass fraction of proppant X is determined by the formula:

ρCR- mineralogical density proppant;

ρW- the current value of the density of the liquid portion;

ρus- bulk density proppant;

ρcm- current density value portion of the mixture;

Θ - amplification factor when mixing the fluid with proppant and chemicals (gel constructor, destructor).

Formulas (1) and (2) receive from consideration of the mass balance and the balance of volumes in the preparation of the mixture. Indeed, let us denote:

MWis the mass of liquid in the mixture;

VW- the volume of liquid in the mixture;

the density of the liquid;

MCR- weight of the proppant in the mixture;

VCRthe true volume of proppant in the mixture;

V - bulk volume of proppant in the mixture;

- mineralogical density proppant;

- bulk density proppant;

the fill factor of the volume of proppant;

Vempty=(1-α)·Vus- the volume of empty space in the volume occupied by the proppant;

Mcmthe weight of the mixture;

Vcm- the volume of the mixture;

the density of the mixture.

Required by measured ρWand ρcmto find the concentration of proppantand fraction of total mass of proppant.

Let us write the balance of volume and mass balance after preparation of the mixture:

where:

Θ - the rate of increase of the volume of the mixture used in (1) and (2) (volume of the mixture is greater than the sum of the volumes of proppant and liquid),

Express the density of the mixture through the mass and volume of its components:

Noticing that MW=(1-X)·Mcmand MCR=X·Mcm, we can rewrite the expression (10) in the form:

Next we will give an expression (11) to a common denominator and get:

From the expression (12) we find X:

Proppant concentration is expressed With the formula:

Substituting in the formula (13) the expression for X, we get:

1. The method of determining the concentration of proppant in mixtures for hydraulic fracturing Neftegazgeodeziya layers, including the measurement of fluid flow prior to mixing with the proppant, the measurement of the flow of the mixture and measuring the density of the mixture coming through the pipeline from the aggregate mixture, calculating the current values of the concentration of the proppant according to the measurement results, characterized in that it further measure the density of the liquid prior to mixing with the proppant, and the current value of the density of the mixture is measured after a time delay equal to the time of passage of portions of liquid through the Assembly prepare the mixture, and the measurement results of the respective current values of the densities of the liquid and the mixture determine the current value of the volume concentration of proppant and mass share proppant X in the mixture using the formulas:

where ρCR- mineralogical density proppant;

ρW- the current value of the fluid density;

ρus- bulk density proppant;

ρcm- tech is the future value of the density of the mixture;

Θ - the rate of increase of the volume of the mixture during the mixing of the fluid with proppant and chemicals.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the amplification factor of the mixture Θ for the type of fluid is determined by the formula:

where k is some constant to be determined;

n is an exponent which takes the value 0, 1, 2;

ρcm max- the maximum value of the current density of the mixture in concrete operations hydraulic fracturing.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the specific values of the constants k and exponent n for a particular liquid is chosen according to the criterion:

where Cexcm) - experimentally established the dependence of the volume concentration of proppant density;

Withcalccm) is the calculated dependence of the volume concentration of proppant from the density of the mixture.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the specific values of the constants k and exponent n for a particular liquid is determined by the measured mass of proppant MCRpumped into the well, according to the equation:

where MCR- measured mass of proppant;

Qcm(t) - the current value of the volumetric flow of the mixture;

t - the current time flow measurement and the density of the mixture;

ρcm(t) - the current value of the density of the mixture;

X(t, ρcm, n, k) - current value of the mass fraction of proppant;

T - the time spent on pumping the mixture into the well.



 

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