# Method for determining concentration of proppant in mixtures for hydraulic fracturing of oil-containing beds

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring flow and density of liquid, used for preparation of mixture for hydraulic fracturing of bed, measuring flow and density of mixture of liquid with proppant at output from mixture preparation machine. Current value of mixture density is measured in some time after delay, equal to time of passing of a portion of liquid through mixture preparation machine. On basis of results of measurements of these parameters current value of volumetric concentration of proppant C and mass share of proppant X in the mixture are calculated using formulae:

,

where ρ_{pr} - mineralogical density of proppant; ρ_{l} - current value of liquid density; ρ_{pil} - piled density of proppant; ρ_{mix} - current mixture density value; Θ - mixture volume increase coefficient during mixing of liquid with proppant and chemical reagents.

EFFECT: higher precision.

4 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

The invention relates to methods of control without sampling parameters of technological processes, and more specifically to methods of rapid control of the concentration of proppant in the mixture injected at high pressure into wells to hydraulic fracturing Neftegazgeodeziya layers, and can be used in the oil and gas industry.

There is a method of rapid determination of the concentration of proppant in the mixtures, which consists in measuring in the pipeline at the inlet to the mixer flow of the liquid used to prepare the mixture of proppant and chemicals, in measuring the density of the mixture in the pipeline at the outlet of the unit of mixture preparation and calculation of the measured parameters concentration of proppant [US 5441340].

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of changing the current values of the density of the liquid, which is water with different degree of mineralization or different types of oil.

Also there is a method of determining the mass fraction of solid phase aqueous slurries in pipelines, which consists in the simultaneous determination of current density values using a gamma densitometer and the mass fraction of the liquid phase using a neutron sensor, which calculates the current value of the solid phase.

The disadvantage of this method is the tsya insufficient performance (minutes instead of seconds) neutron sensor mass fraction of the liquid phase and its large dimensions, due to the use of biological protection, preventing its installation on the machine mixing, mounted on the chassis of the vehicle type or KRAZ, URAL [EN 2082152].

Closest to the claimed technical solution is a method of rapid determination of the concentration of proppant in mixtures for hydraulic fracturing Neftegazgeodeziya strata, which consists in measuring in the pipeline at the entrance to the Assembly mixture of fluid flow, from which is produced a mixture by mixing it with proppant and chemicals (gel constructor and destructor), the density and flow of the mixture in the pipeline at the outlet of the aggregate mixture and the calculation according to these measurements the concentration of proppant in the mixture [US 4953097].

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of changing the current values of fluid density and compliance portion of the mixture, in which the density is measured, the corresponding portions of the liquid. This leads to the fact that the error of determining the current values of the concentration of proppant by this method is plus or minus 10% or more, at the time of measurement, equal to 15 seconds, while the required accuracy of determining the concentration of proppant no more than plus or minus 3-4%, for the same measurement time.

This disadvantage of the prototype is explained in IG,
which shows the dependence of the count rate of gamma densitometer installed after Assembly of the preparation of the mixture, concentration of proppant for various types of liquids, from which is prepared the mixture. From this relation it is seen that the same measured value of the density of the mixture at the outlet of the aggregate mixture may correspond to different proppant concentration (C1 and C2) for mixtures based on oil or water gels. As shown by our calculations, the error in determining the concentration of proppant in the water or oil gel, its dependence, taking into account the error of the gamma densitometer, will not exceed plus or minus 20 g/l, which provides reduced error no worse than plus or minus 3.2%), while every change of the density of the gel (density oil gel is 0.82 g/cm^{3}the density of the water gel is 1.0 g/cm^{3}) 0.01 g/cm^{3}increases the accuracy of determining the concentration of proppant by 2.44%.

Indeed, the absolute error in the determination of volume concentration of proppant Δis:

ΔC=867 g/l-383 g/l=484 g/l

The difference in the densities of water and netlogo gel Δρshown in figure 1, is equal to:

Δρ=(1,0-0,82)g/cm^{3}=0.18 g/cm^{3}.

Determine the percentage of absolute error Δattributable to the change in the PLO the surface of the gel,
equal to 0.01 g/cm^{3}:

.

Given the uncertainty With equal to 1100 g/l of Figure 1, will be:

reduced error =.

The objective of the invention is to provide a method of determining, with a given accuracy, the current values of the concentration of proppant in the mixture for hydraulic fracturing, prepared on the basis of all types of liquids, for example water with different degree of mineralization or oil grades, which differ from each other in density.

Technical result in the implementation of the proposed method is to improve the quality of the crack formation and consolidation of an artificial pore space in the body of the reservoir when conducting hydraulic fracturing, due to more accurate determination of current values of the concentration of proppant in the mixtures used in the process.

To solve this problem, as in the prototype, the method of determining the concentration of proppant in mixtures for hydraulic fracturing Neftegazgeodeziya layers includes the measurement of fluid flow prior to mixing with the proppant, the flow measurement and the density of the mixture coming through the pipeline of the Assembly prepare the mixture, and calculating the concentration of proppant in the mixture according to the measurement results. Unlike the prototype advanced measuring the t of the density of the liquid before mixing with proppant, and the current value of the density of the mixture is measured after a time delay equal to the time of passage of portions of liquid through the Assembly prepare the mixture, and the measurement results of the respective current values of the density of the liquid mixture and determine the current value of the volume concentration of proppant and the mass fraction of proppant X by the formulas:

where:

ρ_{CR}- mineralogical density proppant;

ρ_{cm}- current density value portion of the mixture;

ρ_{W}- the current value of the density of the liquid portion;

ρ_{us}- bulk density proppant;

Θ - amplification factor when mixing the fluid with proppant and chemicals (gel-destructor).

Mineralogical density proppant ρ_{CR}and bulk density proppant ρ_{us}taken from the passport data of the party proppant.

Formulas (1) and (2) obtained from consideration of the mass balance and the balance of volumes in the preparation of the mixture. The formulas described in the Annex to the application materials.

Therefore, by measuring the current values of fluid density and the density of the mixture, can be calculated by the formulas (1) and (2) the current values of the concentration of proppant and fraction of total mass of proppant X. In this case, the current is the value of the density of the mixture should be measured after a certain time delay after measuring the current value of the fluid density, equal to the time of passage of fluid through the Assembly mixture.

The amplification factor when mixing the fluid with proppant and chemicals Θfor a particular type of fluid is determined by the formula:

where:

ρ_{cm max}- the maximum value of the current density of the mixture in concrete operations hydraulic fracturing;

k is a constant to be determined;

n is the exponent, taking values 0, 1, 2.

Thus, the specific value of the parameters k and n for a particular liquid can be defined in two variants.

Option 1. Specific values of the parameters k and n for a particular liquid is chosen according to the criterion:

where:

With_{ex}(ρ_{cm}) - experimentally established the dependence of the volume concentration of proppant from the density of the mixture;

With_{calc}(ρ_{cm}) is the calculated dependence of the volume concentration of proppant from the density of the mixture.

Option 2. Specific values of k and n, required to calculate the amplification factor of the mixture Θ by the formula (3), is determined by the measured mass of proppant M_{CR}pumped into the well, by solving the equation:

where:

T - the time spent on pumping the mixture into the well.

<> M_{CR}- measured mass of proppant;

Q_{cm}(t) - the current value of the volumetric flow of the mixture;

t - the current time flow measurement and the density of the mixture;

ρ_{cm}(t) - the current value of the density of the mixture;

X(t,ρ_{cm},n,k) - current value of the mass fraction of proppant.

Thus, the task of determining the current values of the bulk concentration of proppant and the mass fraction of proppant X by measuring the current values of the densities ρ_{cm}and ρ_{W}with regard to factor Θfully resolved.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, in which:

Figure 1 - dependence of the counting rate of the gamma densitometer on the concentration of proppant in the working mixtures for water gel and oil gel;

Figure 2 - dependence of the calculated volumetric concentration of proppant density water gel for different k when n = 1;

Figure 3 - dependence of the calculated volumetric concentration of proppant density water gel for different k when n = 2;

4 - numerical solution of equation (4) when n = 1 and 2;

Figure 5 - comparison of experimental and calculated dependences of the volume concentration of proppant from the density of the mixture with n equal to 1 and 2 for water gel;

6 is a structural diagram of concentrator proppant;

Fig.7. a recording parameters of hydraulic fracturing using concentrator p is oppent RIK-01 well 244, the Bush 9 Komsomol deposits of JSC "Purneftegaz", organized by JSC "Purneftegaz".

Practical determination of the optimal values of n and k on the criterion F is illustrated in figure 2 and Figure 3, which shows the calculated dependence of the concentration of proppant from the mixture density for water gel at different n and k and their comparison with experimentally established the dependence of the volume concentration of proppant from the density of the mixture With_{ex}(ρ_{cm}). It is seen that for water gel best agreement with experiment is obtained using the formula (3) n = 2, and k, equal to 0.6.

The value of M_{CR}standing in the left side of the expression (5)is known, so this expression can be regarded as an equation for determining the value of n and k. Numerical solution of this equation for water gel and n = 1 and n = 2 are shown in Figure 4. It is seen that for n equal to 1, we obtain a value of k equal to 0.45, and for n equal to 2, we obtain k, equal to 0.56.

The selection of a more appropriate value of the coefficient k by comparison With_{ex}(ρ_{cm}) and C_{calc}(ρ_{cm}), obtained for dierent values of n. This choice is illustrated in Figure 5: selected values of n equal to 2, and k, equal to 0.56 for water gel, and use them to calculate the coefficient of Θ by the formula (3).

The proposed method is implemented. is the operating principle of concentrator proppant, block diagram is presented on Fig.6.

Concentrator proppant contains the first sensor 1 flow rate and the first sensor 2 fluid density, installed in front of the unit preparing the mixture 3, the second sensor 4 flow rate and the second sensor 5 the density of the mixture fluid with proppant installed after Assembly of mixture 3, the outputs of the sensors are connected through a hub 6 computer 7 through the hub 6 is connected with indicators 8 and 9.

Concentrator proppant works as follows: flow sensors 1, 4, and density gauges 2, 5, installed on the piping on the inlet and outlet of the unit preparing the mixture 3 with a step of 15 seconds to measure the current value of the flow rate and density of liquid (water or oil gel), and the mixture through the hub 6 are received in the personal computer 7. In the computer 7, using software, using formulas(1), (2), (3) calculate the current value of the volume concentration of proppant and the mass fraction of proppant X using k and n are previously defined using expressions (4) and (5). The calculated current values of the concentration of proppant, as well as the current values of density, flow, and calculated the mass of proppant cast into the well, and recorded in the memory of the computer 7, shown on the display and digital indicators 8, . This rapid information operators control the process of hydraulic fracturing.

Figure 7 shows the results of the graphic recording of parameters of hydraulic fracturing using concentrator proppant RIK-01 hole 244, the Bush 9 Komsomol deposits of JSC "Purneftegaz", organized by JSC "Purneftegaz". 7 curves indicate the entry defining the following parameters: 10 - the density of the liquid; 11 - the density of the mixture; 12 - proppant concentration; 13 - the flow of the mixture; 14 - proppant mass, given in the well.

Thus, by measuring the current values of fluid density and the density of the mixture, for example using a gamma densitometer, can be calculated by the formulas (1) and (2) the current values of the concentration of proppant and fraction of total mass of proppant X. In this case, the current value of the density of the mixture should be measured after a certain time delay after measuring the current value of the fluid density equal to the time of passage of fluid through the Assembly mixture. This time τ can be pre-determined by the formula:

where: S is the distance between the densitometers;

V - velocity of a fluid.

Estimate the error in determining the concentration of proppant With by the formula (1). The formula for estimating the full error Δ (ρ_{cm}that ρ_{W}) is in the d:

The evaluation results are shown errors in the determination of the volume concentration of proppant water gel, using formula (7) when the error of the gamma densitometer plus or minus 0.02 g/cm^{-3}for p = 0.95 and averaging time of 15 seconds, are shown in table 1.

Table 1 The calculation error in determining the concentration of proppant mixture is water based gel | ||||

The mixture density, g/cm^{-3} | Δ (ρ_{cm}thatρ_{W}), g×l^{-1} | ±ΔC_{cm} | ±ΔC_{W} | Reduced error, % |

1,08 | 121,3 | 15,8 | 15,1 | 1,7 |

1,18 | 298,7 | 17,9 | 16,2 | 1,9 |

1,30 | 537,2 | of 21.2 | 17,6 | 2,2 |

1,40 | 823,1 | 25,9 | 19,2 | 2,6 |

1,48 | 1106,4 | 31,3 | 20,3 | 3,0 |

1,50 | 1205,9 | the 33.4 | 20,6 | 3,1 |

Table vidno, the proposed method provides for water gel shows an error no worse than plus or minus 3.1 per cent, i.e. completely solves the problem.

The prototype radioisotope concentrator proppant RIK-01 has been tested at JSC "Purneftegaz" (, Gubkin Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district).

Appendix: formulas for determining the concentration of proppant and the mass fraction of proppant.

The current value of the volume concentration of proppant and the mass fraction of proppant X is determined by the formula:

ρ_{CR}- mineralogical density proppant;

ρ_{W}- the current value of the density of the liquid portion;

ρ_{us}- bulk density proppant;

ρ_{cm}- current density value portion of the mixture;

Θ - amplification factor when mixing the fluid with proppant and chemicals (gel constructor, destructor).

Formulas (1) and (2) receive from consideration of the mass balance and the balance of volumes in the preparation of the mixture. Indeed, let us denote:

M_{W}is the mass of liquid in the mixture;

V_{W}- the volume of liquid in the mixture;

the density of the liquid;

M_{CR}- weight of the proppant in the mixture;

V_{CR}the true volume of proppant in the mixture;

V_{
- bulk volume of proppant in the mixture;}

- mineralogical density proppant;

- bulk density proppant;

the fill factor of the volume of proppant;

V_{empty}=(1-α)·V_{us}- the volume of empty space in the volume occupied by the proppant;

M_{cm}the weight of the mixture;

V_{cm}- the volume of the mixture;

the density of the mixture.

Required by measured ρ_{W}and ρ_{cm}to find the concentration of proppantand fraction of total mass of proppant.

Let us write the balance of volume and mass balance after preparation of the mixture:

where:

Θ - the rate of increase of the volume of the mixture used in (1) and (2) (volume of the mixture is greater than the sum of the volumes of proppant and liquid),

Express the density of the mixture through the mass and volume of its components:

Noticing that M_{W}=(1-X)·M_{cm}and M_{CR}=X·M_{cm}, we can rewrite the expression (10) in the form:

Next we will give an expression (11) to a common denominator and get:

From the expression (12) we find X:

Proppant concentration is expressed With the formula:

Substituting in the formula (13) the expression for X, we get:

1. The method of determining the concentration of proppant in mixtures for hydraulic fracturing Neftegazgeodeziya layers, including the measurement of fluid flow prior to mixing with the proppant, the measurement of the flow of the mixture and measuring the density of the mixture coming through the pipeline from the aggregate mixture, calculating the current values of the concentration of the proppant according to the measurement results, characterized in that it further measure the density of the liquid prior to mixing with the proppant, and the current value of the density of the mixture is measured after a time delay equal to the time of passage of portions of liquid through the Assembly prepare the mixture, and the measurement results of the respective current values of the densities of the liquid and the mixture determine the current value of the volume concentration of proppant and mass share proppant X in the mixture using the formulas:

where ρ_{CR}- mineralogical density proppant;

ρ_{W}- the current value of the fluid density;

ρ_{us}- bulk density proppant;

ρ_{cm}- tech is the future value of the density of the mixture;

Θ - the rate of increase of the volume of the mixture during the mixing of the fluid with proppant and chemicals.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the amplification factor of the mixture Θ for the type of fluid is determined by the formula:

where k is some constant to be determined;

n is an exponent which takes the value 0, 1, 2;

ρ_{cm max}- the maximum value of the current density of the mixture in concrete operations hydraulic fracturing.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the specific values of the constants k and exponent n for a particular liquid is chosen according to the criterion:

where C_{ex}(ρ_{cm}) - experimentally established the dependence of the volume concentration of proppant density;

With_{calc}(ρ_{cm}) is the calculated dependence of the volume concentration of proppant from the density of the mixture.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the specific values of the constants k and exponent n for a particular liquid is determined by the measured mass of proppant M_{CR}pumped into the well, according to the equation:

where M_{CR}- measured mass of proppant;

Q_{cm}(t) - the current value of the volumetric flow of the mixture;

t - the current time flow measurement and the density of the mixture;

ρ_{cm}(t) - the current value of the density of the mixture;

X(t, ρ_{cm}, n, k) - current value of the mass fraction of proppant;

T - the time spent on pumping the mixture into the well.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: sample is taken and is allowed to settle, after it the hydrostatic pressure is measured. Time for which ultrasonic pulse passes through layer of settled water is measured additionally. Mass concentration W of water is defined from ratio W = g ρ_{w} C_{w}(t_{1}-t_{0})/2ΔP, where g is free fall acceleration, ρ_{w} is density of water after temperature and pressure reached the steady state, C_{w} is speed of sound in water medium, ΔP is hydrostatic pressure, (t_{1}-t_{0}) is time interval during which direct and reflected ultrasonic pulses pass. Device for measuring content of water has water-tight casing (vessel for taking samples) provided with pressure, temperature and hydrostatic (differential) pressure detectors. Acoustic transformer intended for receiving and irradiating ultrasonic pulses should be mounted at bottom side of casing.

EFFECT: increased precision of measurement.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: sample is taken and is allowed to settle, after it the hydrostatic pressure is measured. Time for which ultrasonic pulse passes through layer of settled water is measured additionally. Mass concentration W of water is defined from ratio W = g ρ_{w} C_{w}(t_{1}-t_{0})/2ΔP, where g is free fall acceleration, ρ_{w} is density of water after temperature and pressure reached the steady state, C_{w} is speed of sound in water medium, ΔP is hydrostatic pressure, (t_{1}-t_{0}) is time interval during which direct and reflected ultrasonic pulses pass. Device for measuring content of water has water-tight casing (vessel for taking samples) provided with pressure, temperature and hydrostatic (differential) pressure detectors. Acoustic transformer intended for receiving and irradiating ultrasonic pulses should be mounted at bottom side of casing.

EFFECT: increased precision of measurement.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring flow and density of liquid, used for preparation of mixture for hydraulic fracturing of bed, measuring flow and density of mixture of liquid with proppant at output from mixture preparation machine. Current value of mixture density is measured in some time after delay, equal to time of passing of a portion of liquid through mixture preparation machine. On basis of results of measurements of these parameters current value of volumetric concentration of proppant C and mass share of proppant X in the mixture are calculated using formulae:

,

where ρ_{pr} - mineralogical density of proppant; ρ_{l} - current value of liquid density; ρ_{pil} - piled density of proppant; ρ_{mix} - current mixture density value; Θ - mixture volume increase coefficient during mixing of liquid with proppant and chemical reagents.

EFFECT: higher precision.

4 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: aviation industry.

SUBSTANCE: device helps to get real pattern of liquid pressure distribution which flows about "blown-about" object in water tunnel. Device has driven frequency pulse oscillator, frequency divider, control pulse counter, longitudinal contact multiplexer which connect capacitors with shelves, lateral contact multiplexer which connect the other output of capacitors, matching unit, analog-to-digital converter, indication unit, water tunnel, blown-about object, grid with capacitive detector.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry, particularly survey of boreholes or wells.

SUBSTANCE: device has working chamber, pressure and temperature control means, impulse tube to which differential pressure transducer is connected. Impulse tube is filled with reference fluid and connected to above working chamber in points spaced apart in vertical direction along working chamber. Upper part of working chamber is connected to access hole of wellhead. Lower end thereof is communicated with atmosphere.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and accuracy of water content determination.

2 dwg

FIELD: technology for determining moisture load of solid materials, possible use for construction, chemical and other industries.

SUBSTANCE: UHF method for determining moisture load of solid materials on basis of Brewster angle includes positioning researched material into high-frequency electromagnetic field with following registration of parameters alternation, characterizing high-frequency emission. Ring-shaped multi-slit antenna with electronic-controlled direction diagram excites electromagnetic wave, falling onto dielectric material. Direction diagram inclination angle is measured until moment, at which minimal power of reflected wave is detected, wave length of UHF generator is determined and Brewster angle is calculated. Then on basis of normalized mathematical formulae moisture load value of surface layer of W_{s} is calculated for measured material. Further, power of refracted wave is stabilized by changing power of falling wave, temperature of subject material T_{1} is measured, and after given time span - temperature T_{2} and moisture level are determined for volume of material from given mathematical relation. Device for realization of given method includes UHF generator, UHF detector, wave-guiding Y-circulator, input shoulder of which has generator block controlled by voltage, attenuator, controlled by central microprocessor unit, UHF watt-meter with output to central microprocessor unit device for controlling and stabilization of output power, diode pulse modulator and video pulse generator, controlled by central microprocessor unit, peak detector. First output shoulder of Y-circulator has absorbing synchronized load, and second output shoulder has complex cone antenna, consisting of emitting portion in form of ring-shaped multi-slit antenna and cone-shaped receipt portion, to which gate is connected as well as second UHF watt-meter, connected to extreme digital controller for searching and indication of power minimum of returned wave and resonator indicator of wave meter. UHF generator is powered by central microprocessor unit controlled power block, video pulse counter is connected to digital wave meter, and thermal pairs block is connected to central microprocessor unit device.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity, increased precision of measurement of moisture load of surface layer, expanded functional capabilities due to additional determination of integral moisture load on basis of interaction volume and decreased parasitic UHF emission.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of determination of acetic acid concentration.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the method of determination of acetic acid concentration in a broad band of temperatures. The technical result is an increased accuracy at determination of concentration of acetic acid within the range of temperatures from 0° up to 40°C. The offered method allows using the linear interpolation to determine dependence of density on the concentration and the temperature in 1°C within the range of temperatures from 0°C up to 40°C according to the known dependence of density from concentration over the range from 0 up to 100 % and on the temperature - from 0°C up to 40°C in 5; 10°C. Then they homogenize the solution and determine the temperature of the solution in the pressure tank with accuracy 0.1°C and the density. At the integer values of the temperature using the received dependence determine two values of density that are the most close to the experimental values and two values of concentration corresponding to them and determine the first derivative from concentration according to the density. If |dc/dp | ≤ 3.3*10,^{} the concentration is determined by the linear interpolation method according to the received dependence of density on concentration with accuracy up to 0.1 %. If |dc/dp |> 3.3*10^{3}, then into pressure tank inject water in a such amount that to get into the zone of |dc/dp | <3.3*10^{3} for determination of concentration of the acetic acid. In the case of non-integral values of the temperature it is necessary to conduct the following operations: for the most close to the experimental integer value of the temperature select two values of density the most close to the experimental value of density and corresponding to them two values of concentration. Using the received dependence of the density on the temperature find two values of density at the temperature of the experiment and determine the first derivative from concentration on the density, and then the operations are iterated as for the integer value of the temperature.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased accuracy at determination of concentration of acetic acid within the range of temperatures from 0° up to 40°C.

5 ex, 4 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: possible use for determining water presence level in product of oil wells.

SUBSTANCE: method for measuring mass concentration of water in water-oil-gas mixture includes taking of a sample of water-oil-gas mixture in hermetic cylinder-shaped vessel with given volume V and height H and measurement of hydrostatic pressure P_{1} at fixed values of temperature T and pressure P_{a} in aforementioned vessel. After measuring of hydrostatic pressure volume of vessel hollow is decreased until full solution of gas and hydrostatic pressure P_{2} is measured, and mass concentration of water W in water-oil-gas mixture is determined in accordance to mathematical expression , where g - free fall acceleration.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurements of mass concentration of water in liquid due to prevented influence of gas separation.

1 dwg

FIELD: the invention may be used for automated control of humidity of soil, seeds of grain cultures and other granular materials.

SUBSTANCE: the arrangement for measuring humidity of granular materials has a high frequency T-piece connected with its first branch pipe with the input of a stroboscopic reference arrangement, its synchronizing input is switched to the first output of a synchronizer; another branch pipe of the high frequency T-piece is connected to the output of a generator of outgoing impulses, its launching input is switched to the second output of the synchronizer; the third branch pipe of the high frequency T-piece is connected through a connecting cable with a primary measuring transducer. The output of the stroboscopic reference arrangement is attached to a regulated threshold arrangement whose output is switched to the inputs of the first and the second blocks of detecting impulse fronts; the output of the first detecting block is connected with launching inputs of a timer and a program-time arrangement and the output of the second detecting block - with the input of the initial installation of the program-time arrangement and a stopping input of the timer whose output is connected to a calculating arrangement with an indicator; the output of the generator of outgoing impulses is switched to a peak detector of impulses with memory connected with its output to the first input of a multiplier whose output is connected with the controlling input of the regulated threshold arrangement and the second input is switched to the output of the program-time arrangement.

EFFECT: allows automated measurement and control of humidity of granular materials.

2 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique and may be used for example in industry, medicine, agriculture for definition of humidity of grain in a flow at its drying.

SUBSTANCE: a sensor-moisture meter for a drain drying machine has two parallel metallic plates 1 forming a condenser and a measuring block transforming values of condenser capacities into an analog signal according to the specified grain culture. The metallic plates 1 provided with dielectric columns 2 fastening it to the body of the grain drying machine in the grain flow subjected to drying with the aid of a cover 3 to the body 4 which in its turn is fixed to a flange 6 with a washer. At that the values of grain humidity are defined in accordance with the meaning of the analog signal of the sensor-moisture meter according to the formula: V_{i }= K (W_{I} - W_{MIN}), where V_{i }- a current value of the analog signal, B; K - a coefficient of transferring humidity into an analog signal, B/%; W_{I} - a current value of humidity of a measured culture, %; W_{MIN} -a minimal value of humidity of a measured culture, %. The sensor- moisture meter is characterized with correlation of the width of the "B" flow of grain subjected to drying to the width of the " b" coverage of the flow of grain with the metallic plates 1 equal for example , B/b= 10/1.

EFFECT: increases reliability characteristics of a sensor-moisture meter and provides possibility of using it in a grain flow and also increases accuracy of measuring humidity in a grain flow.

1 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises heating the heat-shield structure from one side up to a high temperature, cooling the structure, applying marker dots on the section of the outer surface under study, cutting the axisymmetric specimens of the heat-shield structure, applying marker dots on the side of the specimen at a given distance from the inner surface, cutting the specimen over the planes perpendicular to its longitudinal axis and passing through the marker dots into pieces, subsequent heating of the pieces in the atmosphere of an inert gas, recording the change of weight of the pieces, recording the temperature of the beginning of the decrease of weight of each piece, and judging on the spatial temperature distribution from data obtained.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

5 dwg