Psycholinguistic method for diagnosing neurotic disorders

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves asking patient to tell or write down 5-7 novels. Rhetorical structure representations of the novels are built. Rhetorical structure mean depth being greater than 8, branching index being greater than 88 and occurrence of relations like sequence and consequence being less than 8, cognitive source relation being greater than 5, opposition relation being greater than 2 per 100 discourse units, neurotic disorder is to be diagnosed.

EFFECT: high accuracy of the method.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to medicine, in particular to the practical neuroscience and medical psychology, and can be used for early diagnosis of neurotic disorders.

There is a method of study of speech for the diagnosis of neurotic disorders, which considers the lexical-semantic and morphological characteristics of the speech of neuroses (Dodonov N.A. Diagnostic value of lexico-semantic and morphological features of the speech of neuroses: author. descend. the course of studies. Sciences. M. 1988).

Higher than the healthy, the level of expression in speech of anxiety, depression, aggression, more frequent use of sick pronouns of the first person, is low compared with healthy figures of objectivity and lexical diversity of speech and some other features characterize patients with neurotic disorders.

However, this method is diagnostically significant at the stage of manifestation of neurotic disorders, i.e. the formation of clinically detectable neurotic syndrome (emotional-personal and psychovegetative disorders).

However, in the early stages of neurotic formation, when intra-psychic (neurotic) the conflict is not shown explicitly on the clinical level, this method is not very sensitive. In addition, identifying lexico-semanti the definition of features of speech, method of the study of speech, proposed Najdanovic, it is not possible to estimate the structure of discourse, i.e. the speech of the installation of the speaker, especially in the early stages of neurotic disorders.

The objective of the invention is a method earlier diagnosis of neurotic disorders by identifying those language features that are a marker of neurotic disorders.

This problem is solved by the method lies in the fact that the patient is instructed to tell or write a 5-7 stories, build a representation of the rhetorical structure of these stories and at the average values of the maximum depth of the rhetorical structures of more than 8, the degree of branching of more than 88 and the occurrence of "sequence" and "consequence" of less than 8, the cognitive source of more than 5, the "opposition" more than 2 100 discursive text units diagnosed with neurotic disorder.

This research method is based on the following thesis: hierarchical structure of discourse (text) contains signals (signs) a neurotic state of the author of this discourse. Discourse is a linear chain of predicate (basic sentences). Simultaneously, the discourse has a deep hierarchical structure, which can be represented in the form of a two-dimensional tree (graph) Tree hierarchical structure reflects the explosion of discourse from the original mental stimulus, or communicative intent that underlies the creation of this discourse the speaker (author). Each node of this tree corresponds to roughly one predications in the surface structure of discourse.

One way of fixing the hierarchical structure of the discourse is the device of “rhetorical structure Theory", developed by American scientists U. Mann and S. Thompson (Maim W.C., Matthiessen C., Thompson S.A. 1992. Rhetorical structure theory and text analysis. In: Mann W.C., Thompson, S.A. (eds.) Discourse description: Diverse linguistic analyses of a fund-raising text. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp.39-78), which represent the structure of the text in the form of a hierarchically organized network of discursive units (DE), related to the so-called rhetorical relations (in other terms - coherence relations or relations of discursive coherence). The rhetorical relation can contact as minimal DE (in the General case - elementary predications with intonational integrity, and larger pieces of text, such as complex sentences and paragraphs. A large part of the relationship and asymmetric binary and contains the nucleus and satellite (including "cause", "refinement", "background", "antithesis" and others). Other relations (such as "the opposition" or "conjunction") symmetric, not necessarily binary and link the kernel. The authors of the proposed method psycholinguistic on the agnostics used the device in relation to the analysis of a wide range of types and genres of discourse of the Russian language. Professionals trained in this method of analysis, build the hierarchical structure of the same discourse is almost identical way. Thus, the rhetorical structure of the discourse, which can be easily built-trained expert, reflects the underlying emotional-cognitive structure of the person that started this discourse, and contains numerous signs (signals) of this structure.

This method involves several methods of characterization of the hierarchical structure, are useful in diagnostic situations.

1) the Complexity of the hierarchical structure. The stories of patients with neuroses are significantly more complex hierarchical structure than the stories of healthy people. The complexity of the story is measured such quantitative parameters as the depth of the hierarchical tree, i.e. the number of tiers vertically, and the degree of branching, i.e. the number of branches emanating from a single node. From a substantive point of view, great depth and a greater degree of branching "neurotic" story means a large number of side branches of the hierarchical tree, complementary flat sequential structure of the story. Subjects with neurotic disorders are not able to follow a straight line narrative, and inevitably complicate it additional estimates, by reflection, by-the-bistami.

2) In a hierarchical structure, which is based on the proposed diagnostic method, the branches of the tree (hierarchical structure) marked in accordance with the semantic relation linking the nodes (examples of relationships - "the reason", "sequence", "evaluation" and others). The frequency relations of a certain type may signal the assessment of cognitive structure. In particular, the stories of patients with neuroses have in their hierarchical structure significantly greater frequency of so-called adversative relations (such as antithesis, contrast, concession) compared to the stories of healthy subjects. The frequency of such semantic relations between segments of discourse reflects the underlying inconsistency cognitive structures. This can be a conflict between the desire and the pragmatic reality, between desire and morality, etc. In stories neurotic subjects high frequency of linguistic markers adversative relations - unions but, however, nevertheless, although, etc. Even a simple calculation such markers can serve as a rough estimate of cognitive structure.

3) the Severity of the outcome. A typical scheme of the story includes elements such as plot, climax and denouement. Stories neurotic subjects with a very high frequency compared to the stories of healthy subjects demonstrate Alicia dramatic strings and no climax and especially isolation. This reflects the underlying conflict of consciousness neurotic subjects: there is a conflict (conflicts), which requires permits, but does not find it.

All of these methods of characterization of discursive patterns can be used to assess the psychological state of the author of the discourse, and thus for early diagnostics of neurotic disorders.

The proposed method psycholinguistic diagnosis of neurotic disorders is implemented in several stages:

1. Registration of dreams by recording on an audio tape of oral speech directly after morning awakening.

2. Translation in digital recording (digitisation).

3. Transcription - translation recordings in graphical form.

The authors of techniques specifically designed discursive transcription, adapting international standards transcription of spontaneous speech used for the needs of the discourse analysis, to the peculiarities of the Russian language. Patented format transcription driven by the fact that the transcript contained the information that is necessary and sufficient for an adequate representation of the hierarchical structure of the text. This type of transcription is based on standard Russian spelling. The text is divided into lines, each line corresponds to one elementary dis is ursini unit (DE) - the minimum unit forming a node of the hierarchical structure of the text. In the transcript provided by ways to reflect the correspondence between the following three types of units - discursive unit (=line of the transcript), clause or prediction (in the General case - unit, matching with a simple sentence), and the intonation unit (structure, organized around one main focus, with a single intonational contour), which can potentially vary.

Punctuation marks are used in a strictly functional sense, i.e. as markers of certain combinations of discourse functions. For the punctuation in the transcript provides two main classes of discourse functions illocutionary function (type designation statements) and the coherence function or the local connectivity. The coherence function can take two values depending on whether this DE final or non-final part of the speech act. Speech act as a component of the text may consist of more than one DE, if the DE part of the speech act is final, the punctuation mark at the end of this DE is a cumulative marker of zakluchitelnoe and type statements: message (.), question (?), directives (j - reverse exclamation mark), the address (@) and others, including the private is. If DE in the structure of the speech act is non-final, the punctuation mark at the end of the DE (or its significant absence) indicates the type of incompleteness of the speech act: neutral - "labeling allocutio deferred" (,), false unplanned disruption in the deployment of discourse, informed speaker and want to fix (==double equality), splitting the DE - scheduled departure and subsequent restoration of the morphological and syntactical integrity DE (-- long dash), cliff DE Nedosekina DE, perceived by the speaker as appropriate and complete and therefore not subject to revision (~ tilde), "the pickup", eng. latching - this DE is followed intrinsically communicative prosodic unity (no punctuation mark at the end of DE).

The transcript reflects the length of all pauses (in absolute units) and the nature of their filling, as well as significant (i.e. significantly above the average for a given speaker) the duration of individual sounds. The transcript also reflects the Central components of discourse prosody - the emphasis and direction of movement tone accents. Measuring the length of pauses and duration of individual segments is instrumental on the basis of computer programs Speech Analyzer. Place accents are defined perceptual, direction, tone accented segments op is Adelaida using Speech Analyzer and verified perceptive.

In patentable format transcription means are provided for display paralinguistic information (laughter, sighs, etc.), the reduced method of delivery (if the reduction is more pronounced than that provided by the standard orthoepy), for fixation of alternative or questionable segment interpretation.

4. For each recorded sample of speech expert builds a graphical representation of the hierarchical structure of the text (discourse structure), with the proposed method used the formalism of theory of rhetorical structures (see the link above). The proposed method of representation of the discourse structure of the text uses the formalism of theory of rhetorical structures (TRS) Stimpson and Umunna with improving and adapting it to the specifics of the material collected. The most significant additions and changes to the basic set of rhetorical relations. The following list of relations that are used in the proposed method, an asterisk ( * ) marked the relations that were missing in the formalism described in the works Stimpson and Umana(1986, 1988, 1992):

Antithesis, Background, External background*. Start*, Circumstance, Fact discovery*. External circumstance*. Concession, Condition, Content, Extent*, Specification, External clarification*, End*, Evaluation, Epistemic evaluation*Vneshnyaya evaluation*. Testimony, False Start*Obstacle*, Header*, Intervention, Interpretation, Justification, Limitation*. The means, Motivation, Napolitana reason, the External revolutiona cause*, Revolutiony result, External revolutiony result*, Neosuschestvimoj intention*. The alternative, Issue*, the Purpose of Correction*, repeat*, Reformulation, the Detected result*, Environment*, Judgment, Cognitive source*, Perceptual source*, Verbal, source*, External source*Incentive*, Conclusion, Topic*, Waituna reason Volitional result, External volitional result*Emotional response*. Multinuclear: Conjunction, Disjunction, Sequence, Consequence*, Mapping*, Split*. Opposition*

5. The possibility of using this method for the diagnosis of neurotic States is based on established authors correlation between the complexity of discourse structure and the nature and severity of neurotic state. For each registered text is a quantitative assessment of the following parameters the complexity of discourse structure:

1) Depth discursive patterns. For each node of the discourse structure of a depth equal to the number of nodes between this node and the top of the tree (the root node). Illustrative are the maximum for given the CSOs speech sample, the depth of the node, and the average depth of all nodes in the text. The maximum depth of 8 and an average depth of more than 6 - statistically correlated with neurotic condition.

2) the Degree of branching discourse structure - value, calculated as the ratio of the number of relations in discourse structure to the number of nodes in the discourse structure. This parameter represents the ratio of multinuclear and binary relations in the structure and can be measured as an indicator of the "plane" of the structure and thus as an indicator of its narrative. Nonparametric test van der Varden shows statistically significant differences for this parameter in children with neuroses and in healthy children: the average degree of branching 79,60 (healthy) compared to samples 88,27 (neurosis), median and fashion vary accordingly as 80 (healthy) compared to 89.5 (neurosis) and 83,0 (healthy) compared to 91,67 (neurosis).

3) the Occurrence of certain relations number of relations of this type at 100 discursive units. Table 1 shows the types of relationships, the occurrence of which in children with neurosis (N) and in healthy children (Z) are statistically significantly different.

Table 1
Relations100 units Z100 units N
Succession is alnost 13,03a total of 8.74
The consequence13,388,20
End5,562,69
External background0,702,96
External source3,522,28
Cognitive source1,064,57
Emotional reaction0,350,94
Epistemic evaluation0,351,61
Opposition0,351,75
Justification0,351,21
Antithesis0352,28

We conducted the study as samples of speech were used stories of the subjects about their dreams.

Clinical examples:

Ave. 1. Chenybaeva Julia, 12 years old, healthy tested.

The story of the dream, recorded on tape, followed by specific linguistic symbols:

Other stories of this test revealed similar linguistic features.

Figure 1 shows the graphical structure of the text /hierarchical tree.

The number of discourse units: 16

Degree ve is the exercise: 0,75

Maximum depth: 4

Rhetorical relations (100 discursive text units):

"sequence" - 6;

"consequence" - 4;

Linguistic indicators do not go beyond the limit of the rules.

Ave. 2. Bylinkin Olesya, 14 (linguistic symbols are similar)

Other stories of this patient revealed a similar linguistic features.

Figure 2 shows the graphical structure of the text /hierarchical tree.

In the survey results identified the linguistic correlates of neurotic States:

the number of discourse units: 23 (normal less than 8);

the degree of branching: 96 (normal less than 88);

Rhetorical relations (100 discursive text units):

sequence - 1;

"cognitive source" - 5.

The data indicated the presence of neurotic disorders and this was later confirmed by a clinical study.

The way psycholinguistic diagnosis of neurotic disorders, characterized in that the patient is instructed to tell or write a 5-7 stories, build a representation of the rhetorical structure of these stories and at the average values of the maximum depth of the rhetorical structures of more than 8, the degree of branching of more than 88 and the incidence relations “sequence” and “consequence” is the Eney 8, relationship of cognitive source” more than 5, the “opposition” more than 2 100 discursive text units diagnosed with neurotic disorder.



 

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