Signaling device for diagnosing hypoglycemia state in early period

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has divider, comparison unit, oscillator, acoustic radiator, controllable current source, stable constant voltage source, perspiration equivalent unit, key member, illumination source, conductivity transducer having two electrodes, the first commutator, delay unit, trigger, inverter, discharge unit, the second commutator and feeding voltage availability indicator unit. The first delay unit inputs and the first commutator inputs are connected to comparison unit output. The first commutator input is connected to the first oscillator input which delay unit, trigger and inverter are connected in series. Inverter output is connected to the second input of the first and the second commutator. The first input of the second commutator is connected to the other conductivity transducer electrode and its output is connected to device body via resistor.

EFFECT: reduced current intensity passing through patient skin; excluded negative influence upon skin during prolonged operation time on patient arm during hypoglycemia attack; low power consumption.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to medicine and can be used for early diagnosis of hypoglycemic events (HS) predominantly during sleep or rest in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), insulinomas, hypothyroidism, hypocorticoidism and other diseases that occur with GS, in hospitals, nursing homes and at home.

The device is based on a fixed threshold check electrical resistance of the skin area in the initial stage of the attack of hypoglycemia.

Known detectors for the diagnosis of HS is based on the superposition of two electrodes on the skin that detect any reduction in the resistance of the skin of the patient. Such devices may include, for example, the detector for U.S. patent No. 4, 509,531 from 09.04.1985,

The known device does not have the technical means to record changes in skin resistance characteristic attack of GS (the occurrence of sweating in some categories of patients may be caused by a number of other reasons to wear short, not incremental in nature) and, therefore, do not allows you to selectively diagnose it.

This could lead to frequent false positives well-known device that could be due to sleep disorders have a negative impact on the psycho-emotional state of pain is about, and in the course of diabetes.

It is also known a device for early diagnosis of hypoglycemic events (patent RU 2077264 AND 61 IN 5/05 05.06.1992, published 20.04.97, bull. No. 11), measuring electric resistance of which in its technical essence and totality of the structural characteristics can be selected as a prototype.

The device comprises a measuring skin resistance 1, consisting of series-connected divider 2, node comparison 3, the generator 4, the sound emitter 5 and the adjustable current source 6, a source of constant stable voltage 7, the node equivalent of sweat 8, key 9, the light indicator 10, the conductivity probe 11 with two electrodes, one of which is connected to the divider, and the second housing, and a receiver beeper alarm, providing relay this signal to the post nurses, relatives of a patient etc.

The device prototype works as follows.

Previously controlled the area of the skin of the patient (e.g., forearm) swab to apply a thin layer of 0.1-0.2 ml of physiological solution, which is equivalent to the conductivity of the sweat secreted by the sweat glands when hypoglycemia.

To the controlled area of the skin is installed, the meter so that power is s sensor touched the skin, then on the meter provides the supply voltage. At this point, between the electrodes of the sensor, an electric circuit for passing current. The amount of current depends on the conductivity of the skin area and resistance of the input circuit. Skin conductivity is variable and depends on the individual characteristics of the person.

If you have dry skin, which predominantly affects patients with diabetes, it may be more than one magoma. When sweating or moisture of skin electrical resistance of the skin varies sharply downward.

Passing a current input circuit creates a voltage drop, which is the input node 3 input 1. Using an adjustable potentiometric divider (potentiometer divider has a large adjustment range resistance) node 8 input 2 is set to a voltage equal to the voltage on input 1 of node 3.

When the alignment of the signals at both inputs (which is equivalent to measuring the conductivity of the skin at the site) at the output node 3 receive a positive voltage, which provides the starting of the generator 4.

When this is triggered, the sound emitter 5 and flashes a blinking light indicator light 10. Actuation of the meter corresponds to the projected state of the beginning of the attack GS, specific to the patient of diabetes.

Node (by potentiometric divider) is recorded (stored) value of resistance, proportional to the conductivity of the skin, moistened with saline. Then the device is removed, and the removed layer of saline solution with skin and balances it with the sensor 11. When you remove a layer of the circuit electrodes of the sensor is broken, which leads to the throwing of the node 3 in the initial state.

Then the meter is again set to the controlled area of the skin. Next, the operation of the device is automatically in standby mode. In this input circuit (input 1) node 3 takes place, the current monitoring of the conductivity of the skin and its comparison with a fixed (memorized) the magnitude of the voltage on input 2.

If you start sweating the patient under control, begins to decrease skin resistance. However there comes a time when the potentials at both inputs (inputs 1 and 2) node 3 are aligned, and the meter gives audible and visual warning signals. An acoustic signal is captured by the analyzer (receiver) and is relayed to the post of duty. While weak, is not characteristic of hypoglycemia sweat, the potentials at both inputs will be different and the meter will not work.

Upon actuation of the device it should be removed from the forearm of the patient prior to the adoption of measures to eliminate the attack. After providing the necessary medical care, liquidas and clinical signs Gauss meter can be reused without additional adjustment.

Device according to patent 2077264, though, and solves the problem on the early diagnosis of HS, at the same time has a number of disadvantages.

For example, in the untimely removal of the meter when it is triggered (this situation may occur due to the negligence of medical personnel or loved ones, caregivers, when deep sleep of the patient or loss of consciousness) electrical factors in a certain category of patients may increase and negatively affect the patient's skin. As already stressed above, with further increase sweating dramatically decreases the conductivity of the skin and thus increases the current flowing through the electrodes, the current that is unsafe for the patient. This circumstance also leads to increased electricity consumption meter.

The technical result of the proposed solutions is to increase the security of the device and reducing its power consumption.

Structural diagram of the device shown in figure 1.

Figure 2-4 shows:

figure 2 - scheme of the unit delay 13;

figure 3 - generator node 13;

figure 4 is a wiring diagram of the switches 12 and 17.

The proposed detector 1 includes a conductivity sensor with two electrodes 11, connected in series DC stable voltage 7, the divider 2, the site is even 3, the first switch 12, the generator 4, the sound emitter 5, serially connected unit delay 13, the first trigger 14, the first inverter 15, the second switch 17, the output of which through a resistor 21 connected to the housing, connected in series key element 9 and the light emitter 10, and an adjustable current source 6, the output of which is connected to the second input of the generator 4, the node equivalent of sweat 8, made in the form of potentiometric divider, an input connected to the output of the DC stable voltage 7 and the input of the divider 2, and the output from the second input node of the comparison 3, the node reset 16, the inlet of which is connected to the power source and the input of the DC stable voltage 7, and the output from the second input node of the delay 13, the first flip-flop 14 and the entrance of the site indicating the presence of supply voltage 18. The first input node of delay coupled to the output node of the comparison 3, the second input of the first switch 12 is connected to the output of the first inverter 15, one of the electrodes of the sensor 11 is connected to the output of the divider 2 and the other with the first input of the second switch 17.

In a preferred embodiment of the claimed device some of its nodes have the following structure: node delay 13 (figure 2) contains the generator 22, the second trigger 23, the 14-bit counter 24, the second inverter 25 and is destined is Achin for forming control command to the first 12 and the second switch 17 according to the output node of the comparison 3. The team is formed with a delay of 10-15 seconds. The delay time is determined experimentally and is characterized by stable dynamics of change in the skin resistance of the onset of sweating. The delay time is determined by the frequency of the RC oscillator (figure 3). This time is set by the potentiometer 30.

The generator 22 (Fig 3) consists of two inverters 26, 28, of element AND-NOT elements 27 and the time setting circuit 29, 30.

Feature run the schema generator is communication via the second input element AND NOT with counter 24 through the inverter 25.

As a result, after the filling of the counter 24 to the second input element AND-NOT 27 enters “Log 0”, and the generation of pulses is terminated. Node reset 16 in the simplest case can be made in the form of buttons, shunted by a capacitor of 0.1 μf (the condenser is to eliminate bounce). The button is connected to the power source of the device and performs when it is pressed, a dual function:

- provides the supply to the second input nodes 13 and 14 (see figure 1) voltage equal to the level of “Log 1”, which leads to their transfer to its original state;

- provides control of the supply of the supply voltage for the detector.

Node display supply voltage 18 consists of a core element 19, the load of which is the indicator 20. When you click the node is reset, e.g. the provision of a power source is supplied to the input of a key element, it activates and illuminates the led 20, indicating the supply voltage on the device.

The purpose of the switches (see figure 4) is as follows: the switch 17 provides a disable input (input 1) circuit node comparison 3. In the initial state, it has a low input impedance, practically does not affect the conductivity of the skin. When it is triggered, the input resistance increases sharply (in the order of several Megohms)that disables the sensor 11 and the transfer node comparison 3. This circumstance leads to the fact that the current through the patient's skin after triggering alarm practically stops, which eliminates its negative effects on the skin and also leads to lower power consumption.

The switch 12 provides a self-locking of the oscillator 4 by breaking the circuit output node comparisons 3 and generator input 4 (pins 5, 6 are opened and the resistor R32 (pins 1, 2 are closed) to the input 1 of the generator 4.

Resistor R32 is provided by the formation of a “Log 1” at the input of the generator 4, which is necessary for sustainable mode of smallacombe. In the absence of the switch 12 and resistor R 32 self-locking will not occur, because the input circuit node comparison 3 off switch 17, and therefore no differential position is positive voltage, running the generator.

Control signal for both switches is the output node 15 in the form of “Log 1”input to the input 2 (see figure 1, 4).

The design of the sensor 11 can be performed similarly to the sensor is known solutions. Analyzer (receiver) alarm emitted by node 5 may be performed by the block diagram of the prototype.

It should be noted that the detector can be implemented on the chip to a greater degree of integration (LSI), but with the compulsory preservation of the structure described above the preferred option. In this case, the device may have a sufficiently small size.

The operation of the claimed device consists of two stages:

1. Preliminary preparation, which consists in applying to the controlled area of the skin of the forearm of physiological solution (at home you can use a one percent solution of sodium chloride) and then installing the detector in a controlled area of the skin of the patient and the corresponding adjustment of the potential on the input 2 of node comparisons 3 to input 1;

2. The mode control patients (standby)when automatically tracking the conductivity of the skin (input 1 node 3) and comparing it with a fixed value of the building (entrance 2 node 3 comparison).

The device is in the first the step is as follows. To the controlled area of the skin of the patient is covered with a layer of saline solution according to the technology described in the patent 2077264.

After that, the controlled area of the skin detector is installed in such a way that the electrodes of the sensor 11 has touched the skin.

After switching on the supply voltage, by clicking the site reset 16, the detector is installed in a working condition. Through the trigger 23 is reset, the counter 24 unit delay 13 and the trigger 14 is set to the initial state. At the same time provides power to the key element 19 node display 18, which actuating briefly illuminates the indicator light 20, which indicates the readiness of the detector to work.

In the initial moment, the potentials at the inputs 1 and 2 site compare 3 different. Thus, the potential at the input 1 depends on the conductivity of the skin area moistened with physiological solution (equivalent conductivity of sweat when hypoglycemia), and the potential at the input 2 from the position of the slider of the potentiometer node 8. Use the slider of the potentiometer (manual) equalize the potential on input 2 relative to the potential at the input 1, which results in the activation of node 3. When this voltage drop equal to 4.4 In through the switch 12, starts the generator 4 and trigger a sound emitter 5 and the light indicator is the top 10. Actuation of the detector corresponds to the projected state of the beginning of the attack of the HS. This condition is fixed by the position of the slider of the potentiometer node 8.

After that, the detector is removed from the forearm of the patient. Then removed the layer of saline solution from the sensor electrode 11 and the skin of the patient.

Thus the circuit of the sensor electrode 11 to the input 1 of the node comparison 3 is broken, which leads to the transfer node comparison to its original state.

After that, the detector is again set to the controlled area of the skin of the patient. The mode control patients (phase 2) provides automatic monitoring of the conductivity of the skin area and comparison of the changing potential at the input 1 with a fixed potential at the input 2 of the node comparison 3.

If you start sweating, the patient begins to dramatically decrease the resistance of the skin, which leads to the change of potential at the input 1. However there comes a time when the potentials at both inputs are aligned, which causes the node 3. The voltage drop across the switch 12 is started, the generator 4 and trigger a sound emitter 5 and the indicator light 10. At the same time a positive difference does the same at the first input of the second trigger 23 of the unit delay 13. The trigger is thrown and runs counter 24. By filling the AI counter 24 is issued with a delay of 10-15 seconds command in the form “Log 1” at the first input of the trigger 14.

Upon receipt of the delayed signal to the trigger 14 he works and through an inverter 15 outputs “Log 1” through resistor 33 to the input 2 of the first and second switches (see Fig 4), which leads to their activation. When the switch 17 turns off the input circuit node comparison 3 input 1, causing its transfer to its original state.

The switch 12 closes the circuit to supply a positive difference on the first input of the generator 4. When this input 1 generator 4 (see Fig 4) is connected through a resistor 32 to the positive bus power than is supplied “Log 1” at the first input of the generator, and consequently, stable generation (in the absence of the resistor and the circuit can occur disruption of generation or random trigger generator).

Generator 4 continues to give a signal to the alarm sound emitter 5 and the light indicator 10 when no signal input of the detector. The return circuit of the detector to its original state by pressing the node reset.

Thus, thanks to the introduction of new constructive features are provided:

- significant reduction in the magnitude of the current passing through the skin of the patient after triggering alarm preserving alarm function;

- elimination of negative influences on the skin after prolonged use of the detector is the arm of the patient during an episode of hypoglycemia;

- more energy-saving mode of the detector;

- willingness to control the alarm to work.

1. The alerter early diagnosis of hypoglycemic events containing a conductivity sensor with two electrodes, a source of constant stable voltage divider connected in series and a node comparison, as well as an adjustable current source, the node equivalent of sweat, the output of which is connected with the second input node of the comparison, connected in series generator and a sound emitter, connected in series key element and indicator light, and the entrance key element is connected to the output of the generator, one electrode of the conductivity sensor is connected to the output of the divider, the output of the DC stable voltage connected to the input of the divider and the input node of the equivalent of the pot, the output of the adjustable current source is connected with the second the generator input, the inputs of the DC stable voltage and adjustable current source connected to the power source and the output of the detector is the signal of the sound radiation, characterized in that it introduced the first switch, the output of which is connected to the first input of the generator, serially connected unit delay, the first trigger, the first inverter, the second switch, the first input of which is connected to another electrode conductivity sensor, and the output through a resistor connected to the housing, the output of the first inverter is connected to a second input of the first switch and the node, a reset input which is connected to the power source, and the output connected to the second input node of the delay and the first trigger node indicating the presence of voltage, consisting of series-connected second length indicator and the second key element, the input connected to the output node reset, the first input node of the delay and the first switch is connected to the output node of the comparison.

2. The detector according to claim 1, characterized in that the node contains a second delay trigger, connected in series, a second generator, a counter, a second inverter, and the output of the second trigger connected to the first input of the counter, the output of the second inverter connected to the input of the second oscillator, the first and second inputs of the second trigger input node and the output of the counter is the output of the node.



 

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15 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves applying electrodes to injured extremity tissue under study. The electrodes are arranged in diametrically opposite points of horizontal plane transaction to extremity surface. Two electrodes are applied to the other extremity. The electrodes are arranged in diametrically opposite points of horizontal plane transaction to extremity surface. An initial point is selected relative to which pairs of electrodes are equidistantly arranged on the extremity. Active and reactive impedance components are measured at the places of electrodes positioning. Viability condition of the injured extremity tissue under study is diagnosed depending on ratio of reactive to active impedance component on injured and intact extremity and difference between reactive impedance component on injured and intact extremity. Device has transducer unit, computer and unit for processing signals having interface units, central subscriber station, autonomous transmission center, commutator which input is connected to transducer unit output and commutator output is connected to central subscriber station input, the first input is connected to autonomous transmission center output.

EFFECT: high accuracy in diagnosing biological object condition.

5 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: the method deals with measuring geometric body size and electric impedances of patient's hands, body and legs at their probing with low- and high-frequency current due to current and potential electrodes applied onto distal parts of limbs, and, thus, detecting extracellular, cellular and total volumes of liquid in patient's hands, body and legs. While implementing the method one should additionally apply current electrodes onto left-hand and right-hand parts of neck, and potential electrodes - onto distal femoral parts. Body impedance (Zb) should be measured due to successive measuring the impedance of its right-hand Zrb and left-hand Zlb parts at probing current coming between electrodes of similar sides of patient's neck and legs to detect Zb, as Zb = Ѕ x (Zrb + Zlb), impedance of legs Zl should be detected due to measuring femoral impedance Zf and that of shins Zs, as Zl = Zf + Zs. At detecting the volumes of liquid in body and legs one should apply measured values of Zb and Zl, moreover, as geometric body size one should apply the distance against the plane coming through the upper brachial surface up to the middle of radiocarpal articulation in case of patient's hand being along the body.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of detection.

5 dwg, 2 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: the method deals with measuring geometric body size and electric impedances of patient's hands, body and legs at their probing with low- and high-frequency current due to current and potential electrodes applied onto distal parts of limbs, and, thus, detecting extracellular, cellular and total volumes of liquid in patient's hands, body and legs. While implementing the method one should additionally apply current electrodes onto left-hand and right-hand parts of neck, and potential electrodes - onto distal femoral parts. Body impedance (Zb) should be measured due to successive measuring the impedance of its right-hand Zrb and left-hand Zlb parts at probing current coming between electrodes of similar sides of patient's neck and legs to detect Zb, as Zb = Ѕ x (Zrb + Zlb), impedance of legs Zl should be detected due to measuring femoral impedance Zf and that of shins Zs, as Zl = Zf + Zs. At detecting the volumes of liquid in body and legs one should apply measured values of Zb and Zl, moreover, as geometric body size one should apply the distance against the plane coming through the upper brachial surface up to the middle of radiocarpal articulation in case of patient's hand being along the body.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of detection.

5 dwg, 2 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has telemeter, electrodes for recording electric dermal activity from phase and tonus components, electrodes for recording hypoglycemia precursors from critical drop of electric skin resistance, logarithmic transducers, dual-channel analog-to-digital converter, code package shaper and transmitter connected to stationary part unit having receiving unit, control and signal-processing unit, display unit with acoustic signal unit and awareness and hypoglycemia precursors indication units.

EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: poultry science.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with visual evaluation in chicken followed by testing them by the value of bioelectric potential. Chickens with bioelectric potential being significantly higher against average values are considered to be stress-resistant ones and those with bioelectric potential being significantly lower against average values in concrete population are concluded to be stress-sensitive ones. The method is very simple in its implementation and efficient for large-scale selection in poultry on stress-resistance.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: poultry science.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with visual evaluation in chicken followed by testing them by the value of bioelectric potential. Chickens with bioelectric potential being significantly higher against average values are considered to be stress-resistant ones and those with bioelectric potential being significantly lower against average values in concrete population are concluded to be stress-sensitive ones. The method is very simple in its implementation and efficient for large-scale selection in poultry on stress-resistance.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has acting upon skin between electrodes with DC potential of given magnitude for producing temporary breakdown. Skin impedance is measured between measuring electrode first negatively polarized relative to control electrode and the control electrode, and then, DC current resistance is measured once more by means of measuring electrode positively polarized relative to the control electrode. Ratio of the obtained values is used for determining internal organ health state, corresponding to skin area.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of diagnosis.

11 cl, 14 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: medicine, oncology.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with biochemical trials in the field of oncology. Moreover, before the onset of autohemotherapy in patients one should detect the content of thyroid hormones -triiodothyronine and thyroxine, and hypophysial hormone - thyreotropin. At its value ranged 166-408 one should predict efficiency of therapy, and at coefficient value ranged 34-106 - the absence or low efficiency of therapy. The present method enables to detect sensitivity of tumor to autohemochemotherapy before its onset, avoid application of inefficient medicinal remedies and their possible toxic impact and prevent groundless expenses of expensive preparations.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of prediction.

2 ex, 1 tbl

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