Fungicide composition

FIELD: agriculture, in particular fungicide composition.

SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %) carbamide 0.5-3 and aqueous cupperas solution 0.5-3 in ratio of 1-2:1, wherein pH of working solution is 5.5-7.

EFFECT: composition useful not only as fungicide but also as plant growth and fruitage promoter due to nitrogen and iron content.

6 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, to the means of protection of agricultural and ornamental crops from communicable and non-communicable diseases with mild contact-intestinal toxicity to some species of insects.

Known inorganic metal-containing compounds that are used as pesticides. This group includes inorganic compounds of copper (copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid, chlorosis copper), iron (ferrous sulfate), magnesium, calcium chlorate, magnesium chlorate-calcium chloride), zinc (zinc phosphide), aluminum (phostoxin) [1. Handbook of pesticides: Hygiene and toxicology/ Comp. L.K. Seducer. Ed. by A.V. Pavlov. - 3rd ed., Corr. and extra - Kiev: Vintage, 1986, - s]. This drug, like Bordeaux liquid (an aqueous solution of a mixture of 1-3 wt.% copper sulphate and slaked lime to neutral or slightly alkaline reaction pH 6-8) is quite effective as a fungicide. However, the current shortage of copper and its sharp appreciation makes the search for a cheaper alternative. To inorganic fungicides are compounds of iron. Iron as a micronutrient for plants is essential, and its lack of inhibited photosynthesis and respiration. Often the deficiency in many species of cultivated plants, especially on calcareous soils, causes the Mac is UNIX chlorosis, therefore, foliar application or spraying with a solution of iron preparations is very important in the complex of protective and preventive measures. Comes iron in plants in the form of Fe(3+). Iron sulfate as a fungicide, close to copper sulfate for use, also known for a long time. Produced vitriol in the form of 53%technical soluble powder mainly for industrial purposes. In agriculture for plant protection it is recommended to use aqueous solutions of ferrous sulfate, 3-4 wt.% the solution of iron sulphate is used against diseases of the trunks and branches, scab and other shot hole on fruit crops and vineyards. This solution sprayed on plants before the beginning or after the end of the growing season [2. Posin ON the Technology of mineral fertilizers, pesticides, industrial salts, oxides and acids. Part 1, Ed. 4-e, Corr. - L.: Chemistry, 1974, s].

The disadvantages of these compositions is that 3-4 wt.% solutions of ferrous sulfate is recommended disease control only on fruit crops and grapes before the beginning or after the end of the growing season. This is due to phytotoxicity 3-4 wt.% solution for vegetative plants due to the acidic reaction (pH 3-5). The decrease in the concentration of the working solution of 0.5-1 wt.% allows you to use iron Cupar is with vegetative plants, but fungicidal activity is virtually absent. Therefore, the application of iron sulphate against infectious diseases of plants ineffective and at a concentration of 0.5-1 wt.% it applies only to struggle with chlorosis. For foliar application, you can use iron sulphate(2+), (3+), carbonate of iron (2+), salesonline alum, and different complexions iron Fe-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetate iron) - antichlorine, Fe-EDTA, Fe-ED, Fe-ligninsulfonate. [3. Bffery. Mineral fertilizers with microelements Technology and application. - L.: Chemistry, 1989. “Industry-rural”, 272].

The closest to the claimed invention is a composition comprising 1.5 to 2.5 (wt.%) the solution of iron sulphate in the mixture with an aqueous solution of hydrate of calcium oxide (lime) - CA(Oh)2when the mixing ratio of 1:0.5 to 1 to obtain a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction (pH 6-8) and spraying the working fluid vegetative plants against diseases [4. Patent # 216651. The composition for the protection of agricultural plants against diseases and a method for its use, MKI A 01 N 59/06, 59/00, published. Bull. No. 14, 2001 - prototype].

The disadvantage of this structure is that due to the high pH (6-8) it can be used only for vegetative plants.

The basis of the invention the task is improving with the rod and expanding the range of its application due to selection of components and introduction as base fertilizer - urea at a certain ratio and the use of the composition not only as a fungicide, but for foliar feeding.

This object is achieved in that the fungicidal composition comprising a mixture of an aqueous solution of iron sulphate and base with slightly alkaline or neutral pH of the working solution, according to the invention as a base using 0.5-3 (wt.%) the urea solution, and an aqueous solution of iron sulphate to take a concentration of 0.5-3% in respect of 1-2:1 (wt.%) when the pH of the working solution of 5.5-7.

Introduction to the composition of the solution of mineral fertilizers - urea in a ratio reduces the acidity of the solution to pH 5.5-7 and use it as a foliar and a contact fungicide with protective action at the same time.

The composition is prepared by mixing a solution of iron sulphate and 0.5-3 wt.% solution fertilizers urea in the ratio of 1:1-2 and spraying the mixture of vegetative plants.

The results of research and field experiments on the application of the proposed structure against plant diseases in the conditions of the Donetsk branch of the Institute of horticulture (1996-1998,, Artemovsky district. Donetsk region) on fruit crops showed a fairly high efficiency (see tables 1-3). The test composition is virtually no ledge is l prototype in the efficiency of suppression of fungal diseases and greatly enhances productivity.

Working solution for processing gardens were prepared immediately before use by mechanized filling the site (for example, type SES-10). When spraying fruit orchards tractor sprayers OPV-2000 rate of fluid flow was 1000 l/ha

The acidity of the solution in these concentrations may reach pH=5.5 to 7.0 and is controlled by a universal litmus paper. The rate of flow of fluid when applying carbonization mixture mechanized method is mnogolitrazhnyh and depends on the type of culture.

Data on the biological effectiveness of the proposed composition

It should be noted that processed the proposed composition of the areas marked reduction in the development of powdery mildew (50%) and the number of such pests as historysome younger caterpillars, aphids, medanic 20-35% compared with the control (without treatment).

The average yield of Apple trees in the variants with the application of the proposed composition was 17-32 kg/ha higher than in the variants with the use of a prototype liquid and 45-64 kg/ha higher than the control (without treatment).

Table 3
Comparative efficacy of 2% of offer is about composition and against the perforated petritoli plum
Name optionsBiological efficiency on years of observations, %On average over 3 years
199619971998
1. The placeholder75,569,876,974,1
2. Proposed content: 2 wt.% iron sulphate + 2 wt.% urea68,870,572,070,4
3. The solution of iron sulphate - 2 wt.%-56,850,953,8
4. The solution of urea - 2 wt.%-43,050,146,5
Note: the processing was carried out in phase “green cone”, the efficiency was carried out after flowering,% of affected leaves. As can be seen from the table, the proposed structure is slightly inferior in the efficiency of the prototype.

The average yield of plum varieties Hungarian Donetsk in the variant with application of this composition was 8 C higher than when using the prototype liquid and 23 t/ha higher than in the control.

It should be noted that in a variant, where he used 2 wt.% the solution of iron sulphate was weak burns the leaves.

Good results were p is obtained when processing the fungicidal composition of berry crops (table. 4-5). The rate of flow of the working fluid on the berry was 800 l/ha

Table 4
Comparative efficacy of 1.5% of the proposed composition against a purple spot on raspberry
Name optionsBiological efficiency on years of observations, %On average over 3 years
199619971998
1. The placeholder79,070,675,475,0
2. Proposed content: 1.5 wt.% iron sulphate + 1.5 wt.% urea70,769,271,070,3
3. The solution of iron sulphate to 1.5 wt.%-43,738,941,3
4. The solution of urea and 1.5 wt.%-53,041,4to 47.2

Yield increase with raspberry plots treated with the proposed fungicidal composition, in terms of 1 hectare amounted to an average of 3.2 kg. Observations also found that when processing the data structure during the formation of rosette leaves (output peduncles) increases resistance to raspberry spring C is morozkem. In 1999-2000, during the release of stems temperatures were up to 7-9 degrees. The treated urea-sulphate composition plots the yield was 13.5 hectare, while in the control (without treatment), prepared according to the prototype, and 1.5 wt.% solution of sulphate of marketable yield was not.

As can be seen from the table, the effectiveness of the proposed structure against complex diseases of strawberry was quite high (70-90%), and in addition processing has allowed to increase increase in marketable yield of 3 t/ha compared to the benchmark.

The results obtained when using the fungicidal composition of vegetable crops, also confirm its effectiveness against diseases such as late blight on tomatoes (see tab. 6). Experimental plots of tomatoes processed tractor sprayer at a rate of 600-800 l/ha use of the drug in 0.5-1 wt.% concentration in the version with manual spraying reduced the development of powdery mildew on cucumbers in 2-3 times in comparison with the control. The treated cucumber plants were also more resistant to disease, since the drying of the leaves on the treated once the plants have come on 8-13 days later than the control.

Processing 1 wt.% iron sulphate gave burns the leaves, which is unacceptable,the effectiveness of 1 wt.% urea was very low - up to 40%.

It should be emphasized that, despite the fact that the biological effectiveness of the proposed composition is slightly lower number of standard yield equally due to higher yields. The increase relative to the benchmark was 12.3 kg/ha

In the treated areas damaged plants of the Colorado potato beetle was 30% lower than the control, which indicates the presence antifeedants or weak intestinal-contact action of the composition on this pest (larvae). The yield obtained when using a fungicidal composition, meets the quality requirements according to the sanitary-hygienic certification of plant products.

Thus, the use of the proposed structure allows to expand the range of its application and use not only as a fungicide, but for unicornios feeding, which has a positive effect on the growth and fruiting, and due to the action of nitrogen and iron, as macronutrients. This is especially true for fruit crops that lack iron chlorosis”, on calcareous soils Culture treated with the fungicidal composition for the prevention, does not require foliar application.

Fungicidal composition comprising a mixture of an aqueous solution of iron sulphate and base with slightly alkaline or neutral reaction of the working age is ora, characterized in that the base using 0.5-3 wt.% the urea solution, and an aqueous solution of iron sulphate to take a concentration of 0.5-3 wt.% in respect of 1-2:1 wt.% when the pH of the working solution of 5.5-7.



 

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