Method for determination of location of lightning discharge and multiple-point system for its realization

FIELD: applicable in air traffic control systems, in meteorological information collecting and processing systems, etc.

SUBSTANCE: the multiple-point system for determination of location of a lighting discharge has a data transmission network and sensors, central computing unit, control unit and user computers (according to the number of users) connected to it, superlong-wave independent lightning direction finders - range finders are used as sensors.

EFFECT: enhanced probability of detection of a lighting discharge.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of radio, can be used in the systems of collection and processing of meteorological information, systems, air traffic control, fire protection forests, to ensure safe storage and transportation of explosive cargo, etc.

There are several types of passive positioning of thunder, based on the monitoring of the electromagnetic field of the Earth in sverhdlitelnom, far and ultrashortwave (hereinafter CDC, LW and VHF, respectively) ranges. They all use either DF or differential-ranging methods, or a combination of them and suggest the presence of 3 or more observation points [1].

The essence of the direction-finding method assumes that it is possible to measure the azimuth of the source of electromagnetic radiation from each point of observation. The location of the lightning discharge is defined as the intersection of the azimuth. This method is based on VHF interferometers, implemented in the system SAFIR [2] Vaisala Dimensions. Its disadvantages are the possibility to work only within the line of sight, the decrease in accuracy when increasing the base size of the system, the presence of zones with increasing error positioning and lack of error estimates locate lightning is azrad. In the case of use for determining the azimuth of the framework of add direction finders removed the condition line of sight of the discharge, but significant errors in the determination of the bearing resulting from polarization errors.

In the differential-ranging method assumes that each observation points measured time signal from a source of electromagnetic radiation. The difference between the times of arrival of the signal at two points defines a hyperbola, and a few paragraphs define some hyperbole, the intersection of which indicates the source of radiation. On differential-ranging method of positioning relies on a widespread system NLDN firm Global Atmospherics (USA) [3], operating in the UHF range. The disadvantages of this system include: the need for high-precision synchronization of the system clock on the check, the performance of the system only within line of sight, commit only parts of discharges occurring in the surveillance area, and the possible presence of areas with ambiguous mestoopredeleniya discharge. In the case of use for add-band is removed, the condition of line-of-sight grade, but has difficulty identifying facilities adopted in the different signals to the same category. Possible intervals between the PTO is Tami receipt of signals at different collection points is greater, the longer the base system [1]. Within such a time interval may occur several lightning strikes, which will lead to uncertainty in the identification of compliance of the registered signals specific lightning discharge and, ultimately, to reduce the likelihood of a correct positioning of the discharge. The probability of the absence of this error decreases exponentially with the shortening of the base system, but the convergence of collection points system leads to an increase in the error of the positioning range.

To increase the probability and accuracy of positioning allows developed in the early 1990-ies by Global Atmospherics (USA) the IMPACT system [3]based on the combination of differential-ranging and direction-finding methods. In this combined method with each of the observation points on the server are transmitted to the bearing to the lightning discharge and the arrival time of the signal. The server from these data, calculates the coordinates of the lightning discharge and provides users access to the results of the calculations. However, in the new system remained the need for high-precision synchronization and the ability to work only within the line of sight, moreover, increased the density of observation points and the cost of equipment.

In recent years, Global Atmospherics of developing the t system of differential-ranging high-frequency three-dimensional mapping in the UHF range - LDAR and LDAR-2 [4], with the possibility of three-dimensional positioning over a thousand pulses in each lightning flash. This system only works in line of sight, requires high-precision synchronization and very large (more than 7-9) number of expensive sensors. Currently, these systems are in trial operation in the United States and Japan.

Also known announceda system positioning of thunder in the near zone, representing sverkhmonopolii offline protoplanetary-finder (hereinafter add AGPD) [5], which allows the results of monitoring the Earth's electromagnetic fields in the VLF range to determine the distance to the lightning discharge and interval estimate of the bearing [6]. The disadvantages of add AGPD should be attributed to the insufficient accuracy of the positioning lightning discharge due to the presence of uncertainty in the estimation of the bearing, not caused by a vertical lightning channel. The elimination method of polarization errors specified in [6], where the authors present a method for joint processing of signals of two or more SDV AGPD, which allows you to eliminate uncertainty in the determination of the bearing, together with the processing of generalized coordinates received from each point of observation. But you need to know the existing height of the magnetic and electric antennas in each point is the observation, which can only be obtained by a statistical method using a reference meter.

The prototype of this method is combined method of determining the location of the lightning discharge [2], in which a few observation points on the earth surface monitoring of the electromagnetic field, the registration time of occurrence of signals, measurement of bearing on the source signal and transmit the measurement results to a Central point where to calculate the coordinates of the lightning discharge, using a combination of dynamical and differential-ranging ways.

As a prototype system for the selected system SAFIR [2]containing the data network and connected to the Central unit calculations, the control unit, the computers of users (number of users), and the sensors representing VHF interferometric direction finders. However, as noted above, this system only works in line of sight, therefore, to survey large areas of the earth's surface requires a large number of sensors. And at the same time, due to use for direction finding interferometer principles of operation, these sensors are rather expensive and bulky.

Tasks are addressed by the invention are, first, katralla square observations with fewer sensors, secondly, increasing the probability of detecting lightning discharge.

To solve this problem, the proposed method of determining the location of the lightning discharge, including the monitoring of the vertical component of the electric field and the horizontal component of the magnetic field in a few points of observation on the earth's surface, which record the time of occurrence of signals from discharges and determine assessment bearings on the discharge, according to the invention, each point of observation on the instantaneous values of the signals to determine the distance between this point and by the lightning discharge, inducing the signal, then the measurement results are sent to a Central point where identify their relevance to lightning discharge, and corresponding to this discharge measurements compute the coordinates of its location.

For the implementation of the proposed method in the proposed multi-point system locate lightning discharge that contains the data network and connected to the sensors, the Central unit calculations, the control unit and the computers of users (number of users), according to the invention, as the sensors used sverkhlineinaya offline protoplanetary-finders.

To justify the proposals the frame of the invention consider the multi-point system, consisting of n (n≥3) observation points. Cartesian coordinates (xi, yi) the i-th observation points (i=1,2,...n), the Cartesian coordinates of the lightning discharge (x, y, z) and range rifrom points i=1,2,...n to the source satisfy the system of equations

If the observation points are not collinear, then the resulting system will have full rank, its better in the sense of least squares solution is:

Equality (1) give an algorithm to determine the three coordinates of the radiation source by the values of the distances from it to n (n≥3) observation points. The problem help identify the conformity of the observed signals specific lightning discharge can be resolved with the help of electronic computing machines (computers) and developed by the authors of the software [7], comparing them at the time of registration, estimates of bearings and coordinates of the observation points.

Functional diagram shown in the drawing. The system includes: a data transmission network 1 and connected to it add AGPD 2kwhere k=1,2...n (n is the number of observation points), the Central unit calculations 3, the control unit 4, the user computers 51where 1=1,2...m (m is the number of customers in the system).

The data network 1 transmits d is the R between the blocks of the system and is a standard computer data network.

Used as sensors, add AGPD 2k, where k=1,2...n exercise: monitoring the Earth's electromagnetic fields in the VLF range, the recording time tkthe signal from the lightning discharge and the definition of the range rkbefore him, the transmission over the data network 1 values of tkand rkthe Central processing unit 3 and the self-test. Requests the Central processing unit 3 received via the data network 1, add AGPD 2kperform synchronization own system clock and a test.

The use of add AGPD as sensors changes the functional characteristics of the other elements of the system.

The Central unit calculations 3 performs the following functions:

1) takes a value of tkand rkwhere k=1,2...n, with add AGPD 2kprovides identification of the conformity of the observed signals specific lightning discharge, the selection of add AGPD, data which will participate in the settlement, finding from these data, the Cartesian coordinates of the discharge in accordance with (1), calculate the geographical coordinates and the preservation of all measured and calculated results in the database.

2) generates the synchronization signals of the system clock for all add AGPD;

3) issues requests to add AGPD 2kwhere k=1,2...n, to perform the test tasks in background mode the IU and at the request of the control unit 4, and the results of testing the system and its elements transmits to the control unit 4;

4) records the users ' computers 5kwhere k=1,2...m, and provides them access to information in accordance with established laws and rules, provides on-demand user-to-date information about stormy atmosphere, or is designed to work with the archive of observations.

The control unit 4 allows the system administrator to configure the Central unit calculations 3 and to control its operation, set user access rights to the data, to formulate queries to the Central unit calculations 3 to synchronize the system clock all add AGPD and test the system as a whole and its separate elements, and display information about their condition.

Computer software provides users registered on the Central processing unit 3, timely information about the current storm environment and working with archive observations.

Add AGPD 2kwhere k=1...n, can be implemented in accordance with [5] using the software [8], developed in the framework of ISTC project 1822. The Central processing unit 3 and the control unit 4 may be implemented on one or more computers standard architecture using the receiving software [7], developed projects RFBR 01-07-90161 and 02-07-06090. On the computers of users of the system 5 can also be installed above mentioned software. The data network 1 can be implemented on the basis of dial-up connections, satellite communication channels or the Internet. Thus, the technical problem is solved by the fact that in multi-point positioning system thunderstorms used add AGPD by the number of observation points and the time of reception of the signals from the lightning discharge and calculated from the instantaneous values of the signals range up to discharge from each SDV AGPD used to identify the correspondence of the observed signals specific storm discharge and calculate the coordinates of its location.

The introduction of add AGPD at each point of observation improves a number of characteristics of multi-point positioning system:

1) allows to increase the base distance between the sensors 60 km by removing sight discharge;

2) direct measurement of distance to a lightning discharge at each point of observation will remove the requirement for high-precision external synchronize their system clock and eliminates confusion in the identification of compliance of the registered signals specific lightning discharges;

3) in the calculation formula (1) is not used the value of p is Lenga, that eliminates the influence of the polarization errors;

4) does not require knowledge of the effective antenna heights;

5) may determine the three coordinates of the location of the radiation source.

Consider the example of implementation of the proposed invention. Let the three observation points, equipped with the following AGPD, are the points with the following Cartesian coordinates: point no 1 (-50,-50,0), # 2 (0,50,0), # 3 (50,-50,0). Hereinafter, the values of all coordinates are given in kilometers. Suppose that a lightning discharge occurs at the point with coordinates (10,10,3). In this case, the observation points will be obtained the following values for the distance to the radiation source:

After substituting the required values into the formula 1 will receive:

Thus, in the example shown, the proposed method of determining the location of the lightning discharge has sufficient stability and accuracy of the coordinates.

Questions locate lightning discharges radio methods are of interest both for fundamental science and practice. Timely and reliable information about storm events n the will to solve the problems of Geology, hydrology, meteorology, ecology, atmospheric physics, the study of fluctuations of the electromagnetic field of the Earth.

Detection of lightning fires and tracking their movement is important for lightning protection of transmission lines (PTL), service fire protection forests, prevention of destruction of aircraft lightning.

The vast number of accidents and outages of transmission lines due to the breakthrough of lightning through the cable protection and defeat of phases that causes great economic damage. In addition, lightning is a source of interference, which, spreading through transmission lines, reach the consumer and may cause malfunctions or failures of the devices.

For the service of protection of forests from fires, it is important to highlight areas of possible fire, requiring special attention. It is important to know the polarity of lightning strikes, because fires are caused mainly positive lightning, which migrated from the cloud charge significantly more than negative lightning.

Active commercial consumers with information about the thunderstorms are building and insurance companies. For insurance companies require confirmation of lightning as a successful event. And long-term Bank data on lightning activity in a specific geographic area allows you to design a system of lightning protection of buildings and predelete the sum insured for existing and new constructions, taking into account their possible susceptibility lightning.

The approach of the aircraft to the storm cloud can create an emergency situation. With the defeat of the aircraft lightning damaged the engines control system and plumage. Experiencing interference, disrupting the work of on-Board computers, which leads to unpredictable consequences. The most critical phases of flight are takeoff and landing, which must be performed in a safe environment. Therefore, ground-based aviation services is very important to accurately determine the beginning and ending of thunderstorms in the airport area and give the pilot instructions.

Sources of information

1. Kasprowski VE positioning of thunder radio methods. - M.: Nauka. - 1996. - 220 S.

2. SAFIR Total Lightning Localization and Thunderstorm Forecasting System-http://www.vaisala.com/DynaGen_Attachments/Att2751/2751.pdf (prototype).

3. National Lightning Detection Network of Improved Performance from Combined Technology (IMPACT) Radio Frequency Antenna System http://ghrc.msfc.nasa.gov:5721/sensor_documents/NLDN_antenna.html.

4. Murphy M, Zaharescu R, Holle R. Three-dimensional Lightning Mapping Using LDAR II Systems. // Proceedings 26th International conference on lightning protection. Vol. 2. (Krakow, Poland, September 1-6, 2002). - Krakow mining university. - P. 85-90.

5. A.V. Panyukov, Krokhin, NI, Semagin BV, Fayzulin N.A. Tropocana system positioning of thunder in the near zone. USSR author's certificate No. 720384, USSR. Bulletin of inventions, 1980, No. 9.

6. A.V. Panyukov Estimation of the location of an arbitrarily oriented dipole under single-point direction finding // the Journal of geophyscal research. Vol. 101. No D10. P. 14,977-14,982. June 27, 1996 (USA).

7. A.V. Panyukov, DMITRY Malov. The complex of programs for a network of Autonomous protoplanetarios-finders. Testimony of RosAPO about official registration of the computer program No. 2002611854. // The software. Database. Topographies of integrated circuits. Official Bulletin of the Russian Agency for patents and trademarks. 1(42) - 2003. S. 57-58.

8. A.V. Panyukov, Budaev A.I Library methods determine the location of the dipole source. Testimony of RosAPO about official registration of the computer program No. 2002610234. //The software. Database. Topographies of integrated circuits. Official Bulletin of the Russian Agency for patents and trademarks. 1(39) - 2002. - S. 149-150.

The method of determining the location of the lightning discharge, including the monitoring of the vertical component of the electric field and the horizontal component of the magnetic field in a few points of observation on the earth's surface, in which the observation points record the time of occurrence of signals from lightning strikes and define evaluation bearings on the discharge, characterized in that in each point of observation at the baseline distance between them, relieving sight of lightning discharge, and synchronize their system clock instant values is Ignatov determine the distance between the observation points and the lightning discharge, inducing these signals, then the measurement results are sent to a Central point where identify their relevance to lightning discharge, comparing the time of registration, the estimates of the bearings, the distance between the observation points and the lightning discharge, as well as the coordinates of the observation points and the corresponding specific lightning discharge to the results of the identification and measurement calculate its coordinates.



 

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