Railway bed grading method and laser measuring device
FIELD: railway transport; permanent way.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of grading of existing bed of railway in which cables and/or pipes are laid beyond the limits of rails, and to laser measuring device to read bed profile. According to proposed method, operator removes material of bed by sucking through definite steps along bed to form pits or cross trenches at each side of track, and using laser camera, checks profile near pit and position of buried cables or pipes and stores obtained information. Then, using information kept in memory, operator controls device for mechanical digging of material from both sides of track without risk of damage to buried cables or pipes and profile of graded bed. Laser measuring device is mounted on railway motor car with cross guide beam 12 and carriage with laser camera which can be moved along guide beam. Laser camera is pointed with its lens downwards to read distance from ground, being connected with computer to record position of bogie on rails and distance from camera to ground.
EFFECT: provision of safe, quick and cheap method of railway bed grading with use of laser measuring device.
6 cl, 6 dwg
The technical field
The present invention relates to a method for profiling an existing railway line, which laid the cables and/or pipes outside of rails. The invention also relates to a laser measuring device for sensing the profile of the railroad tracks.
Background of the invention and a known area of technology
Old railroad tracks often have too much ballast material on each side of the railway track so that the track is in one degree or another in the trench that impedes drainage. The material is also often has poor drainage capacity. Permissible axle load for the old railroad bed is often not more than 22 tons, although improved railway permissible axle load may, for example, be 30 tons. Old railway tracks can provide a higher axle load after re-profiling of the parts of the blade beyond the railway tracks (including the removal of excess material). If part of the old material is replaced by a new stone floors, you can remove the old material, to pass through the screen and replace the coarse fraction of this material.
On the sides of railway tracks often buried electric cables, which are sometimes in Proc. of the Bach or the sleeves. By modern standards they should be at a depth of one meter, but in the old railway paintings they are often much closer to the earth's surface. For removal of excess material, generally used conventional bucket excavators and not to damage the cables, while excavating the groomer helps working with hand tools, for example with a jackhammer. This operation is expensive and requires considerable time and, however, the risk of damaging the cables are not removed.
The purpose of the invention and brief description of the invention
The purpose of this invention is the provision of a method of profiling an existing railroad, which laid the cables and/or pipes outside of the rails, while this method is more secure, faster and more cost-effective than commonly used methods. Another aim of the invention is the use of laser measuring devices to sense the profile of the railroad tracks.
The method according to the invention is characterized by the fact that in certain intervals along the blade, the operator removes material by suction so that on each side of the railway tracks to form holes or transverse trench and using a laser camera operator reads the profile around the hole and position ulog is the R in the ballast cables or pipes and saves the information, and then, using this information, the operator controls the device for mechanical unearth material on both sides of the railroad tracks without the risk of damage to the laid cables or pipes and profile changes railway.
Laser measuring device according to the invention includes a railcar with a transverse guide bar and the carriage with a laser camera that can move along the guide beam, the laser camera is pointed the lens down to read the distance to the ground, and connected to the computer to record the position of the carriage on the beam and the distance from the camera to the ground.
Scope of the invention defined by the claims.
Brief description of drawings
Figure 1 is the side view of the measuring machine.
Figure 2 is a front view of the machine of figures 1.
Figure 3 is a vertical projection of the rail car, figure 1.
Figure 4 is a side view of the backhoe in transport position.
Figure 5 corresponds to figure 4, but shows an excavator in operating position.
Figure 6 is a vertical projection of the excavator shown in figures 4 and 5.
Description of example of using laser measuring devices and excavator according to the invention, both the devices are suitable for the method of the invention for profiling existing as tedorigawa canvas where are the cables and/or pipes outside rails
The device or the measuring machine shown in figures 1-3, includes a trolley or railcar 11, which has a guide beam 12. The guide beam 12 is articulated and has two connections 13, 14 in which the two external parts can be collapsed toward the machine in the transport position parallel to the railcar. The guide beam has a rack and the carriage 15 with the laser camera, which moves along the guide beam by an electric motor low voltage. The engine has a pulse sensor, and the position of the carriage on the guide beam is stored in the computer memory 16. The guide beam has a sensor for indicating the original position of the carriage, and upon each movement of the carriage past the home sensor, the computer adjusts the position specified pulse sensor on the actual position on the guide beam. Thus, a system to accurately determine and maintain the position of the laser chamber in relation to the rail track. Power to the carriage and the rail car is normal rechargeable battery 17. There is also a device to accurately determine and maintain the position of the cars on the track.
Laser camera carriage 15 is directed downward and reads the distance to the ground or to the object, which meets the laser beam, and this distance is recorded and stored in the computer memory together with the position of the carriage on the guide beam, i.e. the camera position on the guide beam. Can be used any commercially available laser camera.
In figures 4-6 shows the excavator to perform excavation in the removal of excess material from the railroad tracks on both sides of the track. This machine includes a carriage 30, which has two supports 31, each of which carries a universal rotary conveyor 33, 34. The upper part 35 of a support 31 can be rotated in the support and has a transverse axis 36, which rotates the scraper conveyor 34. Another scraper conveyor 33 is installed in the same manner on the support. Scraper conveyors shown in its transport position on the figure 4. In figure 6, the conveyor 34 is shown in its working position, and the conveyor 33 is shown in the transport position. The upper ends of the conveyors are omitted in the tray 37, which is connected to another conveyor 38 and the conveyor 38, in turn, enters the pipeline on the trolley 39. So, first download the latest trolley included, then the penultimate, and so on. The last trolley can be allocated, deallocated and returned, while the excavator continuously digs up the soil, moves it forward, and I is pressed the last of the remaining cars. On the trolley 30 includes a driver's cab and diesel engine 40. The power system may be in the form of a hydraulic system, in which the main hydraulic pump is connected to the diesel engine.
Scraper conveyors 33, 34 have the same structure, and are described in more detail only scraper conveyor 34. This pipeline has a bin loader 50 with two pulleys 51, 52, which are put on the endless belt or an endless chain 53. Circuit 53 has scrapers or buckets 54 (shown only one of them). The pulley 51 sets in motion a chain 53, and scrapers 54 pick up material from the bottom of the tray 50 and pushes it down into the tray 37.
Shown in the drawing scraper conveyor 34 has a head 55 with sharp protrusions that serve to break down soil and signal when there are stones that are too large for scraper conveyor.
Scraper conveyors may have an approximate width of from 0.5 to 1 m and, as a rule, the whole repair should train to do more than one pass for a full treatment of both sides of the railroad tracks. One operator controls the left by the scraper conveyor and other operator controls the right conveyor. Machine of this type can dig 200 cubic yards of material per hour.
Detailed description of the method according to the present invention
The method according to the present invention realizes the three or four main stages.
At appropriate intervals, usually within 15-30 meters, the operator makes a pit or transverse trench in the railroad tracks on the sides of the railway track by means of a vacuum excavator. Trenches or pits are deep enough so that you can release the potential of pipes or cables. In the method using a vacuum excavator, which sucks away the soil, eliminates the risk of damage to pipes or cables.
The machine 11 shown in figures 1-3, is placed in the position in which the guide beam 12 is about two trenches or pits, performed simultaneously in stage 1; accordingly, the trolley stops at a distance of a meter or a meter in front of them. In this position, the laser is scanned profile full width of the railroad tracks. This scan is carried out automatically with the help of the laser carriage 15, moving with a constant velocity along the guide beam 12. Preferably, the scan was repeated and the results stored in the computer, alarm signal if the results of these two scans significantly different from each other. Then the machine 11 moves forward up until the guide beam 12 is above the trenches or pits. Then you povtornoberemennaja, but this time, the laser carriage 15 is manually operated and stops when the laser reaches the surface of the cable or pipe. The operator logs into the computer the type of pipe, which he discovered, and he then moves the carriage to reach the next pipe or cable. If the laser does not create a visible beam, can be used more visible beam, which is used only for guidance. When detecting pipe or cable operator manually enters their individual position in the computer where they are processed and stored in memory, which allows you to work with two trenches or pits. The position of the trolley on the rails is also stored in memory for each scan. At this stage, the operator also records in the computer state of the material in trenches or pits.
Using the information stored in the computer, the operator analyzes the profile of the railroad tracks and the position of the various pipes and cables and decides how much material must be removed for each part of the railroad and how to do it without the risk of damage to cables or pipes. He also decides whether to remove, filter, or replace the material, to improve the draining ability of the railroad tracks. If the cables or tubes can remain in their former on which ogenyi and do not want to add cables or pipes, stage 3 may not be performed.
If you want to deepen cables or pipes, removed the maximum number lying on their material, preferably by a shift towards, and cables and pipes shall be exempt for their entire length using the same vacuum excavator, used in stage 1. Then they are placed at the desired depth using a conventional cable-handling vessel, together with any additional cables or pipes.
The result of the analysis performed in stage 2, carried out excavation work by mechanical means. Preferably, but not necessarily, use the rail excavator described with reference to figures 4-6. If necessary, you can use new or sifted old material. In conclusion, concerned with both sides of the railroad tracks. Such profiling can be performed together with the notch or possible replacement of material or it may be performed as a separate last operation.
The first two stages are relatively inexpensive, and the analysis in stage 2 can be decided to further stages and scope of these works. Stage 1 and 2 can be completed within one year, and subsequent more expensive stage can be made for next year ileage a few years later. The method allows to determine the priority between the different railway tracks depending on their importance. The analysis in stage 2 makes it possible to obtain very accurate documentation as the basis for proposals for stages 3 and 4.
1. Method of profiling an existing railroad, which laid the cables and/or pipes outside the rails, namely, that through certain intervals along the blade, the operator removes material by suction, to create holes or transverse trenches on each side of the railway tracks and laser camera reads the profile around the hole and the position of buried pipes and cables, stores this information and then using the stored information, the operator control device (33, 34) for mechanical excavation of material from both sides of the railroad tracks without the risk of damage to underground cables or pipes and profile of the profiled railway
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that, if the cables or pipes are too close to the surface, after removal of material above the buried cables or pipes, the operator puts the pipes or cables on the desired depth of excavation material and profiling of the railroad tracks.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that after the mechanical the ski removing material above the cables or pipes, the operator releases the cables or pipes, using a vacuum excavator front of their depth.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the continuous removal of material is carried out with slow moving conducting excavation work excavator (30) on the gauge and material transfer in the rear trolley (39) or in kit cars.
5. Laser measuring device for sensing the profile of the railroad tracks, characterized in that it is mounted on the railcar (11) with a transverse guide bar (12) and the carriage (15) with a laser camera that can move along the guide beam, and the laser camera is focused by the lens down to read the distance from the earth and connected to the computer (16)to record the position of the trolley on the rails and the distance from the camera to the ground.
6. Laser measuring device according to claim 5, characterized in that on both sides of the rail car, (11) directing a beam (12) is rotated along the rail cars in the transport position.
FIELD: railway transport; track maintenance machinery.
SUBSTANCE: proposed chain 1 has links 9 connected to form endless chain on which gripping members 10 are secured designed to remove ballast 5 under rail track 4, and protective plates 11 installed between gripping members 10 and covering chain links 9. Chain is furnished with member 13 to force off clay installed between every two adjacent gripping members 10 and passing over to adjacent protective plates 11, but secured only on one of two protective plates 11. Clay force off member 13 is made in form of plate and is provided with lugs 14 or cavities 15 located, when viewing in direction of movement of chain 1, on rear end of clay force off member 13.
EFFECT: provision of chain with reduced contamination of chain proper.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; permanent way.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of noncontact inspection of profile of ballast base passing square to longitudinal direction of track. Inspection is carried out together with recording of deviation of track in level and in position. Depending on recorded defects as to level (a) and profile of ballast base 13 obtained for said level, amount of crushed stone for lifting track 4 to preset level and uniform ballasting is determined. To find amount of crushed stone required for ballast base 12, recorded profile of ballast base 13 is applied to preset profile of cross section 14.
EFFECT: improved ballasting of track.
3 cl, 4 dwg