A synthesis gas production method

FIELD: methods of production a synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of hydrogen and carbon oxide, which mixture is used to be called a synthesis gas, by a selective catalytic oxidation of the hydrocarbonaceous (organic) raw material in presence of the oxygen-containing gases. The method of production of the synthesis gas includes a contacting with a catalyst at a gas hourly volumetric speed equal to 10000-10000000 h-1, a mixture containing organic raw material and oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas in amounts ensuring the ratio of oxygen and carbon of no less than 0.3. At that the process is conducted at a linear speed of the gas mixture of no less than 2.2 · 10-11 · (T1 + 273)4 / (500-T2) nanometer / s, where: T1 - a maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 - a temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting. The linear speed of the gas mixture is, preferably, in the interval of 0.2-7 m\s. The temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting is within the interval of 100-450°C. The maximum temperature of the catalyst is within the interval of 650-1500°C. The technical effect is a safe realization of the process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a safe realization of the process.

10 cl, 5 ex

 

The invention relates to a process for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide, a mixture which is called synthesis gas by selective catalytic oxidation of organic (hydrocarbon) raw material in the presence of oxygen-containing gases.

Currently, promising and rapidly developing new areas of utilization of synthesis gas and derived from it are hydrogen vehicles and small energy. Automotive synthesis gas or hydrogen can be used as a Supplement to the main fuel in internal combustion engines or as fuel for electric motor fuel cell. Energy synthesis gas and hydrogen can be used in combination with fuel cells or gas turbines for the production of environmentally friendly heat and power. For this kind of application requires catalytic processes implemented in compact reactors with high performance and, in addition, working autothermal, i.e. without additional heat supply from any other device.

These requirements fully comply with the process of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons with oxygen (RMS) [S.C.Tsang, J.B.Claridge and M.L.H.Green, Recent advances in the conversion of methane to synthesis gas. Catalysis Today, 1995, V.23 supported, 3-15; D.A.Hickman, L.D.Schmidt, Synthesis gas formation by direct oxidation of metane, in "Selective Catalytic Oxidation", ACS Symposium series, 1993, p.416-426; P.M.Tomiainen, X.Chu and L.D.Schmidt, Comparison of monolith-supported metals for the direct oxidation of methane to syngas, J.Catal., 1994, v.146, 1-10], carried out at low contact times. Usually the reaction is carried out at atmospheric pressure and high gas hourly space velocities, such as 50× 104-70× 104h-1that correspond to the contact times 7-5 milliseconds. The experiments carried out at elevated pressures, do not show significant changes in the composition of the reaction products [A.G.Dietz, L.D.Schmidt, Catal. Lett., 33 (1995) 15; L.Basini, .Aasberg-Petersen, A.Guarinoni, M.Ostberg, Catal. Today 64 (2001) 9; K.H.Hofsad, J.H.B.J. Hoebink, A. Holmen, G.B. Mann, Catal. Today, 40 (1998) 157]. The processes of partial oxidation were demonstrated for methane and higher alkanes [Basini, A. Guarinoni and A.Aragno, J.Catal. 190 (2000) 284; Y.Ji, W. Li, H. Xu, and Y. Chem, Catal. Lett.71 (2001) 45; W.Yanhui, and Diyong, Int. J. Hyd. Energy 26 (2001) 795; R.P.O''connor, E.J.Klem and L.D. Schmidt, Catal. Lett. 70 (2000) 99; S.S.Bharadwaj and L.D. Schmidt, Fuel Proc. Tech. 42 (1995) 109].

The main part of natural gas is methane. The relevant reaction is:

CH4+1/2About2=CO+2H2

Δ N°248=-35.7 kJ mol-1

For gasoline and isooctane, which is usually expressed as the General formula C8H18the reaction of synthesis gas production has the form:

With8H18+4O2=SO+N2

Δ N°248=158.1 kJ mol-1

The mixture is delivered to pin sterowanie, may contain both pure oxygen and air. To increase the concentration of hydrogen in the synthesis gas mixture containing hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen-containing gas, add water vapor. In this case, the combined thermal effects of steam reforming occurring with absorption of heat (endothermic process), and partial oxidation (exothermic process). Even in laboratory conditions it is possible to produce several kilograms of product per day per 1 g of the catalyst during contact time is from 0.1 to 10 MS (volume of catalyst, for example, cubic centimeter divided by the flow rate of the gas mixture, expressed in cubic centimeters per second). The range of changes in the gas hourly flow rate in this case about 36× 104-36× 106h-1. In terms of energy for use in fuel cells hydrogen production in these experimental conditions is ~1 kW of electricity [C.A.Leclerc, J.M.Redenius and L.D.Schmidt, Fast lightoff in millisecond reactors, Catal. Lett. 79, 1-4 (2002)39-44]. Process for production of synthesis gas catalytic partial oxidation of complex hydrocarbons that are liquid at standard temperature and pressure, as described in patent US 4087259, C 10 G 11/28, 02.05.78. The process is characterized by expenditure of hydrocarbons in liquid form at a conversion - 2-20 liters of hydrocarbon per liter of catalyst per hour. Atomaticly gas hourly flow rate (liter gas mixture of air and gasoline per liter of catalyst per hour) 75000 h -1. For large velocities were obtained from the incomplete conversion of hydrocarbons.

In order to obtain a high level of conversion and the desired selectivity of the process, the contacting with the catalyst is carried out at elevated temperatures.

Typically, the temperature of the catalyst should be at least 800° C. Primarily, the operating temperature is in the range of 800-1500° and often in the range 850-1300° C.

The selectivity of the reaction RMSE for target products (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) depends on various factors, most important of which are the activity and selectivity of the catalyst. In addition, for the implementation of this process requires catalysts with low hydraulic resistance, resistant to thermal shocks and superusuario. Generally, processes for reforming hydrocarbon fuel at low contact times used catalysts regular monolithic block structure.

The closest according to the features of the present invention is a method for production of synthesis gas, which assumes the presence of a very active catalyst [WO 9919249, 01 3/00, 22.04.99]. The synthesis gas by a known method get the catalytic partial oxidation of organic materials when the ratio of oxygen and carbon in the gas mixture of 0.3-0.8. Used on the organic raw material is a raw material, containing hydrocarbons and/or products of their oxidation, which is liquid at normal temperature and pressure and has an average number of carbon atoms equal to at least six. The process occurs at a gas hourly flow rate in the range 100000-10000000 nl/kg/h (105-107h-1).

However, it turns out that even the presence of catalysts with high activity and selectivity for desired products, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, does not guarantee the absence of problems in the implementation of specific technical solutions. High temperature catalyst (800-1500° (C) leads to high-intensity radiation towards the incident flow of the gas mixture coming into contact. This leads to a decrease of the temperature in the catalyst, and hence to decrease the conversion and the selectivity of the process, as well as to undesirable heating of the components. To reduce heat loss of the catalyst due to radiation and, in addition, to protect the walls of the reactor and the devices through which injected hydrocarbon fuel, from unwanted heating, before catalyst, typically placed permeable to the gaseous reaction mixture heat shield, made of a material which is inert in respect of the components of the reaction gas stream,such as ceramic, corundum. [J.J.Krummenacher, K.N.West, L.D.Schmidt, Catalytic partial oxidation of higher hydrocarbons at millisecond contact times: decane, hexadecane, and diesel fuel, J.ofCattaL, 215 (2003) 332-343].

Thus, we have experimentally found that in the process for production of synthesis gas by way catalytic partial oxidation temperature on thermal screen, which is located in front of the catalyst over time can increase up to values comparable to the temperature in the catalyst. In this case, maybe the uncontrolled flow of homogeneous reactions in thermal screen TV, heating of the walls of the reactor at the point of introduction of the hydrocarbon fuel and mixing with other components of the gas mixture, as well as the deposition of soot on the walls of the reactor and thermal screen. This undesirable increase in temperature may occur at any quantities of gas hourly flow rate, as it depends mainly on the balance of opposing heat flux input of the reaction mixture and radiation from the heated catalyst. The gas hourly space velocity (volume of processed mixture per unit volume/mass of catalyst per unit time) reflects the activity of the catalyst. The temperature in the immediate vicinity of the catalyst will be determined under other equal conditions, the linear velocity of flow of the reaction mixture. The linear velocity and the gas hourly volume near the here are not related definitely because of the monolithic catalytic blocks of the same volume can have different cross-section and length. That is the same gas hourly flow rate can theoretically correspond to an infinite number of linear velocities of the reaction mixture. Therefore, for safe and sustainable process for production of synthesis gas in a specific technical devices, especially in cases when the load (the cost of reagents) may change, it is necessary to take into account the permissible range of variation of the linear speed of rolling the catalyst of the reaction mixture. On the one hand, the linear velocity should be such that the gas hourly space velocity corresponded to the activity of the catalyst and the reaction front was not replaced and the reaction on the catalyst proceeded to the end. On the other hand, the process should not be accompanied by an undesirable increase in temperature before the catalyst, heating the walls of the reactor at the point of introduction of the hydrocarbon fuel.

Consider the process for production of synthesis gas from a mixture containing isooctane and air, on the monolithic catalyst performed on phenomenalism media, which is to reduce heat loss by radiation between two gas-permeable ceramic screens in a quartz tube with a diameter of 39 mm, the Flow rate of isooctane 0.3 kg/h, the flow in the spirit - 1.1 m3/h contact time at this 0.007 s (gas hour space velocity - 51× 104h-1), the linear speed of the oncoming gas flow of 0.27 nm/S.

After start of the reaction temperature on the front (frontal) surface heat screen before catalyst, which received relatively cold (inlet temperature of 210° (C) the mixture of fuel and air that is only slightly higher than the temperature of flow of the mixture, and is 230-240° C. the Temperature of the catalyst is 1100° C. However, during the experiment the temperature in thermal screen continues to increase slowly. As soon as the temperature reaches 350° With further increase in temperature on the screen to 800° occurs very quickly. The temperature on the catalyst is reduced so that an hour after the start of the experiment is set to the mode in which the temperature on the input screen and the catalyst are different from each other very little and are in the range of 850-900° C. This suggests that thermal screen flow chemical processes, and the catalyst comes already partially converted reaction mixture. Increase the flow of air-fuel mixture in half (consumption of isooctane at 0.42 kg/h, air flow rate of 1.55 m3/h) resulted in an immediate decrease of the temperature at the output of thermal screen. The temperature at the catalyst again increases to 1100° C. the Linear speed of the oncoming gas stream in this case is 0.39 nm/S.

The explanation for this phenomenon is the following.

The kinetics and mechanism of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons are complex and poorly studied, even for methane kinetics of oxidation includes about 50 stages [R.Schwiedemoch, S. Tischer, Ch. Correa, O. Deutschmann, Experimental and numerical study on the transient behaviour of partial oxidation of methane in a catalytic monolith, Chem. Eng. Sci, 58 (2003) 633-642]. It is known that hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom, in the presence of oxygen have a greater tendency to pyrolysis with the formation of the carbon to form hydrogen and CO. And this property is manifested to a greater extent with increasing number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule. In addition, when mixing of complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, etc. may fire before the mixture will flow into the catalyst, as the point at which the fire may be lower than the evaporation temperature. For alkanes, for example, with the number of carbon atoms higher than n-decane, this temperature is about 200° C. Diesel fuel containing linear alkanes C8-C10evaporated in a temperature range 300-350° C. High temperature in the reactor before the catalyst is treats for a homogeneous transformation into the mixture. This increases the risk of soot formation. When O2/C less than 0.5 soot, thermodynamics, can be formed at all temperatures. And when O2/With more than 0.5, it is also possible the deposition of soot in the equilibrium quantities and the greater, the lower the temperature. If the temperature in the mixing zone, for example, 250° C, speed of possible transformations at the time of the order of 20 MS can be neglected, as the temperature increases the speed increases exponentially. Before you reach the catalyst, the gas mixture is heated by thermal diffusion of heat from the heated due to the heat of reaction of the catalyst. At such high temperatures can occur with appreciable rate of homogeneous reactions.

The present invention solves the task of developing a safe method of producing synthesis gas by catalytic oxidation of organic materials by eliminating the uncontrolled flow of homogeneous reactions of pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in front of the catalyst in the mixing zone and the distribution of the gas mixture comprising the hydrocarbon fuel.

The task is solved in that the synthesis gas is conducted by the catalytic oxidation of organic feedstock comprising contacting the catalyst at a gas hourly volume rate equal to 10000-10000000 h-1, mixtures containing organic the second raw material and oxygen or oxygen-containing gas, in amounts providing a ratio of oxygen and carbon is not less than 0.3. While the linear velocity of the gas mixture at least 2,2x10-11x(T1+273)4/(500-T2) nm/s, where: T1 is the maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 is the temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting. The linear velocity of the gas mixture is preferably in the range of 0.2 to 7 m/s, the temperature of the gas mixture entering the contacting preferably 100-450° C, the maximum temperature of the catalyst is in the range of 650-1500° C. the Mixture supplied to the contacting may contain water.

The catalyst used in the proposed method, is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, a simple oxide, transitional and/or noble element and includes the media on a metal basis, representing layered termometricheskikh material containing non-porous or malabarista oxide coating, the ratio of the thickness of the metallic base to the thickness of the non-porous or malabarista oxide coating is 10:1-1:5.

The used catalyst may be a complex composite containing mixed oxide, a simple oxide, transitional and/or noble element, includes the media on a metal basis, representing layered termometricheskikh material containing n is porous or malabarista oxide coating and a highly porous oxide layer, the ratio of the thickness of the metallic base to the thickness of the non-porous or malabarista oxide coating is 10:1-1:5, and the ratio of the thickness of the metal base to the thickness of the highly porous layer is 1:10-1:5.

The proposed method can be implemented on the catalyst which is a complex composite containing alumina, oxides of rare earth and/or transition metals, and complex composite includes a ceramic matrix and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix, and the catalyst has a system of parallel and/or intersecting channels.

The method can be implemented on the catalyst which is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, a simple oxide of the transition element and/or a noble element that contains media, including ceramic matrix material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix, and the catalyst has a system of parallel and/or intersecting channels.

In addition, the catalyst may be any combination of the above-described catalysts.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. Process for production of synthesis gas is carried out in a flow reactor in autothermic Eskom mode at atmospheric pressure. Process for production of synthesis gas is carried out in a flow reactor in autothermal mode at atmospheric pressure. The catalyst is a complex composite containing, wt.%: 4,5 mixed oxide of cerium and zirconium with the fluorite structure, 2,1 perovskite composition LaNi0,994Pt0,006and executed on the media on a metal basis, representing layered termometricheskikh material with a ratio of the thickness of the metal base to the thickness of the non-porous or malabarista oxide coating 5:1. Monolithic catalytic unit, having a volume of 120 ml and a diameter of 120 mm, is placed in the reactor between two gas-permeable ceramic screens, the height of each screen 10 mm In the reactor serves natural gas and air costs 24 l/min natural gas and 62.9 l/min of air at room temperature (T2=20°). The reaction mixture enters the monolithic catalytic block, preheated to a temperature 480° C. the Value Of2/C=0.54 reaction mixture. The contact time 0,082, which corresponds to a gas hourly flow rate 44· 103h-1. The linear velocity of methane-air mixture to 0.13 m/s Temperature of the catalyst T1=1150° C. After 20 min after the start of the experiment the temperature in thermal screen began to increase and reaches 460° C. After the experiment for 2H on thermal screen on the quartz walls of the reactor before the catalyst is detected patina of soot. According to the calculation formula for the minimum value of the linear velocity of the gas mixture 2,2× 10-11×(1150+273)4/(500-20)=0,19 (nm/s). The linear velocity of the gas mixture in this example, equal to 0.13 m/s, which is less than the calculated minimum value. The implementation process with a linear speed less than that calculated under the recommended formula is, leads to the deposition of soot in the reactor before the catalyst due to flow non-selective reactions.

Example 2. Process for production of synthesis gas is carried out in a flow reactor in autothermal mode at atmospheric pressure. The catalyst described in example 1 and having a volume of 120 ml, have between two gas-permeable ceramic screens, the height of each screen 10 mm. Diameter catalytic unit 50 mm. of Natural gas and air costs 24 l/min natural gas and 62.9 l/min of air at ambient temperature is fed into the reactor (T2=20°). The reaction mixture enters the monolithic catalytic block, preheated to a temperature 480° C. the Ratio of O2/C=0.54 reaction mixture. The contact time 0,082, which corresponds to a gas hourly flow rate 44· 10 h-1. The linear velocity of methane-air mixture - 0.74 m/s Temperature of the catalyst T1=1200° C. the Temperature at the inlet surface of the heat screen for e is speriment stood at 220° C. Experiment is carried out for 3 hours After the experiment on thermal screen on the quartz walls of the reactor before the catalyst is not detected traces of soot. According to the calculation formula, the minimum value of the linear velocity of the gas mixture 2,2× 10-11×(1200+273)4/(500-20)=0,22 (nm/s). The linear velocity of the gas mixture in this example is equal to 0.74 m/s, which is higher than the calculated minimum value.

Example 3. Process for production of synthesis gas is carried out in conditions similar to those described in example 2, with the linear velocity of the gas mixture 0.74 m/s, which is above the minimum for the given conditions value equal to 0.22 nm/s

Used catalyst prepared in media containing non-porous or malabarista oxide coating with a ratio of the thickness of the metal base to the thickness of the non-porous or malabarista oxide coating 10:1, and highly porous oxide coating with a ratio of the thickness of the metal base to the thickness of the porous oxide coating 1:1. The resulting catalyst contains, wt%: 9,0 mixed oxide of cerium and zirconium with the fluorite structure, 1.7 perovskite LaNi0,994Pt0,006. The experiment is carried out for 5 hours After the experiment on thermal screen on the quartz walls of the reactor before the catalyst is not detected traces of soot.

Example 4. Use monolithic is analiticheskii block, having a structure with a system of parallel and intersecting channels. The number of concurrent channels per unit geometric surface of the end plane is 56 cm-2. The distance between the intersecting channels is 0.5 mm, Specific surface area equal to 5 m2/, the Composition of the catalyst is a complex composite containing alumina and dispersed material is a mixed oxide LaNiO3+xwith perovskite structure with an average size of aggregates of particles of about 15 μm. The content of the dispersed material is 22 wt.%. The catalytic unit has a volume of 1.13 ml, to him, placed in a quartz tube with a diameter of 12 mm, down power supply circuit for supplying electric voltage. From a source voltage of 12 volts to the catalytic unit serves current within 2 C. the temperature of the catalyst during this time reaches the set temperature ignition - 200° C. Synthetic kerosene having a boiling point in the range of 150-200° that is sprayed into the stream heated to a temperature of 250° C (T2) of air through the nozzle. The consumption of kerosene 112.3 g/h (154 ml/h)air flow 470 nl/h Ratio of About2/S=0,55. The contact time 0,009 sec, which corresponds to a gas hourly flow rate 40· 104h-1. The linear velocity of the mixture - 0,98 m/s the temperature of the catalytic unit T1=1250° C. the type field, the Oia kerosene - 95%. The performance of a carbon monoxide - 4.8 mol/kg of catalyst, the performance of hydrogen - 3.7 mol/kg of catalyst. The process is stable, the temperature on thermal screen was kept at 300° and after 8 h test showed that thermal screen on the quartz walls of the reactor before the catalyst is not detected traces of soot. According to the calculation formula, the minimum value of the linear velocity of 2.2× 10-11×(1250+273)4/(500-250)=0,47 (nm/s). The linear velocity of the gas mixture in this example equal to 0.98 m/s, which is higher than the calculated minimum value.

Increasing the diameter of the catalyst of only 18%, so that its value is 14 mm, leads to a decrease of the linear speeds of up to 0.35 m/s while maintaining the gas flow rate 40· 104h-1. In this case, there is a gradual increase in temperature on thermal screen to 820° C. the Temperature of the catalyst is reduced to 970° while in the products appear olefins in the homogeneous reactions. The process stopped after 1 h after the start. On thermal screen on the quartz walls of the reactor before the catalyst is not detected traces of soot.

Example 5. Process for production of synthesis gas is carried out in conditions similar to those described in example 4. The used catalyst has a system of parallel and Perez is contrite channels. The composition of the catalyst is a complex composite containing alumina and dispersed material is a mixed oxide LNiO3+xwith perovskite structure and contains 4.8 wt.% mixed oxide of cerium and zirconium with the fluorite structure and 1.0 wt.% Pt. The linear velocity of the mixture - of 0.98 m/s, which is above the minimum for the given conditions a value of 0.47 nm/sec Experiment is carried out for 5 hours After the experiment on thermal screen on the quartz walls of the reactor before the catalyst is not detected traces of soot.

Thus, as seen from the above examples, the proposed method allows you to securely process for production of synthesis gas by catalytic oxidation of various types of hydrocarbon (organic) raw materials under conditions precluding leakage of uncontrolled processes before catalyst in the mixing zone and the distribution of the gas mixture.

1. Method for production of synthesis gas by catalytic oxidation of organic feedstock comprising contacting the catalyst at a gas hourly flow rate 10000-10000000 h-1mixtures containing organic feedstock and the oxygen or oxygen-containing gas in amounts providing a ratio of oxygen and carbon is not less than 0.3, wherein the process is carried out at a linear velocity of the gas mixture is e less than 2.2· 10-11·(T1+273)4/(500-T2) nm/s, where T1 is the maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 is the temperature of the gas mixture coming into contact.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the linear velocity of the gas mixture is preferably in the range of 0.2 to 7 m/S.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the temperature of the gas mixture entering the contacting preferably 100-450° C.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the maximum temperature of the catalyst 650-1500° C.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture supplied to the contacting, contains water.

6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the used catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, a simple oxide, transitional and/or noble element and includes the media on a metal basis, representing layered termometricheskikh material containing non-porous or malabarista oxide coating, the ratio of the thickness of the metallic base to the thickness of the non-porous or malabarista oxide coating is 10:1-1:5.

7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the used catalyst is a complex composite and contains a mixed oxide, a simple oxide, transitional and/or noble element, includes the media on a metal basis, represent the s a layered termometricheskikh material, containing non-porous or malabarista oxide coating and a highly porous oxide layer, the ratio of the thickness of the metallic base to the thickness of the non-porous or malabarista oxide coating is 10:1-1:5, and the ratio of the thickness of the metal base to the thickness of the highly porous layer is 1:10-1:5.

8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the used catalyst is a complex composite containing alumina, oxides of rare earth and/or transition metals, and complex composite includes a ceramic matrix and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix, and the catalyst has a system of parallel and/or intersecting channels.

9. The method according to claim 1, wherein the used catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, a simple oxide of the transition element and/or a noble element that contains media, including ceramic matrix material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix, and the catalyst has a system of parallel and/or intersecting channels.

10. The method according to claim 1, wherein the used catalyst may be any combination of catalysts according to any one of p-9.



 

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The invention relates to power equipment and can be used to produce hydrogen as in fixed installations and transport

FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.

EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.

13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides ammonia synthesis catalyst containing ruthenium as active ingredient supported by boron nitride and/or silicon nitride. Catalyst can be promoted by one ore more metals selected from alkali, alkali-earth metal, or rare-earth metals. Ammonia synthesis process in presence of claimed catalyst is also described.

EFFECT: increased temperature resistance of catalyst under industrial ammonia synthesis conditions.

4 cl, 6 ex

The invention relates to a catalyst for the receipt of vinyl acetate in the fluidized bed

The invention relates to the process of obtaining mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide by catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen-containing gases and/or water vapor

The invention relates to catalytic chemistry, in particular to methods of producing catalysts for the process of reduction of nitrogen oxides, mainly in the presence of methane and oxygen, and can be used for purification of exhaust gases (NOx) in the production of weak nitric acid, flue gases of high-temperature furnaces and boilers

The invention relates to methods of producing the catalyst for purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines

The invention relates to the refining sector, namely the catalytic reforming of the original naphtha

The invention relates to the field of gas-phase purification of ethane-ethylene fraction of pyrogas from acetylene impurities, in particular to a method of preparation of the catalyst purification method for selective hydrogenation

FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.

EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.

13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex

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