FIELD: food industry; equipment for extrusion treatment of food products.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of food industry, in particular, to the equipment for extrusion treatment of food products. The equipment may be used for production of extruded articles of food in different branches of food industry, for example, for production of corn rods, combined fodders for animals, etc. The extruder contains a loading bin, a working chamber with heating elements, a screw, a bearing mount assembly, a mixer and a steaming plant. The steaming plant is located in the loading bin and contains a slope double bottom placed at the angle exceeding the angle of a natural inclination of the processed raw material. In the slope double bottom there are bores for a steam supply, the number of which increases along the raw material traffic route. In the extreme lower part of the slope double bottom there is a tube for a condensate removal. The mixer is linked to the body of the extruder with the help of a mobile flanged coupling. On the outer surface of the body there is a crown gear, and inside the body - a cylindrical sleeve. The sleeve has three zones: a zone of transportation with the blades located at an angle of elevation "α", a zone of the product compaction with an angle of blades elevation "β" and a zone of transportation of the product with an angle of blades elevation "α". The invention ensures improvement of quality of the finished products at the expense of preliminary uniform moistening and heating of the raw materials by steam and also its intensive stirring, decrease of time for the raw material treatment and decrease of dimensions of the extruder.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the finished products quality improvement, decreased time for the raw material treatment and dimensions of the extruder.
The invention relates to equipment for extrusion processing of food products and can be used for the production of extruded food products in various sectors of the food industry, for example, for the production of corn sticks, animal feed, etc.
Closest to the proposed to the technical essence is the extruder, consisting of a working chamber with heating elements, screw, bearing unit and is equipped with a mixer propriately [feed Production using extrusion technology. / Aiglon, Nymphadora. - M.: cniitei vnpo "grain product", 1990. - P.1-56. - (Ser. Feed industry here. Browse information.)].
The disadvantages of this extruder are large heat loss, uneven supply of steam and, as a consequence, non-uniform wetting of the product, as well as the relatively large size presents the design of the extruder.
An object of the invention is to improve the quality of the finished product due to pre-heat and humidity of the steam treatment due to uniform wetting, pre-heating of raw materials and intensive mixing, as well as reducing the time to process raw materials and the reduction of the dimensions of the extruder.
This object is achieved in that the extruder, consisting of zagrosek the th bin of the working chamber with heating elements, screw, bearing unit, mixer and propriately, what's new is that propriately is located in the loading hopper and includes an inclined false bottom located at an angle greater than the angle of repose of the processed material, an inclined bottom holes for the steam supply, the number of which increases in the direction of the movement of raw materials, in the lowest part of the inclined false bottom installed pipe for condensate, a mixer connected to the housing of the extruder with the help of rolling a flange on the outer surface of the housing is a ring gear, and inside the housing is a cylindrical sleeve having three zones: zone transportation with blades located on the corner rise αthat the seal of the product with the elevation angle of blades β and the area of transportation of the product with the elevation angle of blades α.
1 shows a General view of the proposed extruder; figure 2 - section a-a in figure 1; figure 3 - scan liners; figure 4 is a view In figure 3; figure 5 - mounting mixer with the working chamber of the extruder; figure 6 is inclined double bottom of propriately.
The extruder (1-6) consists of the working chamber 1 with the heater 18, the screw 2, matrix 3 with molding hole mixer 4, which includes a housing 5 with a ring gear 8, a cylindrical sleeve 6 with blades 7 (2), loading the loading hopper 13 with gated feeder 17 and propriately 16 with an inclined false bottom 14.
The housing 5 of the mixer 4, in which is located a cylindrical sleeve 6, is attached to the working chamber 1 of the extruder and bearing to the node 19 by means of flanges 10 and semirings 11 bolted connection (figure 5) and rotates due to the torque transmitted through the ring gear 8. The necessary alignment of the rotation of the body 5 of the mixer 4 and the screw 2 is created using the centering bearings 9 with separators 12. The speed of the mixer 4 can be changed by using an asynchronous motor, which significantly expands the technological capabilities of the extruder.
The sleeve 6 on its inner surface has a blade 7 (Fig 3 and 4). The length of the mixer 4 can be divided in three zones: a first zone for transportation with partial mixing of the supplied product, which is in length about half of the housing of the mixer 5; II area - the area of the sealing product that contains 2...5 rows of blades 7; III zone for transportation to the transfer of product from the blades of the sleeve to the screw 2, the component along the length of the remaining part of the sleeve 7. In zone I the angle of elevation α blades 7 are made so as to provide forward movement of the product along the length of the mixer, while providing the necessary mixing. In the second zone elevation β blade 7 has a smaller value as compared with the first area that PR is an intensive mixing of the product due to the crossing of streams. To promote the product width of the blades 7 in the second zone is less than with the first zone, and the step between them more, which is associated with the prevention of traffic congestion and possible adhesion pretreated in propriately product. In III area elevation α blade 7 is made in the same direction as in the first zone. Angle values α and β are determined by the characteristics of the original product and the performance of the extruder. In all three zones of the blades 7 are staggered, with the first and third zones of the mixer step and the distance between the blades is the same, and in the second zone they take more importance, because of product characteristics (coefficient of friction, angle of repose, moisture content).
Propriately 16 has an inclined false bottom 14, which is located at an angle greater than the angle of repose of the processed product. In the bottom 14 with holes 20 for steam supply. Moreover, to ensure the uniformity of steam supply and maintain a stable fluidized bed of the processed product number of holes 20 along the length of the bottom 14 is increased (6), the diameter is determined by the minimum particle size of the product. And at the bottom of propriately 16 has a tube 15 for removal of condensed water vapor.
The screw 2 has two characteristic plot: the plot of the screw 2 in the compounds the body 4, where it is a smooth cylindrical shaft of constant diameter, and the area of the screw 2 in the chamber 1, in which he performed with decreasing free volume. During the rotation of the screw 2 in the mixer 4 is subjected to partial purification of blades 7, which prevents the accumulation of the products and the subsequent deterioration under the influence of temperature.
The proposed extruder operates as follows.
The original product is fed through the hopper 13 in the rotary feeder 17 and from there into propriately 16. Through an inclined false bottom 14 in propriately 16 served saturated steam. Upon contact of the particles of the product with steam moisture instantly condenses on the surface of the product, resulting in its rapid warming. In propriately 16 original product is in a suspended state, which is determined by the feed rate of steam through the openings 20 and transported due to the angle of inclination of the perforated bottom 14. When this is achieved the two tasks. First, due to condensed moisture product gets the set humidity, for example, 18%, because this moisture provides the best mode of extrusion. Secondly, due to the heat supplied by steam, there is a partial dextrinization starch and denaturation of proteins. Thus, the product enters the working is the camera of the extruder, passed the initial stage of hydrothermal treatment.
Next, the product flows into the mixer. The purpose of the mixer is not only uniform mixing of the product, but also in maintaining it at a certain temperature for successful course of extrusion cooking. In all zones of the mixer product intensively stirred by the blades 7 and transported due to their angles α and β.
In the first zone of the mixer 4, the product is first mixed and transported by the blades 7. Elevation α blades 7 in the first zone provides forward movement of the product along the length of the mixer, while providing the necessary mixing.
Due to the smaller values of the angle of elevation β blades 7 in the second zone as compared with the first area of the product intensively mixed by intersecting streams; in the second zone is the seal of the product and air displacement. Due to the fact that the width of the blades 7 in the second zone is less than in the first zone, and the step between them more, it prevents traffic congestion and possible sticking of the product.
Due to the fact that in the III area elevation and blade 7 is made in the same direction as in the first zone, III zone is the transportation of the compacted product to transfer him from the blades 7 of the panel 2.
The product is then sequentially moved through a homogenization zone and dose the Finance by means of rotating the screw 2. As product promotion in the area of homogenization is the transformation of the softened particles into a homogeneous melt due to the increasing pressure. In the area of homogenizing the product finally passes from the solid phase in a viscoplastic; here is melting in the conversion of mechanical energy of the working bodies of the extruder into thermal energy due to internal friction in the product itself.
The pressure of the molten product in the batching area reaches the desired value, the final melting of small inclusions and the melt is formed, uniform in texture and temperature. This allows for normal operation of the extruder to have a defined, uniform in cross-section of the melt temperature of the product and espulsione promoting it to the required pressure in pragmatico zone. Then push the product through the outlet in the matrix 3.
Thus, the use of the invention will:
- to improve the quality of the finished product due to uniform wetting, pre-heating of the product and its intensive mixing;
- reduce the length of the extrusion process due to the preliminary heat-moisture treatment product ferry, providing partial dextrinization starch and denaturation of proteins;
to reduce the dimensions ek is trader by placing propriately in the loading hopper and mixer in front of the working camera.
Extruder, consisting of a feed hopper, of the working chamber with heating elements, screw, bearing unit, mixer and propriately, characterized in that propriately is located in the loading hopper and includes an inclined false bottom located at an angle greater than the angle of repose of the processed material, an inclined bottom holes for the steam supply, the number of which increases in the direction of the movement of raw materials, in the lowest part of the inclined false bottom installed pipe for condensate, a mixer connected to the housing of the extruder with the help of rolling a flange on the outer surface of the housing is a ring gear, and inside a cylindrical sleeve having three zones: the area of transportation with the vanes, arranged with elevation αthat the seal of the product with the elevation angle of blades β and the area of transportation of the product with the elevation angle of blades α.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of metal pipes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with mechanical engineering and may be used in production of metal pipes as a minimum with internal polymeric cover and mainly in production of metal-polymeric pipes. The extrusion head with a centering device contains: a body, an extrusion die mounted in it behind the channel for extrusion of a polymer with formation of a ring-type clearance between the body and the die for extrusion of adhesive into the ring-type clearance. Along a longitudinal axis of the die there is a mandrel with formation of the ring-type molding slot between the mandrel and an extrusion die for a polymer extrusion into it. The centering ring, in which there is a mounted driving element with a capability of its lateral movement and fixation, is connected to the body. The driving element has a U-shaped slot used for delivery in it of a metal sheet billet. The mandrel has a spherical bearing mounted on a run of the polymer in front of the channel for its extrusion. The tail of the mandrel is installed in the driving element and supplied with an additional spherical bearing installed in a conical recess of the driving element from the side of its external surface. The additional spherical bearing is made with a capability of its motion and fixation along a longitudinal axis of the tail of the mandrel. The invention provides the equal thickness of a polymeric cover, to simplify the process and to increase accuracy of centering.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the equal thickness of a polymeric cover, simplification of the process and increased accuracy of centering.
5 cl, 3 dwg