Installation and method for production of nanodispersed powders in microwave plasma

FIELD: production of nanodispersed powders of refractory inorganic materials and compounds, in particular, installations and methods for realization of plasmochemical processes of production of nanodispersed powder products.

SUBSTANCE: the installation comprises production-linked: microwave oscillator 1, microwave plasmatron 2, gas-flow former 3, discharge chamber 4, microwave radiation absorber 5, reaction chamber 6, heat-exchanger 7, filter-collector of target product (powder) 8, device for injection of the source reagents in a powdered or vapors state into the reaction chamber, the installation has in addition a device for injection of the source reagents in the liquid-drop state, it has interconnected proportioner 9 in the form of cylinder 10, piston 11 with gear-screwed electric drive mechanism 12 adjusting the speed of motion of piston 1, evaporative chamber 13 with a temperature-controlled body for regulating the temperature inside the chamber that is coupled to the assembly of injection of reagents 14 in the vaporous state and to the assembly of injection of reagents 15 in the liquid-drop state, injection assembly 14 is made with 6 to 12 holes opening in the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the axis of the chamber consisting at least of two sections, the first of which is connected by upper flange 16 to the assemblies of injection of reagents, to discharge chamber 4, plasmatron 2, with valve 17 installed between it and microwave oscillator 1, and by lower flange 18, through the subsequent sections, it is connected to heat exchanger 7, the reaction chamber has inner water-cooled insert 20 rotated by electric motor 19 and metal scraper 21 located along it for cutting the precipitations of powder of the target product formed on the walls of the reaction chamber, and heat exchanger 7 is made two water-cooled coaxial cylinders 22 and 23, whose axes are perpendicular to the axis of the reaction chamber and installed with a clearance for passage of the cooled flow, and knife 24 located in the clearance, rotating about the axis of the cylinders and cleaning the working surfaces of the cylinders of the overgrowing with powder, powder filter-collector 8 having inside it filtering hose 25 of chemically and thermally stable material, on which precipitation of powder of the target product from the gas flow takes place, in the upper part it is connected by flange 26 to the heat exchanger, and in the lower part the filter is provided it device 27 for periodic cleaning of the material by its deformation, and device 28 with valve 29 for sealing the inner space of the filter. The method for production of nanodispersed powders in microwave plasma with the use of the claimed installation consists in injection of the source reagents in the flow of plasma-forming gas of the reaction chamber, plasmochemical synthesis of reagents, cooling of the target product and its separation from the reaction chamber through the filter-collector, the source reagents are injected into the flow of plasma-forming gas, having a medium-mass temperature of 1200 to 3200 K in any state of aggregation: vaporous, powdered, liquid-drop or in any combination of them, reagents in the powdered state are injected in the form of aerosol with the gas-carrier into the reaction chamber through injection assembly 35 with a hole opening into the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the chamber axis, reagents in the liquid-drop or vaporous state are injected into the reaction chamber through injection assemblies 15 or 14, respectively, in the form of ring-shaped headers, the last of which is made with 6 to 12 holes opening into the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the chamber axis, each of them is blown off by the accompanying gas flow through the coaxial ducts around the holes, at expenditure of the source reagents, plasma-forming gas, specific power of microwave radiation, length of the reaction zone providing for production of a composite system and individual substances with preset properties, chemical, phase composition and dispersity.

EFFECT: universality of the industrial installation, enhanced capacity of it and enhanced duration of continuous operation, as well as enhanced yield of nanodispersed powders and expanded production potentialities of the method.

20 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of production of nanodispersed powders (NDP) refractory inorganic materials and compounds, in particular to plants and methods of producing PDP materials suitable for use in various fields of industry and technology.

Plasma technics and technology currently has succeeded in creating a range of materials. Of particular interest are nano-dispersed powder materials (the term "nano" is used now instead of "ultra-fine") narrow fractional composition with an average particle size of 10-100 nm. Numerous studies conducted in the study process revealed that the physico-chemical properties of powders with the specified particle sizes different from those of conventional powders, and therefore nanodispersed powder materials are of interest for studying fundamental problems of solid and practical application. Currently scheduled fairly wide range of promising applications of materials based on nano-dispersed powders of metals, alloys and chemical compounds in the field of electronics, solid lubricants, capacitors, batteries, thermally managed substrates, etc. However, industrial application of nano-dispersed powder of Materialovedenie the lack of industrial technology and high-performance units.

Known apparatus for producing ultrafine powders containing a sealed enclosure with cover and bottom process connections for input and output of the plasma-forming gas and powder, the mixing chamber and connected to it from the bottom of the reaction chamber, the side surface of which is made in the form of axisymmetric system water-cooled rotating cylinder with a predetermined gap from the outer side of which are scrapers (SU 1549578 A1, 01 J 19/08, 15.03.90).

The method of obtaining ultra-fine powders using the known installation is as follows.

The reaction mixture of O2and TiCl4in the form of turbulent granules from mixing a premix chamber served in the reaction chamber, where the chemical interaction of the reactants with the formation of ultrafine (nano) powder of titanium dioxide, which is cooled when the flow through the gaps between the cooled cylinder walls of the reaction chamber with the subsequent conclusion of the powder through the nozzle of the bottom of the camera.

Obtained using the known device the titanium dioxide contains from 70 to 95% anatase modification, but the powder has a fairly wide range of sizes (from 40 to 100 nm), and the installation is not a high resource.

Known chemical Rea the tor for the preparation of nanodisperse powders, containing microwave plasmatron nozzle for dispersing solution, the reaction chamber and connected to its lower end the pipe output palaeohistology mixture, and the nozzle is placed at an angle of 130-140° to the reaction chamber, and the transition from the reaction chamber to the nozzle output palaeohistology mixture made in the form of knee, after which it is the capacity to collect substandard powder (EN 2138929 C1, 27.09.1999).

Known plasma-chemical reactor allows to increase the productivity of the process and to reduce the number of substandard powder, however, in this type of reactor is the accumulation of the target product on the walls of the reactor, which greatly reduces its capabilities, in particular in such a reactor, it is impossible to obtain a complex composite materials.

Closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention are installation and method for producing nano-powders in the plasma of the microwave discharge (US 6409851, 25.06.2002).

The known system includes a technologically interconnected, a microwave generator, a microwave plasma torch, the driver gas flow, the discharge chamber, an absorber of microwave radiation, reaction chamber, the device for input to the reaction chamber of the raw materials in the powdered state, heat exchanger, filter the collection target about the ukta in the form of nanosized powders.

A method of obtaining nanosized powders in the microwave plasma discharge includes the introduction of reagents into the flow of the plasma gas with average mass temperature of the plasma stream 500-1100°C, plasma-chemical synthesis in the reaction chamber, cooling the target product and its isolation from the reaction zone through the filter collection, with at least one reagent is used in a powdered state or in the form of chemical vapor.

The disadvantages of the known installation:

1. Low temperature plasma flow (500-1100° (C)that limits the capacity of the plant (feedstock flow rate is 0.5 to 1 g/min), and the range of the source reagents are relatively easy to boiling and easily degradable substances, such as the CARBONYLS of metals, volatile chlorides.

2. The lack of accessories for cleaning the walls of the equipment during the process is the lack of equipment life and, accordingly, low cardiac output setup due to overgrowth of the resulting powder of the walls of the reaction chamber and heat exchanger. In addition, when feeding material into the plasma torch overgrown walls of the discharge chamber of the plasma torch conductive product, for example in the production of metal powders, after a short period of time will result when the mu breakdown on the wall of the discharge chamber and the failure of the plasma torch and the generator of microwave radiation.

3. The installation allows you to enter the reaction chamber of the source reagents only in vaporous or powdered state.

4. The absence of a mechanism for sealing the filter to trap the powder leads to oxidation of target products, active with respect to oxygen and moisture.

5. The use of a single reaction chamber limits the installation, for example, to obtain multi-component composite nanopowders.

The technical result of the claimed invention in view of the installation is the creation of a universal industrial plants, increasing capacity, increasing the duration of its continuous operation, increased resource and enhance its technological capabilities.

The technical result of the claimed invention in the portion of the method is to increase the yield of target products, obtain required dimensions of nanopowders, the expansion of the range to obtain the target products from metals to complex composite materials with specified properties.

The technical result in part of the first object is achieved by the use of the proposed facility, the concept of which is represented in the drawing.

Device for producing nanosized powders in the microwave plasma discharge includes technologically interconnected Mick is volnovoi generator 1, Microwave plasma torch 2, the driver gas stream 3, the discharge chamber 4, the absorber of microwave radiation 5, the reaction chamber 6, the heat exchanger 7, a filter is a collection of the target product powder 8, additionally the device to enter the reaction chamber of the source reagents in Jekaterina condition, containing interconnected metering device 9 in the form of a cylinder 10, a piston 11 with a gear-screw mechanism of the electric actuator 12, which regulates the speed of movement of the piston 11, the evaporation chamber 13 with thermally body to regulate temperature inside the chamber, which is connected to the input node of the reactants in the vapor 14 and node input reagents 15 in Jekaterina able, through these input nodes, performed with 6-12 holes and opening in the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45-60° to the chamber axis. Source reagents with the flow of plasma gas is served in the reaction chamber 6, is made of at least two sections, the first of which the upper flange 16 is connected to the input nodes of the reagents to the discharge chamber 4, the plasma torch 2, is installed between it and the microwave generator 1 valve 17, and the lower flange 18 through the subsequent section is connected to the heat exchanger 7, while the reaction chamber contains rotated by an electric motor 19 internal water-cooled box 20 loc is defined along its metal scraper 21 for cutting the sediments of the powder of the target product, formed on the walls of the reaction chamber and the heat exchanger 7 is made of two water-cooled coaxial cylinders 22 and 23, the axis of which is perpendicular to the axis of the reaction chamber and mounted with a gap for passing the cooled stream and located in the gap with a knife 24, rotating around the axis of the cylinders and cleaning working surfaces of the cylinders from fouling powder, filter-collection 8 powder containing filter inside the sleeve 25 of chemically and thermally resistant material, which is the deposition of a powder of the desired product from the gas stream in the upper part is connected with the flange 26 to the heat exchanger, and in the lower part of the filter is provided with a device 27 for periodic cleaning of the material by deformation and the device 28 with valve 29 for sealing the internal volume of the filter, the device for supplying to the reaction chamber 6 of the reagents in the powdered state, mostly in the form of an aerosol carrier gas includes interconnected dispenser 30 in the form of a cylinder with a water-cooled housing 31, porcini 32 with gear-screw mechanism 33 of the electric actuator piston aerodynamic activator 34, ensuring the formation of aerosol and its delivery to the reaction chamber through the inlet node 35 with a hole opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45-60° axis CA is a career.

Additionally, in each of the sections of the reaction chamber installing a heat insulating box 36 from a material selected from the series: quartz, glass carbon, graphite, ceramics, and between sections of the reaction chamber can be optionally installed manifold 37 to enter the quenching gas. Section of the reaction chamber is installed with the possibility of placing additional devices (not shown) for input of initial reagents. As the material of the filter sleeves use heat-resistant materials from the series: synthetic fiber, glass fiber, graphite fiber, metal mesh, and on the inner surface of the reaction chamber, heat exchanger, input nodes of the source reagents of the filter body to deal an additional chemical-resistant coating, mainly ceramic.

The execution of the reaction chamber 6 sectional containing at least two sections with the possibility of input reagents between sections (the drawing shows three sections), can increase the length of the reaction chamber, implement plasma-chemical processes in several reaction zones, which is necessary for obtaining multi-component composite nanopowders. The number of sections and the length of each section of the reaction chamber can be different and are determined by the task. As a rule, than lainee components of the target product, the more sections and respectively input device initial reagents has a reaction chamber.

Introduction installing optional devices for input of initial reagents in Jekaterina condition and the presence of the evaporation chamber 13 with thermally housing for regulating the temperature inside the camera allows you to expand the capabilities of the unit as a whole, namely to introduce into the reaction chamber of the source reagents in vapor state through the input node 14.

Source reagents in vapor state, and Jekaterina state is introduced into the reaction chamber respectively through input nodes 14 and 15 in the form of an annular collectors. The input node 14 is made from 6-12 holes opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45-60° to the chamber axis, each of which is blown cocurrent flow of gas through a coaxial channels around the holes. This introduction of reagents in the reaction chamber can effectively mix the reagents to introduce protective gases and changing the process temperature in the reaction chamber.

Reaction chamber containing a rotating motor 19 internal water-cooled box 20 and is located along its metal scraper 21 for cutting the sediments of the powder resulting from the chemical reaction that allows you to get rid of the provisions of the target product on the inner wall of the reaction chamber, increasing plant capacity and resource its continuous operation.

The heat exchanger 7, is made of two water-cooled coaxial cylinders 22 and 23, the axis of which is perpendicular to the axis of the reaction chamber and mounted with a gap for passing the cooled stream (air), allow to cool dust and gas flux of the target product leaving the reaction chamber, to a temperature of 40-50°C. Located in the gap of the knife 24 by rotation around the axis of the cylinder clears the working surfaces of the cylinders from powder fouling. Located in the lower part of the unit for heat exchanger filter collector provided with a device 27 for periodic cleaning of the filter sleeve by deformation and a device 28 for sealing the internal volume of the filter with the valve 29 to close the inlet of the housing, which allow you to work with the obtained powders in a controlled atmosphere (without contact with air).

Additionally, in each of the sections of the reaction chamber to increase the temperature and alignment of the temperature profile in the reaction chamber, install a heat insulating box 36 from a material selected from the series: quartz, glass carbon, graphite, and ceramics.

To save the resource of the camera by eliminating the corrosive influence of initial reagents on the inner surface of reaction the second camera, heat exchanger, input nodes of the source reagents of the filter body to deal an additional chemical-resistant coating, mainly ceramic.

To increase the duration of use of the filter sleeve is made of a thermally resistant material is selected from the series: synthetic fiber, glass fiber, graphite fiber, metal mesh.

The technical result of the claimed invention in the portion of the method is achieved in that a method of obtaining nanosized powders in the plasma of RF discharge using published installation includes the introduction of reagents into the flow of plasma gas reaction chamber, plasma-chemical synthesis reagents, cooling of the target product and its isolation from the reaction zone through the filter collection, the original reagents injected into the flow of plasma gas having a mass-average temperature 1200-3200 To, in any aggregate state: vapor, powder, Jekaterina or in any combination, with the reagents in the powdered state is injected in the form of an aerosol carrier gas in the reaction chamber through the inlet node 35 with a hole opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45-60° to the chamber axis, the reagents in vapor or in Jekaterina state is introduced into the reaction chamber through the appropriate outlawed 14 and 15 with the annular manifold, made with 6-12 holes opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45-60° to the chamber axis, each of which is blown cocurrent flow of gas through a coaxial channels around the holes, at the rate of initial reagents, plasma gas, the power density of microwave radiation, the length of the reaction zone, allowing to obtain a composite system and individual substances with specified properties, chemical and phase composition and dispersion. For additional cooling of the target product through a manifold 37 from the bottom of one of the sections of the reaction chamber, serves quenching gas with a flow rate of 1.6-2.0 m3/g, which is used as at least one of the number of: argon, nitrogen, air, oxygen.

The claimed combination of features in the device and method in General allows you to convert microwave energy into the energy of the plasma with average mass temperature 1200-3200°it gives the opportunity to carry out chemical reactions that require high temperatures, and to use high-boiling feedstock. All this extends the range of nanopowders, which can be obtained at the facility.

In addition, the higher temperature makes it possible to increase the load on the feedstock, i.e. increases the performance of the installation. In separate processes, the consumption of raw materials can be up to 10 g/min when one is a Cove with a prototype power microwave radiation (up to 5 kW) and at the same plasma gas flow, that increases the productivity of the device and method.

The increase in the temperature of the plasma is achieved by increasing the share of microwave power absorbed in the discharge chamber by increasing the length of the discharge. The latter is achieved by extending the area of the discharge chamber 4 between the axis of the waveguide and driver gas stream 3, through which the plasma torch plasma gas is introduced to a value equal to the wavelength of the radiation.

High temperature plasma (1200-3200 K) at the entrance to the reaction chamber allows any of the following in the well-known patent processes by introducing reagents into the plasma stream at the exit of the plasma torch, i.e. in the zone of the reaction chamber without disturbing the stability of the combustion discharge.

Use to trap the powder tightly sealable filter - collector powder 8, which is absent in the installation of the prototype allows after the process, isolating the resulting powder from contact with atmospheric air and to perform unloading in the box with inert atmosphere, which is very important in obtaining a “clean” nanopowders active with respect to oxygen and moisture (metals, nitrides, especially when the particle size less than 30-40 nm, which is actively oxidized in air and is even capable of self).

The work of declared facilities is illustrated by examples from the person receiving the nanopowder materials.

Example 1

To obtain nanosized powder of tungsten source hexacarbonyl tungsten in the powdered state is injected in the form of an aerosol carrier gas to the reaction chamber 6 (in the drawing is the middle section) through the input node 35 with a hole opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45° to the chamber axis. Powder reagent served with a flow rate of 100 g/h carrier gas nitrogen in a stream of nitrogen plasma generated in the discharge chamber 4. The flow of carrier gas is 0.6 m3/h Input microwave power 2.2 kW is source 1, the bulk temperature of the plasma gas at the inlet to the reaction chamber is 1200 K, but the flow of plasma-forming nitrogen is 2.2 m3/h of the Target product (tungsten) in the form of dust and gas flow is cooled in the heat exchanger 7 to a temperature of 40-50°C and fed to filter the collection of the powder 8, which is a powder of tungsten is deposited on the inner surface of the filter sleeve and the exhaust gases are removed from the installation (not shown). The average size of the resulting powders of tungsten is 40 nm. The yield of the target product in terms of the initial hexacarbonyl tungsten was 98.0%.

Performance is determined by the flow of the original powder, 8-10 times higher than in the prototype.

Example 2

To obtain nanosized on osca titanium dioxide source tetrabutoxide in Jekaterina state is introduced into the reaction chamber with insulating insert of the quartz through the input node 15 with ceramic coating inside through the liquid dispenser 9 with a flow rate of 200 g/h in a flow of air plasma. The flow rate of atomizing gas of oxygen is 0.2 m3/H. Power microwave energy is 4.4 kW, the bulk temperature of the plasma gas at the inlet to the reaction chamber -2400 To, flow orifice air 2.5 m3/H. the reaction Product in the form of dust and gas stream is partially cooled by the quenching gas is oxygen, which is fed through manifold 37 with a flow rate of 2.0 m3/h, after which the titanium dioxide is fed into the heat exchanger 7 with ceramic floor, where it is cooled to a temperature of 40-50°and routed to the filter collection powder 8, which is a powder of titanium dioxide is deposited on the inner surface of the filter sleeve, made of fiberglass.

The average particle size of the obtained powders when the modal distribution is 80 nm.

The product is a mixture of anatase and rutile modifications of titanium dioxide in equal proportion. The yield of the target product in terms of the initial tetrabutoxide is 99.0%.

Example 3

To obtain nanosized powder of titanium nitride source of titanium tetrachloride in the vapor is introduced into the first (upper) section of the reaction chamber with insulating insert ceramic aluminum oxide - through node 14 with the annular manifold, made with 12 hole the parties, opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45° to the chamber axis, each of which is blown cocurrent flow of gas through a coaxial channels around the holes. Serves reagent with a liquid dispenser 9 with a flow rate of 300 g/h in the evaporating chamber 13, and then the pairs are sent by the carrier gas (hydrogen) in a stream of nitrogen plasma through the host input vaporous reactants 14 with a ceramic coating. The power of the microwave energy is 4.5 kW, the bulk temperature of the plasma gas at the inlet of the reactor 2800 K, the flow of plasma-forming nitrogen 2.5 m3/h, the flow of quenching gas of nitrogen supplied through manifold 37 is 1.6 m3/H. Reacted powder-gas stream after cooling, quenching gas flows into the heat exchanger 7 with ceramic coating, which is cooled to a temperature of 40-50°With, then sent to filter the collection of the powder 8, which is a powder of titanium nitride is deposited on the inner surface of the filter sleeve of metal mesh.

Time of continuous operation of the plant is 8 hours using a periodically changing dispensers. The cleaning of the walls of the reactor from deposits of powder is carried out automatically by the rotation of the insert 18 every 5 minutes. The average particle size of the obtained powders when the modal distribution is 50 nm. PR is the capacity of the titanium nitride is 95 g/h, that is 5 times higher compared to the prototype.

The yield of the target product in terms of the initial titanium tetrachloride is 95,0%.

Example 4.

To obtain nanosized composite superconducting material based on niobium-titanium carbonitride (Nb0,8Tiof 0.2Cof 0.2N0,8with the first copper source reagent niobium PENTAFLUORIDE - served with a carrier gas (hydrogen) in the form of vapour in the reaction chamber with graphite inserts (first section) using a liquid dispenser 9 through node 14 with the annular manifold, made with 6 holes opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 60° to the chamber axis, each of which is blown cocurrent flow of gas through a coaxial channels around the holes. Serves reagents with a flow rate of 120 g/h in a stream of nitrogen plasma. The power of the microwave energy is 5.0 kW, the bulk temperature of the plasma gas at the inlet of the reactor 3200 K.

Later in the same section of the reaction chamber serves the second reactant is titanium tetrachloride is mixed with hexane using a liquid metering device 9 in the form of incocopernicus state with a flow rate of 32 g/h carrier gas (hydrogen) in a stream of nitrogen plasma through the inlet node of liquid reagents 15 with the annular manifold, made with 12 holes opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 50#x000B0; to the chamber axis, each of which is blown cocurrent flow of gas through a coaxial channels around the holes.

The final product in the first section of the reaction chamber 6 is the formation of nanosized powder of niobium-titanium carbonitride.

Continue to serve the third reagent powder of copper chloride as in example 1, i.e. the second section of the reaction chamber 6 through the powder dispenser 30 with a flow rate of 75 g/h carrier gas (hydrogen) through the host input powdered reagents 35. In this part of the reaction chamber, the formation of the target superconducting material in the form of dust and gas flow is cooled quenching gas is argon, the flow rate of which is 1.8 m3/h, enters the heat exchanger 7 where it is cooled to a temperature of 40-50°and then sent to a filter-collector powder 8, wherein the nano-powder is deposited on the inner surface of the filter sleeve 25 made of synthetic fibers. After the process filter is a collection of powder, sealed and further work with the obtained powder is carried out in an inert atmosphere.

The average size of the powder particles is 40 nm. The yield of the target product (Nb0,8Tiof 0.2Cof 0.2N0,8with copper in terms of the initial niobium PENTAFLUORIDE and copper is 96,0%.

In terms of the prototype of the receipt of such a composite material is impossible.

The examples do not limit the ability of the claimed invention.

Other examples of the preparation of materials will be obvious to a person skilled in the installation and use of the method.

Thus, the claimed invention allows to expand the range of obtained materials, provides feedstock use in any aggregate state: powder, Jekaterina, vaporous, their combination, to increase plant capacity and the yield of the target material.

The use of declared facilities allows to eliminate the overgrowth of the reaction chamber, heat exchanger and plasma torch received the product and increase its resource and hermetically close the filter collection, allows you to isolate the final product from contact with air and thus to prevent its oxidation, thereby to improve the quality of the materials in terms of purity. Performing the reaction chamber multicell allows to obtain multi-component composite materials.

Furthermore, the method allows to obtain various types of composite materials, including layered and clad, to obtain compounds of a given phase composition, stoichiometry and homogeneity, the method allows to control the particle size and distribution function obtained nanopowders.

1. Device for producing nanosized powders in the microwave plasma discharge containing technologically connected between a microwave generator, a microwave plasma torch, the driver gas flow, the discharge chamber, an absorber of microwave radiation, reaction chamber, heat exchanger, filter the collection of the target product, a device for input of initial reagents in powder or vapor state, wherein the installation further comprises a device for introducing into the reaction chamber of the source reagents in Jekaterina condition, including interconnected dispenser in the form of a cylinder, a piston with a gear-screw electric drive mechanism regulating the speed of movement of the piston, the evaporation chamber with thermally housing for regulating the temperature inside the chamber, which is connected to the input node of the reagents in Jekaterina state and the input node of the reactants in the vapor state, is made with 6-12 holes opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45-60° to the chamber axis, comprising at least two sections, the first of which the upper flange is connected to the input nodes of the reagents to the discharge chamber, the plasma torch with established between him and the microwave generator valve, and the bottom flange through subsequent sections connected to the heat is obmennik, when this reaction chamber contains rotated by an electric motor internal water-cooled box located along a metal scraper for removing deposits of the powder of the desired product formed on the walls of the reaction chamber and the heat exchanger is made of two water-cooled coaxial cylinders, the axis of which is perpendicular to the axis of the reaction chamber and mounted with a gap for passing the cooled stream, and located in the gap with a knife, rotating around the axis of the cylinders and cleaning working surfaces of the cylinders from fouling powder, filter the collection of powder containing filter inside the sleeve of chemically and thermally resistant material, which is the deposition of a powder of the desired product from the gas stream, top flange connected to the heat exchanger, and in the lower part of the filter is provided with a device for periodic cleaning of the material by deformation and a device with a valve for sealing the internal volume of the filter.

2. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the device for supplying to the reaction chamber of the reagents in the powdered state, mostly in the form of an aerosol carrier gas includes interconnected dispenser in the form of a cylinder with a water-cooled housing, a piston with a gear-screw mechanism electric p is the water of the piston, aerodynamic activator, ensuring the formation of aerosol and its delivery to the reaction chamber through the inlet node opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45-60° to the chamber axis.

3. Installation according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it further in each of the sections of the reaction chamber installing a heat insulating insert of a material selected from the series: quartz, glass carbon, graphite, and ceramics.

4. Installation according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that between the sections of the reaction chamber is additionally set the collector to enter the quenching gas.

5. Installation according to claim 3, characterized in that between the sections of the reaction chamber is additionally set the collector to enter the quenching gas.

6. Installation according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that section of the reaction chamber is installed with the possibility of placement of additional devices for input of initial reagents.

7. Installation according to claim 3, characterized in that section of the reaction chamber is installed with the possibility of placement of additional devices for input of initial reagents.

8. Installation according to claim 4, characterized in that section of the reaction chamber is installed with the possibility of placement of additional devices for input of initial reagents.

9. Installation according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that as materialfluss sleeves use heat-resistant materials from the series: synthetic fiber, fiberglass, graphite fiber, metal mesh.

10. Installation according to claim 3, characterized in that the material of the filter sleeves use heat-resistant materials from the series: synthetic fiber, glass fiber, graphite fiber, metal mesh.

11. Installation according to claim 4, characterized in that the material of the filter sleeves use heat-resistant materials from the series: synthetic fiber, glass fiber, graphite fiber, metal mesh.

12. Installation according to claim 6, characterized in that the material of the filter sleeves use heat-resistant materials from the series: synthetic fiber, glass fiber, graphite fiber, metal mesh.

13. Installation according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that on the inner surface of the reaction chamber, heat exchanger, units of input reagents, the filter housing is additionally causing chemical resistant coating, mainly ceramic.

14. Installation according to claim 3, characterized in that on the inner surface of the reaction chamber, heat exchanger, units of input reagents, the filter housing is additionally causing chemical resistant coating, mainly ceramic.

15. Installation according to claim 4, characterized in that on the inner surface of the reaction chamber, heat exchanger, input nodes is similar reagents, the filter housing is additionally causing chemical resistant coating, mainly ceramic.

16. Installation according to claim 6, characterized in that on the inner surface of the reaction chamber, heat exchanger, units of input reagents, the filter housing is additionally causing chemical resistant coating, mainly ceramic.

17. Installation according to claim 9, characterized in that on the inner surface of the reaction chamber, heat exchanger, units of input reagents, the filter housing is additionally causing chemical resistant coating, mainly ceramic.

18. The method of obtaining nanosized powders in the plasma by microwave discharge, including the introduction of reagents into the flow of plasma gas reaction chamber, plasma-chemical synthesis reagents, cooling of the target product and its isolation from the reaction zone through a filter-collector, wherein the source reagent is injected into the flow of plasma gas having a mass-average temperature 1200-3200 in any aggregate state: vapor, powder, Jekaterina or in any combination, with the reagents in the powdered state is injected in the form of an aerosol carrier gas into the reaction chamber through the inlet node opening into the volume of the reaction chamber under an angle of 45-60° to the chamber axis, reage what you Jekaterina or in the form of vapour injected into the reaction chamber through the corresponding nodes in the form of an annular reservoir, the last one made with 6-12 holes opening into the volume of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45-60° to the chamber axis, each of which is blown cocurrent flow of gas through a coaxial channels around the holes, at the rate of initial reagents, plasma gas, the power density of microwave radiation, the length of the reaction zone, allowing to obtain a composite system and individual substances with specified properties, chemical and phase composition and particle size.

19. The method according to p, characterized in that the additional cooling of the target product from the bottom of one of the sections of the reaction chamber through a manifold serves the quenching gas flow, 1,6-2,0 m3/year

20. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that the quenching gas use at least one of the number of: argon, nitrogen, air, oxygen.



 

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2 dwg

FIELD: plasma generation.

SUBSTANCE: electrode set of plasma cathode has hollow cylindrical cathode with slit-shaped output aperture and hollow anode. Height of the latter depends on distance between cathode aperture and control grid. Ratio of anode height and control grid transverse incision is greater than unity. Cathode aperture width depends on thickness of spatial charge cathode layer.

EFFECT: enlarged surface area of plasma uniformly emitting electrons.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft power systems using solar batteries and electric jet plasma engines, mainly stationary engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes stabilization and change of power of power plant through regulation of consumption of engine working medium. When power of solar battery drops to level of maximum permissible power consumed by engine, consumption of working medium is changed in such way that power of solar battery might change in saw-tooth pattern and vertices of saw might be in contact with line of maximum probable power of solar battery. Device proposed for realization of this method includes matching voltage converter whose outputs are connected with engine electrodes and inputs are connected with solar battery busbars, current and voltage sensors showing solar battery voltage and power sensor connected with current and voltage sensors. Comparator connected with power sensor is also connected with controllable power setter and initial power setter. Outputs of controllable power setter are connected with comparator and comparison circuit whose input is connected with power sensor output. Output of comparison circuit is connected with amplifier-regulator of consumption of working medium.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability; simplified construction and facilitated procedure of regulation of power.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion problem.

SUBSTANCE: proposed central solenoid used as tokamak inductor and easily dismounted from central column has four conductor layers with inner cooling ducts. Each layer is made separately with four entrances in each layer. All sixteen conductors are connected in series and their junctions are disposed on butt-end surfaces of solenoid switching blocks. Insulated layers of conductors are inserted one into other.

EFFECT: reduced operating loads, enhanced uniformity of magnetic field.

1 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to devices and methods of preparation, research and application of low-temperature plasma and can be used in the plasma chemistry, plasma technology and plasma processing of materials

The invention relates to methods of producing, research and application of low-temperature plasma and can be used in the plasma chemistry, plasma processing technologies of materials and plasma technology, in particular in plasma-chemical reactor

The invention relates to methods of producing, research and application of low-temperature plasma and can be used in the plasma chemistry, plasma processing technologies of materials and plasma technology, in particular in plasma-chemical reactor

FIELD: microwave ovens.

SUBSTANCE: novelty is that percolator is installed in electronic device chamber. Resonator is closed at front with door. Electronic device chamber accommodating electrical pieces of equipment is disposed near resonator. Percolator housing is disposed in front of electronic device. Water tank is made inside housing. Funnel is free to be brought in and taken out of housing interior. Container is made in the form of jug or cup. Heater is installed in bottom part of housing. Water supply pipe is connected on one end with water tank, pipe body is partially passed through bottom part of housing to bring it in contact with heater, and other end of pipe is disposed on upper part of funnel.

EFFECT: ability of building percolator in microwave oven without increasing size of the latter.

74 cl, 15 dwg

The invention relates to the field of technology microwave treatment liquid and dry environments and can be used in various sectors of the economy and technology in agriculture, food and petroleum industries to create devices superhigh-frequency (SHF) processing of liquid and granular media

The invention relates to microwave ovens for cooking

Device for cooking // 2122338
The invention relates to cooking equipment, namely to devices for cooking, containing the pan - the pressure cooker, with permeable to microvideo radiation walls, and a microwave for cooking the contents of the pan at high pressure

The invention relates to the drying of agricultural materials, in particular to household drying a small performance for products of plant origin, specifically for drying medicinal herbs, berries, roots, and can be used in personal or farm processing grown in the garden or on the garden harvest, and gathered wild berries and fruits

The invention relates to microwave drying and can be used for drying bulk materials in the chemical, pharmaceutical, agricultural and other sectors of the economy

FIELD: production of powders by electric explosion of wire.

SUBSTANCE: installation includes reactor for electric explosion of wire with high-voltage and low-voltage electrodes that are connected to pulse current sources; mechanism for feeding wire to reactor; gas and powder circulation system; unit for separating gas and accumulating powder. According to invention gas and powder circulation system is in the form of tubular gas discharging pipes communicated by their one ends with reactor in front of inter-electrode gap and by their other ends - with unit for separating gas and accumulating powder. Said unit is in the form of successively connected through branch pipes expanders. Each expander is provided with powder accumulator at providing relation Si/Si+1 ≥ 1.43 where i = 1, 2…, Si - total surface area of effective cross section of tubular gas discharging pipes; S2, S3 - surface area of connection branch pipes.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of product due to lowered agglomeration of powder.

2 dwg, 2 tbl

The invention relates to powder metallurgy and can be used to obtain powders of metal oxides

The invention relates to the field of production of ultrafine powders of metals, their oxides, carbides, alloys etc

The invention relates to a technology for ultrafine materials (YFS) with the direct use of high pressures and temperatures, developing the detonation of condensed explosives)
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