Device for registering resulting electrocardiogram at front and horizontal planes

FIELD: medicine; cardiology.

SUBSTANCE: device for registering resulting electrocardiogram at front and horizontals planes has amplifier, analog-to-digital converter provided with multiplexer, arithmetic device, increment code analyzer, first switching unit, digital modem, first memory unit and control-unit, second switching unit, unit for finding direction of electrical axis of heart, first multiplier and first storing adder.

EFFECT: widened functional capabilities.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to medicine, can be used for registration, analysis and transmission of electrocardiogram (EX).

A device for transmitting EX [1], containing connected in series amplifier, multiplexer, analog-to-digital Converter, an arithmetic device, a buffer memory, a digital modem that implements the transfer method with the storage of the incoming data and transfer it in offline mode with a speed corresponding to the characteristics of the communication channel.

The disadvantages of the known device is that you want a great time employment communication channel for transmission of information and a large buffer memory device for remembering at the transmitting end and the subsequent transfer of large amounts of information, and lack of opportunity identification and analysis of EX electrical axis of the heart.

Known selected as a prototype of the device for recording the FORMER [2], contains one United amplifier and analog-to-digital Converter with multiplexer and the arithmetic unit, the analyzer code increment, the first switch unit, a digital modem, the counter non-code increment, the first memory unit and the control unit, and the analyzer input codes increment connected to the output of arithmetic is one device, the first output of the analyzer code increment connected to the first input switch unit, the second to the first input of the first memory block, and a control output to the first input of the counter code number increment, a second input connected to the first output control unit, the second and third outputs of the latter are connected respectively with the control input of the switch unit and the second input of the analog-to-digital Converter, and the output number counter code increment connected with the second input of the first memory block, the output of which is connected with the second input of the switch unit, and the output switch unit with modem input.

To the disadvantage of the known device is that there is no possibility at registration identification and analysis of the resulting ECG in the frontal and horizontal planes.

Classical methods of recording and analysing the FORMER have already exhausted their resources. They do not capture important locally and not visible to human sight, especially the FORMER, without which is impossible modern heart conditions ' diagnosis. Therefore we are searching for improving diagnostic capabilities using new methods of display and analysis of the FORMER.

It is obvious that the registration of the ECG signal is not an end in cardiology. The process cardiology information is beside the Desk, includes analysis and diagnosis. The ECG signal is the primary carrier of diagnostic information, and detecting as much as possible this information will provide additional opportunities for analysis and will significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis.

Analysis of the electrocardiographic information is essential when planning a course of treatment, decision making in the diagnosis, finding ways to increase the effectiveness of treatment and therefore the study of ECG signal more suitable for the study and interpretation of the form is preferable.

According to the authors of the present invention, when the registration of the ECG signal it is necessary to widen the field of view diagnostic information by identifying the resulting ECG in the frontal and horizontal planes.

The invention is directed to expand the functionality of electrocardiographic studies by forming the ECG signal on the electrical axis of the heart.

This is achieved by the fact that in the device for recording the FORMER containing serially connected amplifier and analog-to-digital Converter with multiplexer and the arithmetic unit, the analyzer code increment, the first switch unit, a digital modem, count rooms to the and increment the first memory unit and the control unit, and the analyzer input codes increment is connected to the output of the arithmetic unit, the first output of the analyzer code increment connected to the first input switch unit, the second to the first input of the first memory block, and a control output to the first input of the counter code number increment, a second input connected to the first output control unit, the second and third outputs of the latter are connected respectively with the control input of the first shift unit and the second input of the analog-to-digital Converter, and the output number counter code increment connected with the second input of the first memory block, the output of which is connected with the second input of the first shift unit and the output of the first switch unit with the input of the modem, put the second switch unit, the unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart, the first multiplier and the first accumulating adder, and serially connected analog-to-digital Converter, a second switch unit and the arithmetic unit, while the second and third inputs of the second switch unit are connected respectively to the second output of the control unit and the output of the first accumulating adder, the first and second inputs of the unit to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart is connected to CE the public with the output of the analog-to-digital Converter and the third output block management the first and second inputs of the first multiplier connected respectively with the first and second outputs of the block to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart, the output of the first multiplier is connected to the input of the first accumulating adder, the block determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart contains the second and third multipliers, second and third accumulating adders, unit operations of the arctangent, the adder unit operations of the cosine and the second memory block, and are connected to the second multiplier, the second accumulating adder, block operations arctangent, the adder and the block cosine whose output is the first output unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart, are connected to the third multiplier and third accumulating adder, the output of which is connected with the second input of the unit operations of the arctangent, the first input unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart is connected with the first inputs of the second and third multipliers and the second memory block, the second input unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart is connected with the second inputs of the second and third multipliers, and a second memory block, the first output of which is connected to third inputs of the second and third multipliers, a second output connected to a second input of the adder, and the third output is the which the output unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart.

Put the blocks and their relationships are new properties that allow you to increase the amount of diagnostic information by detecting a position of the electrical axis of the heart and build on it resulting ECG.

The proposed device provides the formation of the resulting ECG projected electric axis of the heart in the frontal and horizontal plane of the spatial coordinate system of the person. This is a key distinguishing feature of the proposed device, the formation is carried out during the registration of the FORMER standard leads.

The figure 1 shows an image projection vector EMF heart on the front and the horizontal plane. The figure 2 shows the block diagram of the device for registration of the resulting ECG in the frontal and horizontal planes. The figure 3 shows the block diagram of the block to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart. The figure 4 shows the principle of the proposed device.

The device for recording the resultant ECG in the frontal and horizontal planes (see figure 2) contains the amplifier 1, an analog-to-digital Converter 2, the second switch unit 3, the arithmetic unit 4, the code analyzer increments of 5, the first switching unit 6, the digital modem 7, the counter non-code increment the first memory unit 9, the control unit 10, the controller can determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart 11, the first multiplier 12, the first accumulating adder 13.

Thus series-connected amplifier 1, an analog-to-digital Converter with multiplexer 2, the second switch unit 3, the arithmetic unit 4, the code analyzer increments of 5, the first switching unit 6, the digital modem 7. The second output of the analyzer code increment 5 connected to the first input of the first memory unit 9, and a control output to the first input of the counter code number increment 8, a second input connected to the first output control unit 10. The second and third outputs of the control unit 10 is connected respectively with the control input of the first switch unit 6 and the second analog-digital Converter 2. Output number counter code increment 8 is connected with the second input of the first memory unit 9, the output of which is connected to a second input of the first switch unit 6. The second and third inputs of the second switch unit 3 are connected respectively to the second output of the control unit 10 and the output of the first accumulating adder 13. The first and second inputs of the unit to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart 11 are connected respectively to the output of the analog-to-digital Converter 2 and the third output block upravleniya. The first and second inputs of the first multiplier 12 is connected respectively with the first and second outputs of the block to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart 11. The output of the first multiplier 12 is connected to the input of the first accumulating adder 13.

The amplifier 1 is designed for amplification of the signals leads. Analog-to-digital Converter with multiplexer 2 is designed to convert a lead signals from analog form to digital form. The second switch unit 3 is designed to connect depending on the control command output of the analog-to-digital Converter 2 or the output of the first accumulating adder 13 to the input of the arithmetic unit 4. The arithmetic unit 4 is intended for forming, for each assignment of the difference between the current and the previous code samples. The code analyzer increments 5 is designed to, first, the separation of the received code increment into two parts: the first part consists of two least significant bits of the code increments and significant digits (3 digits), the second part of the remaining six high-order bits of code increments, and, secondly, to analyze the second part of the received code increment. The first switching unit 6 is designed depending on a control command to connect the output of the analyzer code increments of 5 or the output of the first block is and the memory 9 to the input of a digital modem 7. Digital modem 7 is designed for the transmission of information via communication channels. Counter code number increment 8 is designed to determine the number of the current code increment. The first memory unit 9 is used for storing values of the second part of the code increments under the condition different from zero at least one of the discharge. The control unit 10 is designed to synchronize and control the operation of the blocks of the device. Unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart 11 is designed to determine the direction of the axis of the heart. The first multiplier 12 is designed to calculate the values of the projections of the signal leads on the electrical axis of the heart. First accumulating adder 13 is intended to summarize the current value of the projection of the signal leads on the electrical axis of the heart with the existing sum of the projections of this signal leads to the electric axis of the heart and store the result.

Unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart (see figure 3) contains the second multiplier 14, the second accumulating adder 15, block operations arctangent 16, adder 17, the operation block cosine 18, the third multiplier 19, the third accumulating adder 20, the second memory unit 21, the input unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart 22, 23, the outputs of the block to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart 24, 25.

While the latter is therefore connected to the second multiplier 14, second accumulating adder 15, block operations arctangent 16, adder 17, and the operation block cosine 18 whose output is the first output 24 of the block to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart 11. Are connected to the third multiplier 19 and the third accumulating adder 20, the output of which is connected with the second input unit operations arctangent 16. The first input unit 22 to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart 11 is connected with the first inputs of the second 14 and third 19 multipliers and the second memory block 21. The second input 23 of the block to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart 11 is connected with the second inputs of the second 14 and third 19 multipliers, and the second memory block 21. The first output of the second memory block 21 is connected to third inputs of the second 14 and third 19 multipliers, a second output connected to a second input of the adder 17, and the third output is the second output 25 of the block to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart 11.

The second 14 and third 19 multipliers are used to determine the value of the projection of each of the i-th standard leads from the extremities to the axes OX and OZ the frontal plane of the spatial coordinate system of the person, respectively. The second 15 and third 20 accumulate adders are used to determine the amount of projection of the vector EMF heart respectively on the axes OX, OZ the ri registration standard leads from limb. Unit operations arctangent 16 is intended to determine the angle α registration standard leads from the limbs and the angle β registration standard chest leads. The adder 17 is designed to determine the amount of angle of the electric axis (angle α or β depending on the recorded standard leads) and the angle of the axis of the i-th standard lead block operations cosine 18 designed to determine the cosine. The second memory unit 21 is designed to hold, first, code samples recorded ECG signals along the axes of the standard leads, secondly, values of trigonometric functions sine and cosine of angles standard leads and, thirdly, the values of the angles of the axes of the standard leads.

The proposed device for recording the resultant ECG in the frontal and horizontal planes is as follows.

Standard leads from limbs analyzes the projection of the vector EMF of the heart in the frontal plane (angle α), and in chest leads - on the horizontal plane (angle β) (see figure 1).

The direction of the axes of the leads in the frontal plane are given in degrees. The reference point (0°) conditionally accepted the radius, drawn horizontally from the electrical center of the heart to the left towards active put the additional pole standard I lead. For each standard abduction in the frontal plane is defined angle ϕ:

positive pole II standard lead is at an angle of +60°;

positive pole III standard lead is at an angle of +120°;

positive pole lead aVL is at an angle of -30°;

- the positive pole of lead aVF is at an angle +90°;

positive pole of aVR is at an angle -150°.

Electrocardiographic abnormalities in different derivations of the extremities are treated as different projections of the same EMF heart on the axis of the data leads.

In the proposed device for standard leads from the limb is determined by the projection of the vector EMF of the heart in the frontal plane, and in chest leads - on the horizontal plane. Then determined by the standard projection from limbs leads to the projection of the vector of the electric axis of the heart in the frontal plane. Next, based signal resulting ECG on the projection of the vector of the electric axis of the heart in the frontal plane. That is, when using the proposed device, you receive the possibility of a rapid analysis of the electrocardiographic information, for example, not in six standard leads from limb, and one of the resulting ECG, formed by the projection ELEH the electrical axis of the heart in the frontal plane of the spatial coordinate system of the person. The resulting ECG signal on the horizontal plane of the spatial coordinate system of the person is formed similarly. The main advantage of the invention is to save time on the ECG analysis. This addresses the important task of preventive diagnostics of the cardiovascular system in the analysis of a large number of ECG in the conditions of shortage of time or in places where complex and bulky equipment is not available. When you consider that every year in our country are removed hundreds of thousands ECG, acceleration and automation of ECG analysis is relevant, economically viable task.

Currently, cardiovascular diseases occupy the first place in the causes of death. Therefore, the definition of ECG electrical axis of the heart is important for use in the system of emergency medical assistance, including disaster medicine and military medicine, for a reliable assessment of the current state of the heart. Information about the components of the ECG electrical axis of the heart allows you to quickly assess the state of the cardiovascular system. The methodology of Express-analysis component of the ECG electrical axis of the heart allows incorrect positive results for the presence of the analyzed component, but at the same time eliminates incorrect is otricatelniy results that is, the possible errors of the second kind and impossible errors of the first kind [3]. Express-analysis of the ECG component according to the electric axis of the heart is directed at the assessment of the presence at predetermined intervals the information parameters of the ECG. Therefore, all tests with a positive result, such as the absence of the R-wave, further study using more sophisticated methods. All negative results will be accepted as final without further verification.

The original signal from the control unit 10 of the first 6 and the second 3, the switching units are set such that their outputs receives signals from the analyzer code increments of 5 and an analog-to-digital Converter 2, respectively. Then according to the rules of registration of ECG lead signals are recorded in a specific sequence:

- standard signals from limbs leads I, II, III, αLL, αVR αVF;

signals from the chest leads V1V2V3V4V5V6.

To do this, the clock pulses from the output of the control unit 10 is fed to the input of block 2 and start the analog-to-digital Converter and a multiplexer, so that the output of the analog-to-digital Converter 2 and respectively to the inputs of the arithmetic unit 4 and unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart 11 IDs appear amplitudes EK is consistently in each lead.

The arithmetic unit 4 forms for each of these code samples the difference between the current and the previous reference, and thus to the input of the analyzer code increment 5 enters the 8th bit code increment signal with the sign (the 9th bit) sequentially for each abstraction. At the same time from the output of the control unit 10 of the clock pulses arrive at the counting input of the counter code number increment 8, resulting in the output of the counter 8 is formed code numbers calculated increment signal, i.e. its temporal coordinate.

In the code analyzer increments of 5 separates the received code increment into two parts; two minor category code increment and its sign bit (just 3 digits) via the input of the first switch unit 6 are transferred directly to the digital modem 7 and further to the communication channel and transmitted to the receiving end. The values of the remaining six high-order bits of code increments are analyzed and if it is different from zero at least one discharge through the output unit 5 of the code analyzer increments of these 6 bits are sent to the input of the first memory block 9, where remembered. At the same time under the condition different from zero block 5 code analyzer increments generates a write command time coordinates coming from the analyzer 5 to the input of the counter code number increment 8, which defined what is the number of the current code increment (time coordinate).

If all 6 high-order bits of the incoming code increment equal to zero, then the two youngest and the sign bit of code increments as before, go on line for transmission, and the code analyzer increments of 5 waits for the next code increment.

Parallel block determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart 11 with each clock pulse of the control unit 10, the second 14 and third 19 multipliers are calculated by the formulas:

the projection of each of the i-th standard leads from the extremities to the axes OX and OZ the frontal plane of the spatial coordinate system of the person, and the second 15 and third 20 accumulating the adders are determined by the sum of the projections of the vector EMF heart respectively on the axes OX, OZ formula:

The values of these projections EOhand Eozunit operation the arctangent 16 calculates the angle of the projection of the vector EMF of the heart in the frontal plane:

Thus, the proposed device is the determination of the projection of the vector EMF of the heart in the frontal plane.

After determining the values of the angle α and end of the interval register the EX standard leads from the extremities of the control unit 10 stops the supply of clock pulses to the input b of the eye 2. With the second output of the second memory block 21 to the input of the adder 17 unit determining the direction of the electric axis 11 enter angle values ϕi(see figure 1). After the adder 17 operations of summation and unit operations cosine 18 definition of cosine over the amount (α+ϕithe output 24 of the block to determine the direction of the electric axis 11 is the signal cos(α+ϕi), and the output 25 of the block to determine the direction of the electric axis 11 is the signal Ei(t) from the third output of the second memory block 21. The first multiplier 12 multiplies the Ei(t)*cos(α+ϕi), forming the current value of the i-th standard leads from the extremities, the first accumulating adder 13 performs an operation of summing the current values of the i-th standard leads from limb. Thus, the proposed device is the formation of a signal resulting ECG-axis projection of the vector EMF of the heart in the frontal plane. Immediately before the operation of summing the current values of the standard lead αVF control unit 10 sends the command to the input of the second shift unit 3, connecting the output of the first accumulating adder 13 to the input of the arithmetic unit 4. As a result, when the analysis carried out by the arithmetic unit 4 is the code analyzer increments of 5, described above, in the first memory unit 9 writes the code samples of the resulting ECG-axis projection of the vector EMF of the heart in the frontal plane.

The procedure takes place until, until the end of the specified time of registration of the FORMER standard leads from the extremities, which is determined by the length of time worked by the control unit 10. The control unit 10 stops the supply of clock pulses to the inputs of blocks 2, 11 at the end of the registration interval EX standard leads from the extremities and time determine the resulting ECG-axis projection of the vector EMF of the heart in the frontal plane. Thus, in the proposed device the time of registration of the FORMER standard leads from limb includes the registration interval EX standard leads from the limbs and the time interval to determine the resulting ECG-axis projection of the vector EMF of the heart in the frontal plane.

Similarly, register EX from standard chest leads and determine resultant set of ECG-axis projection of the vector EMF of the heart in the horizontal plane.

At the end of the registration interval FORMER time and determine the resulting ECG control unit 10 terminates the blocks 2 and 11, and sends the command to the input of the first block Perek is Uchenie 6. Transmit the contents of the first memory unit 9 via the first switch unit 6 and the digital modem 7.

Depending on the further use of registered EX on the receiving end of the communication channel can transmit only signals resulting ECG.

According to the authors of the present invention, the definition and representation of the resulting ECG in the frontal and horizontal planes:

- extends the functionality of the known device, keeping his dignity in the original measurement accuracy of the ECG signal and the time of employment of the communication channel;

- allows you to increase the information content of registered EX;

- reduces the time needed for the rapid analysis of registered EX.

If in the known device for Express-analysis of the ECG, the physician should analyze 12 signals standard leads, in the proposed device the doctor enough analysis of the resulting ECG to assess the condition of the cardiovascular system. Principle of operation (see figure 4) of the proposed device is the following: of the six signals standard leads from the extremities of the received resultant ECG-axis projection of the vector EMF in the frontal plane of the spatial coordinate system, reflecting the condition of the cardiovascular system.

1. Microcomputer medical system. /Ed. by U. of Tompkins, M.: Mir, 1983, s.

2. Baum O., G. Kostov, L.A. Popov Device for registration of electrocardiogram. Patent RU No. 2008796 C1, MKI5And 61 In 5/0402, 1994.

3. Sidorenko E.V. Methods of mathematical processing in psychology. - SPb.: LLC “Speech”, 2002. - 350 S.

1. The device for recording the resultant ECG in the frontal and horizontal planes containing serially connected amplifier and analog-to-digital Converter with multiplexer and the arithmetic unit, the analyzer code increment, the first switch unit, a digital modem, the counter non-code increment, the first memory unit and the control unit, and the analyzer input codes increment is connected to the output of the arithmetic unit, the first output of the analyzer code increment connected to the first input switch unit, the second to the first input of the first memory block, and a control output to the first input of the counter code number increment, a second input connected to the first output control unit, the second and third outputs of the latter are connected respectively with the control input of the first shift unit and the second input of the analog-to-digital Converter, and the output number counter code increment connected with the second input of the first memory block, in the course of which is connected to a second input of the first switch unit, and the output of the first switch unit with modem input, characterized in that it introduced a second switch unit, the unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart, the first multiplier and the first accumulating adder, and serially connected analog-to-digital Converter, a second switch unit and the arithmetic unit, while the second and third inputs of the second switch unit are connected respectively to the second output of the control unit and the output of the first accumulating adder, the first and second inputs of the unit to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart are connected respectively with the output of the analog-to-digital Converter and the third output control unit, the first and second inputs of the first multiplier connected respectively with the first and second outputs of the block to determine the direction of the electric axis of the heart, the output of the first multiplier is connected to the input of the first accumulating adder.

2. The device according to claim 1, wherein the block of determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart contains the second and third multipliers, second and third accumulating adders, unit operations of the arctangent, the adder unit operations of the cosine and the second memory block, and are connected to the second multiplier, the second accumulating adder, block operations arctangent is a, the adder and the block cosine whose output is the first output unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart, are connected to the third multiplier and the third accumulating adder, the output of which is connected with the second input of the unit operations of the arctangent, the first input unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart is connected with the first inputs of the second and third multipliers and the second memory block, the second input unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart is connected with the second inputs of the second and third multipliers and the second memory block, the first output of which is connected to third inputs of the second and third multipliers, a second output connected to a second input of the adder, and the third output is the second output unit determining the direction of the electric axis of the heart.



 

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FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: electrodes of electric ECG potential registration are placed in zone of aorta and in zone of cardiac apex. Changes of electric potential on body in time are registered in form of diagram of ECG function. Near each electrode of ECG electric potential registration additional electrode is installed, onto which high-frequency signal from generator is supplied, and from electrodes of ECG electric potential registration modulated by fluctuations of arterial blood flow signal is obtained synchronously, said signal is amplified, converted into digital code and transmitted for rheogram registration to information processing unit, after which connection of ECG electric potential with change of pressure according to rheogram is connected in each phase, and phase peculiarities of arterial pressure change are diagnosed. Device for synchronous registration of rheogram from ECG electrodes consists of two ECG electrodes, commutator, first amplifier, first band filter, analogue-digital converter, controller, IR transmitter and information processing unit with first detector, commutator being inserted between electrodes and first amplifier, whose outlet through band filter is connected with first inlet of analogue-digital converter, whose outlet is joined to controller, whose first outlet is connected with commutator, and second outlet - with IR transmitter, connected with first detector of information processing unit. Two additional electrodes, second amplifier, second band filter, second detector and generator, switched to additional electrodes, are introduced into it, second commutator outlet is connected to inlet of second detector, whose output through second amplifier and second band filter is connected with second inlet of analogue-digital converter.

EFFECT: synchronous registration of phase characteristics of cardiac cycle and corresponding fluctuations of arterial pressure in heart vessels and aorta.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to devices of medico-biological purpose, intended for registration and evaluation of fast-proceeding physiological reactions, emerging as response to produced stimuli. Device contains microcontroller, analogue-digital converter (ADC), first commutator, sensors of breast breathing, abdominal breathing, skin-galvanic response, arterial pressure, cardio-vascular activity, sensor of motor activity, power unit, preliminary amplifiers, signal amplifiers, filters, first and second digital-analogue converters (DAC), tool amplifier and unit of connection with personal computer, supplied with galvanic attenuator. Via amplifiers and filters sensors are connected with corresponding inputs of commutator whose controlling input is connected with first microcontroller bus, and output - with first input of tool amplifier. Second input of tool amplifier is connected to output of first DAC, third input - to output of second DAC, and output - to ADC input. Inputs of first and second DAC and group of inputs-outputs of ADC are connected with second microcontroller bus, whose third bus is connected to unit of connection with personal computer. Additional channel has possibility of connection to its input of face mimics sensor, piezoplethysmogram or variable component of skin-galvanic response and includes second electronic commutator, to whose outputs subchannels of processing of signals from corresponding sensor are connected. First subchannel includes successively connected preliminary amplifier and filter, second subchannel - preliminary amplifier, filter, signal amplifier and additional filter, and outputs of subchannels via third electronic commutator are connected to first commutator input. Controlling input of third commutator is connected with microcontroller.

EFFECT: registration of maximal number of physiological parametres and ensuring objectivity of obtained information.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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