Method and device for studying functional state of brain and method for measuring subelectrode resistance

FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves recording multichannel electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram record and carrying out functional test and computer analysis of electrophysiological signals synchronously with multichannel record of electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram in real time mode. Superslow brain activity is recorded, carotid and spinal artery pools rheoelectroencephalogram is recorded and photopletysmogram of fingers and/or toes is built and subelectrode resistance of electrodes for recording bioelectrical cerebral activity is measured. Physiological values of bioelectrical cerebral activity are calculated and visualized in integrated cardiac cycle time scale as absolute and relative values of alpha-activity, pathological slow wave activity in delta and theta wave bandwidth. Cerebral metabolism activity dynamics level values are calculated and visualized at constant potential level. Heart beat rate is determined from electrocardiogram, pulsating blood-filling of cerebral blood vessels are determined from rheological indices data. Peripheral blood vessel resistance level, peripheral blood vessel tonus are determined as peripheral photoplethysmogram pulsation amplitude, large blood vessel tonus is determined from pulse wave propagation time data beginning from Q-tooth signal of electrocardiogram to the beginning of systolic wave of peripheral photoplethysmogram. Postcapillary venular blood vessels tonus is determined from constant photoplethysmogram component. Functional brain state is determined from dynamic changes of physiological values before during and after the functional test. Device for evaluating functional brain state has in series connected multichannel analog-to-digital converter, microcomputer having galvanically isolated input/output ports and PC of standard configuration and electrode unit for reading bioelectric cerebral activity signals connected to multichannel bioelectric cerebral activity signals amplifier. Current and potential electrode unit for recording rheosignals, multichannel rheosignals amplifier, current rheosignals generator and synchronous rheosignals detector are available. The device additionally has two-frequency high precision current generator, master input of which is connected to microcomputer. The first output group is connected to working electrodes and the second one is connected to reference electrodes of electrode unit for reading bioelectrical cerebral activity signals. Lead switch is available with its first input group being connected to potential electrodes of current and potential electrodes unit for recording rheosignals. The second group of inputs is connected to outputs of current rheosignals oscillator. The first group of outputs is connected to current electrodes of current and potential electrodes unit for recording rheosignals. The second group of outputs is connected to inputs of synchronous detector of rheosignals. Demultiplexer input is connected to output of synchronous detector of rheosignals and its outputs are connected to multichannel rheosignals amplifier inputs. Outputs of multichannel bioelectrical cerebral activity signals amplifier, multichannel rheosignals amplifier and electrophysiological signal amplifier are connected to corresponding inputs of multichannel analog-to-digital converter. Microcomputer outputs are connected to control input of lead switch, control input of multichannel demultiplexer, control input of multichannel analog-to-digital converter and synchronization inputs of current rheosignals oscillator and synchronous detector of rheosignals. To measure subelectrode resistance, a signal from narrow bandwidth current generator of frequency f1 exceeding the upper frequency fup of signals under recording is supplied. A signal from narrow bandwidth current generator of frequency f2≠ f1>fup is supplied to reference electrode. Voltages are selected and measured at output of each amplifier with frequencies of f1, f2 - Uf1 and Uf2 using narrow bandwidth filtering. Subelectrode resistance of each working electrode is determined from formula Zj=Ujf1 :(Jf1xKj), where Zj is the subelectrode resistance of j-th electrode, Ujf1 is the voltage at output from j-th amplifier with frequency of f1, Kj is the amplification coefficient of the j-th amplifier. Subelectrode resistance of reference electrode is determined from formula ZA=Ujf2 :(Jf2xKj), where ZA is the subelectrode resistance of reference electrode, Ujf2 is the voltage at output from j-th amplifier with frequency of f2, Jf2 is the voltage of narrow bandwidth current oscillator with frequency of f2.

EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.

15 cl, 10 dwg

 

The invention relates to medicine and can be used to monitor the condition of patients with cerebrovascular disease and for the differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations.

Paroxysmal condition of the nervous system relate to nervnim diseases are prevalent, especially in developed countries, and have a tendency to increase. Diagnosis of these diseases is, as a rule, according to a thorough clinical examination of the patients, including the use of electrophysiological techniques, angiography, fluoroscopy, a method of nuclear magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography and other instrumental approaches. To clarify the diagnosis is often used clinical and biochemical analysis of blood and other biological fluids for the maintenance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and neuropeptides or products of their metabolism: glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, monoamine oxidase, endorphin and others (see, for example, patent of Russian Federation №2112243, IPC7G 01 N 33/53 C 12 Q 1/04, a 61 K 39/00) However, the use of all these methods for assessing the functional state of the brain and body does not allow us to determine the degree of involvement of certain metabolic and regulatory systems in the pathogenesis of the disease that really is it is important to define the tactics of treatment, requires more time and economic costs of research, does not have a sufficient level of specificity for each nosological forms, makes it almost impossible to identify susceptibility (risk), to diagnose diseases at an early stage.

There is a method of determining the bioelectrical activity of the brain, including the imposition on the patient's head measuring electrodes over the brain and zero electrode at a certain distance from the brain, the amplification of signals from the measuring electrodes in two stages: in the first phase of the action potential from each of the measuring electrode is fed to one input of a respective differential amplifier, the second input of which is applied biopotential zero electrode, the second stage output signal of each differential amplifier is compared with the averaged output signal of the differential amplifiers adjacent measurement electrodes (see application great Britain No. 1501803, IPC3AV 5/04, NCI G1N, A3R, publ. 1979). This method is due to the lack of measurement capabilities subelectrode resistance does not have sufficient precision registration of the slow (<1 Hz) bioelectrical activity of the brain, which estimated the value of cerebral energy consumption. Therefore, this study is functional the condition of the brain are not very informative for the differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations.

In the patent of Russian Federation № 2007116, IPC5And 61 In 5/04, publ. 1994, describes how to check level shift DC electric potential of the brain used when assessing the stability of the functional state, in the diagnosis of neurosis and mental illness. The method is as follows. On the head of the test set pair of recording electrodes over a predetermined section of the brain. The electrodes are connected to the amplifier voltages, the output of which is read at the beginning and end of shift caused by external impact, the values of the constant electric potential and compare them with each other. To exclude the effects of instability interelectrode skin potential of the input of the amplifier short continuum reference resistance and carry out a comparison between the decrease in resistance due to transient bypass the amplifier input at the beginning and end of shift. If the gain reduction equally, we believe that the impact of skin potential is not affected, and the result is logged. If the gain reduction at the beginning and end of shift is different, it is considered that the results are distorted by the instability of skin potential, and registration is not carried out. The disadvantage of this method of assessing the functional state of the brain - limit is fair applicability, the absence of the possibility of differential diagnosis of cerebral circulation, low data rate and low accuracy due to the instability and differences subelectrode resistance.

Patent of the Russian Federation No. 2187958, IPC7And 61 In 5/04, publ. 2002, secure way to explore the state of the cerebral vessels, including local cold exposure and rheoencephalography not, characterized in that the local cold exposure is carried out in the projection of the pool vessels of the internal carotid artery heat exchanger with a temperature t° =10±2° C for 10 min, and rheoencephalography conducted before, immediately and after 10 and 20 min after cold exposure. This method has limited application and are not suitable for the differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations.

From the description to the patent of Russian Federation № 2189776, IPC7And 61 In 5/0476, publ. 2002, there is a method of diagnosing and forecasting the development of epilepsy in patients with preclinical stage of the disease. Register the EEG in a patient's condition passive wakefulness. Method the cross-correlation analysis of process fragments EEG lasting no more than one minute, which do not contain paroxysmal activity. Get factors crosscorrelate (HCC) alpha activity between the derivations of the left frontal and left occipital regions. The obtained values HCC ranging from -1,00 to -0,35 indicate the health of the patient, when values of HCC from 0.34 to 0,00 diagnose preclinical stage of epilepsy, but values HCC from 0.01 to 1.00 - clinical stage of epilepsy. The method improves the accuracy of diagnosis of epilepsy development. The disadvantage of the method is of limited use and is not possible due to small informative to carry out differential diagnosis of disorders of cerebral circulation.

There is a method of determining the disturbance in the blood supply of the head (see Russian Federation patent No. 2159075, IPC7And 61 In 5/05, publ. 2000), according to which register of the differential rogramme with the neck, chest, hands. Measure their amplitude and time characteristics. Calculate the volume of inflow of blood to the head as the difference between the volume of blood flow to parts of the chest neck and chest - hands. Register circumflex rogramme on the site of the chest neck and measure its amplitude venous systolic and primary waves. I hope their relationship. Register ultrasonic dopplergram blood flow through the right atrioventricular orifice of the heart. Measure her average blood velocity during early filling of the right ventricle of the heart and the systole of the right ventricle. I hope their relationship. Circulatory disorders goal is you determine on calculated values. The disadvantage of this method is that it allows one to identify pathological disorders only when their clinical manifestations and not very effective in prenosological diagnostics.

From the description to the patent of Russian Federation № 2188575, IPC7And 61 In 5/0476, G 01 N 33/53, publ. 2002, there is a method of diagnosing and forecasting the development of epilepsy in patients with preclinical stage of the disease, including EEG monitoring, processing the received EEG fractal analysis and obtaining the values of the fractal dimension (FD), the calculation of values of the test proximally activity (PAT) content in the blood of patient autoantibodies to quisqualate membrane protein, the index calculation epilepsy (IE) according to the formula IE=PAT × FR and diagnosis clinical stage of epilepsy when the values IE=132,5±5,32, no signs of epilepsy when the values IE=45,05±3,31 and pre-clinical stage of epilepsy at intermediate values IE. This method allows to detect preclinical stage of epilepsy, but not very informative for the differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations.

From the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2103912, IPC6And 61 In 5/0476, publ. in 1998, there is a method of brain research, according to which relieve the EEG before and after presentation of the stimulus, calculate the power spectrum of the EEG or the coefficient is ingrandisci electrical processes in each point location of the electrode relative to its neighbors. Determine the change in the value of the obtained values after the stimulus and present the results of calculations in the form of topographic maps. Additionally, the locations of the electrodes measure the temperature, calculate its difference and contribute to the map. This method allows simultaneous measurement and study of electrical processes, measure and explore thermal margin of the head. The disadvantage of this method is the inability differential diagnosis of disorders of cerebral circulation, the inability to distinguish between epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations.

There is a method of diagnosing the degree of psycho-physiological maladjustment in patients with primary chronic cerebrovascular pathology (see Russian Federation patent No. 2154979, IPC7And 61 In 5/04, 5/0476, publ. 2000). This method is as follows. The patient is in a state of relaxed wakefulness with eyes closed, produce multichannel EEG recording using the standard method, with 19 or more electrodes to track artifacts. At the same time carry out a computerized spectral analysis devoid of artifacts from EEG fragment with the estimation of power spectrum in the frequency bands alpha(8 to 12 Hz), beta(12 Hz and above), theta(4 to 8 Hz) and Delta(0...4 Hz) activity. When the absolute value is th power of alpha activity over 10 µv 280 µv2and/or power values of alpha activity more than 50% are diagnosed with a significant degree of physiological maladjustment. The described method allows to objectservice in patients with primary forms of vascular brain diseases significant psychophysiological dysfunction, which is an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pathology. The drawback of this method is low efficiency when determining the causes of disorders of cerebral circulation and the differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations.

Closest to the claimed method for studying the functional state of the brain in most matching features for a way to study the individual characteristics of the regulation of physiological functions of the human body, protected by the patent of Russian Federation № 2185088, IPC7And 61 In 5/00, 5/04, publ. 2002 Method of study the individual characteristics of the regulation of physiological functions include recording the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG) pneumogram, measurement of blood pressure (BP) and holding seven functional respiratory samples. Peculiarities of regulation of physiological functions determined by the indices of external respiration and gas exchange, PACO2, RAO2Monday is wogram, the nature and rate of changes of ECG, BP, EEG, latent period, motor reaction, the rate of excavation is not breathing conditional reflexes. The first sample, 1-2 minutes is not dosed according to the intensity of hyperventilation, carried out taking into account the sensations caused by the changes of cerebral circulation, dizziness, mild headache, a veil before the eyes, changes in the activity of the Central nervous system, manifested in the form of sensory or motor disorders, in the form of paresthesias, numbness, stiffness, tension, trembling, and vegetative changes in the form of sensations of heat, increased heart rate, sweating, dry mouth, allowing to reveal the physiological functions: cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous system, involved in the development of hyperventilation syndrome. The second sample - hard hyperventilation exercise for 2.5-3.5 minutes, during which the subject give commands to maintain the level of ventilation is carried out with the purpose of identifying the people who are sensitive to hyperventilation, registering the speed of feelings and their character. The third sample - isocapnic hyperventilation, ensuring that the examined stable level RNO2that is carried out to identify subjects with a predominance of neurogenic factors in the regulation of functions. The fourth sample - time delay is breathing at the level of calm breath. Fifth test - a breath at the level of a normal exhalation. The sixth sample of the breath on the inhale after arbitrary hyperventilation. In all three samples with the breath determines the time from the beginning of the breath until the first call to breath (1st phase) and before the resumption of breathing (2nd phase), and the total time of breath-holding. In the first phase assessed the sensitivity of the individual subjects to a total of humoral CO2and O2and neurogenic factors in the second phase appreciate the ability to strong-willed efforts. The seventh sample - holding - breathing mode, in which the subject is breathing for at least 10 minutes in the rhythm of two breaths per minute with no depth restriction, after pre-respiratory training, which is individually determined. Listed seven samples allow to identify individual sensitivity of the subject to humoral and neurogenic factors, and the first and second samples with hyperventilation - to-degree fall PACO2and expressed in different degrees of neurogenic changes, the third sample with hyperventilation - only to neurogenic factors, fourth and fifth samples with breath - to the accumulation of CO2the decrease RAO2and neurogenin factors, the sixth sample of breath is to decrease RAO2seventh - reduce RAO2the accumulation of RA is About 2, neurogenin factors, treniranosti breathing and ability to establish new, more effective stereotype of breath. The achieved result is the most complete information about the formation of the physiological reactions of the organism to the arbitrary control of breathing and its adaptive capabilities, purposeful influence on the functional state of the body, increase mental and physical performance of healthy people, increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of adaptation to variable environmental conditions, training, and establishing a new effective stereotype of breath. The disadvantage of the prototype - it is applicable to study the individual characteristics of healthy individuals and effective at identifying the causes of cerebral circulation, the differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations, the detection of the initial manifestations of cerebrovascular disorders and the prediction of their development.

The problem solved by the invention is the increased efficiency in the determination of causes of disorders of cerebral circulation and the differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations, identifying the initial manifestations of cerebrovascular disorders and the prediction of their development.

The solution of the stated problem is achieved by the fact that in sposobostvuya functional state of the brain, including multichannel recording of electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), conducting functional tests and computer analysis of electrophysiological signals, additionally, synchronous multi-channel recording of EEG and ECG in real time, perform check slow brain activity, recording rheoelectroencephalography (REG) in the basins of the carotid and vertebral arteries and photoplethysmogram (FPG) of the fingers and/or toes and measurement subelectrode resistance of the electrodes to remove the bioelectrical activity of the brain, with a single cardio-cyclic time scale, i.e. in relation to each of the automatically recognized cardiocycle, perform the calculation and visualization of physiological parameters bioelectrical activity of the brain - absolute and relative values of power of alpha activity, abnormal slow-wave activity in the range of Delta and theta waves, the dynamics of the level of metabolic brain activity on a permanent component of the EEG, heart rate, ECG, indicators pulse blood vessels of the brain iographica.com index REG, index of peripheral resistance of cerebral vessels (PCSL), a measure of peripheral vascular tone in the form of the amplitude ripple is perifericheskoi PPG, indicator tone of great vessels at the time of propagation of the pulse wave from the Q wave of the ECG signal prior to the beginning of the systolic wave peripheral PPG, metric tone postcapillary-venular vessels at a constant component of the PPG, and differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations produce dynamic changes of physiological parameters before, during and after the functional tests. To determine the functional state of the brain carry out a functional test on hyperventilation and, if after the start of the test, there is a decrease eographical index REG more than 20%, and then there are paroxysmal manifestations on EEG in the form of a sharp increase in relation abnormal slow-wave waves in the Delta and theta ranges for alpha activity, a potential cause proximally manifestations on EEG formulate vascular disorders of the brain. If the reduction eographical index REG and the emergence of proximally manifestations EEG is accompanied by a shift of the level of constant potential slow brain activity, then the conclusion is made about the presence of the influence factor on vascular proximally manifestations, accompanied by metabolic changes. If the reduction eographical index REG and the emergence of the PA is aksimaljnyj manifestations EEG is not accompanied by a significant reduction in peripheral blood flow by FPG, it is potentially possible cause of vascular disorders of the brain to formulate the failure of regulatory processes by a compensatory reduction in peripheral blood flow and redistribution of the total blood flow in vital organs. If the reduction eographical index REG and appearance proximally manifestations on EEG are the same, it is additionally a conclusion about the presence of the pathological focus of activity that defines the inadequacy of regional cerebral blood flow. If, prior to the carrying out functional tests on hyperventilation was observed disorganization EEG, decreased pulse blood and toning on the REG, and in the process of conducting samples were observed normalization of indicators of cerebral blood flow, such as enhancement of pulse blood, reducing peripheral resistance of cerebral vessels, and normalization of the EEG, which is expressed in increased levels of alpha-aktivnosti preserving zonal differences in fronto-occipital areas, the decrease of the ratio of abnormal slow-wave waves in the Delta and theta ranges for alpha activity, then formulate an assumption about the presence of cerebrovascular disorders associated with disturbance of blood gas composition in the source background state. If you carry out a functional test on hyperventilation and p is acesse the test on the observed ECG signal extrasystoles and they precede an epileptic on simultaneously recorded EEG signals, then conclude zerbrochenem the nature of the cardiac rhythm, if there is no causal and temporal relationship between seizures on EEG and PVCs on the ECG, it is concluded cardiogenic nature of cardiac arrhythmias. Spend extended passive orthostatic test and, if during the test the patient is fixed cynocephalidae state, when pronounced bradycardia or asystole ECG before sincopalnah state and the decline of cerebral blood flow by REG diagnose cardioinhibitory the cause of the syncopal status pre cynocephalidae condition expressed signs deposition of blood in the extremities PPG and decrease in cerebral blood flow on the REG and no significant reduction in heart rate by ECG diagnosed vasodepressive the cause of the syncopal status, and pre-syncopal status epileptic EEG and no significant reduction in heart rate by ECG and pronounced signs of escrow blood limbs in figs diagnosed with spasmodic type of fainting.

Device for the study of the functional state of the brain is samostojatelnim object of the invention.

Known EEG, protected Pat is Tom USSR N 880241, IPC3. AV 5/04 (application Germany N 2727583 from 20.06.77 g)containing the measuring electrodes placed on the patient's head, the selector leads, made in the image of the head with posted switches with indicatorname lights, and signal amplifiers whose inputs are via the selector leads connected to the measuring electrodes, and the output signals control the recorders. In this electroencephalograph ensures the visibility of the connection of the measuring electrodes to the inputs of the amplifiers, thus decreasing the probability of erroneous insertion. The disadvantages of such EEG should be attributed to the lack of opportunity prompt analysis of electroencephalograms, the inability to detect violations of cerebral blood flow.

A device for evaluation of pathological changes in the system of activity of the human brain, comprising a set of sensors placed on a person's head and/or plug-in to deep electrodes, multi-channel amplifier of the sensor signals with the number of channels corresponding to the number of sensors, the block synchronous signal conversion from continuous form to the discrete unit of statistical processing of the obtained data and the block surround playback (see U.S. patent No. 4736751, IPC5And 61 In 5/04, publ. 1988). Such a device does not provide to identify what their reasons violations of cerebral circulation and is not effective for differential diagnosis of epilepsy and septiform manifestations.

From the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2177716, IPC7And 61 In 5/0476, publ. 2002, a device for evaluation of pathological changes in the systemic activity of the brain, which includes a set of sensors placed on a person's head, and/or plug-in to deep electrodes, and/or have at some distance from the head, multi-channel amplifier sensor signals, such as EEG, with the number of channels corresponding to the number of sensors, the power signal conversion, such as conversion from continuous form to the discrete unit of measurement statistical relationships between processes, the unit of measurement of the dimension of the display process corresponding to the aggregate statistical properties of the relationship between the measured processes, the evaluation unit coordinates and/or values the radius-vectors of the displayed processes, block the visualization of the spatial distribution of the radius-vectors of the displayed processes, such as a plotter or graphics display, a storage device, the unit of measurement differences between the parameters of the spatial distributions of the radius-vectors of the displayed processes, block the visualization of differences in the integrative activity of the brain of the patient, the unit of presentation of tests and synchronization unit. The device allows you to accurately identify the extent and nature of the R sustainable pathological abnormalities of the systemic activity of the human brain, to determine the localization and the nature of the violations, to quantify the degree of pathological abnormalities associated with any of the tests or with any changes of the functional state of the brain. The disadvantage of this device for the assessment of pathological changes in the systemic activity of the brain is a relatively low efficiency in the differential diagnosis of epilepsy and septiform manifestations, the inability to diagnose the cause of the cerebral circulation.

Device for measuring, recording and analysis of electrophysiological signals, protected by the patent of Russian Federation № 2102004, IPC6And 61 In 5/04, publ. 1998, contains consistently connected to the electrode Assembly, selective multi-channel amplifier, multiplexer, analog-to-digital Converter, the control device and the primary processing unit galvanic separation, interface unit and a personal computer. Circuit power multichannel amplifier connected to the output busbar protection unit from the emergency current, the first group of inputs of which are connected to the electrodes, and the second output power supply buses. This device is not effective for differential diagnosis of epilepsy and septiform manifestations due to the lack of the possibility of measuring brain impedance synchronously with chemo the signals bioelectrical activity of the brain and control subelectrode resistance.

Closest to the claimed device for the study of the functional state of the brain is a device for the biological research activity of the brain containing the unit of the discharge electrodes, the sensor electrocardiograma, patch panel, made in the image of the head with sockets for connection of the discharge electrodes, multi-channel pre-amplifier, the inputs of which are connected with the corresponding slots of the connecting patch panel, and outputs to the appropriate information outputs of the selector leads, the amplifier electrocardiograma whose outputs are connected to respective sockets connect the patch panel, the control unit impedance electrodes, multi-selective amplifier, analog-to-digital Converter, generator, audio stimuli generator of visual stimuli and Computers with attached storage on magnetic disks, display and printing device also includes a unit of the measuring electrodes, the unit of measurement of intracranial impedance, the control unit operability with connection block, four-channel differential amplifier, multi-channel analog switch, the amplifier with adjustable offset and gain a block of memory, the microprocessor,the blocks of information sharing and pairing, and four-channel analog switch (see the patent of Russian Federation № 2076625, IPC6And 61 In 5/04, publ. 1997). This device allows for one session surveys to capture and analyze signals electroencephalography, electrographic and rheoelectroencephalography, to control parameters of the amplifier and the impedance of the electrodes, which is especially important in studies of conducting functional tests.

Device for research of biological activity of the brain by the patent of Russian Federation № 2076625 taken as a prototype. The General features of the proposed device with the prototype are the following:

- purpose - both devices are designed to study the functional state of the brain;

both devices include a similar purpose functional units - electrode Assembly for pickup signals of bioelectric brain activity (in the prototype is the unit discharge electrodes), the sensor unit electrophysiological signals (in the prototype sensor electrocardiogram), block current and potential electrodes to provide a record of Rosignano (in the prototype unit of the measuring electrodes), a multi-line signal amplifier bioelectric brain activity (in the prototype - multichannel pre-amplifier), multi-channel amplifier Rosignano (prototype - megachannel the hydrated selective amplifier), multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter (in the prototype - multi-channel analog switch, and an analog-to-digital Converter), power electrophysiological signals (prototype - amplifier electrocardiograma), microcomputers (prototype - microprocessor), the PC standard configuration (in the prototype of the computer with display and printing device), generator current Rosignano and synchronous detector Rosignano (prototype - unit of measurement of intracranial impedance);

connection blocks and units - electrode Assembly for pickup signals of bioelectric brain activity and sensor unit electrophysiological signals are connected respectively with multi-channel amplifier bioelectric brain activity and power of electrophysiological signals (in the prototype, they are connected through a patch panel), multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter, the microcomputer and personal computer standard configurations are connected in series (in the prototype through the data bus and the device, respectively).

The disadvantages of the prototype is no possibility of simultaneous removal of electroencephalography signals and rheoelectroencephalography, which reduces the possibility of their mutual correlation, the low accuracy of the measurement subelectrode resistance, which reduces the fine is here registration superslow bioelectrical brain activity. These deficiencies significantly complicate the differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations and detecting early signs of violations of a regulatory nature.

The problem solved by the invention, the efficiency differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations, detection of the initial manifestations of violations of a regulatory nature.

The solution of the stated problem is achieved in that the device for the study of the functional state of the brain, containing serially connected multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter, a microcomputer with a galvanically isolated ports I / o and PC standard configuration, the electrode Assembly for pickup signals of bioelectric brain activity connected to multi-channel amplifier bioelectric brain activity, the sensor unit electrophysiological signals connected to the amplifier electrophysiological signals, the unit current and potential electrodes to provide a record of Rosignano, multi-channel amplifier Rosignano, generator current Rosignano and synchronous detector Rosignano, further comprises a two-frequency precision current generator that specifies which input connected to the microcomputer, the first group of outputs is connected to the working electrode, and the second with referentie electrodes of the electrode Assembly for pickup signals of bioelectric activity of the brain, the switch leads, the first group of inputs of which are connected with potential electrode unit current and potential electrodes to provide a record of Rosignano, the second group of inputs - outputs of the generator current Rosignano, the first group of outputs with a current electrode block of the current and potential electrodes to provide a record of Rosignano, the second group of outputs with the inputs of the synchronous detector Rosignano, the demultiplexer, the input connected to the output of a synchronous detector Rosignano, and outputs to the inputs multi-channel amplifier Rosignano, outputs multi-channel amplifier bioelectric activity of the brain brain, multi-channel amplifier Rosignano & amp electrophysiological signals connected to respective inputs of the multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter, the outputs of the microcomputer is connected to the control input of the switch leads, the control input of the demultiplexer, the control input multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter and the inputs of the sync generator current Rosignano and synchronous detector Rosignano. Sensor unit electrophysiological signals contains the electrode is for removal of the electrical activity of the heart, the electrical signals of the motor activity of the muscles, the photo-sensor pulse wave sensor respiratory waves. The generator current Rosignano contains a source of constant voltage, the poles of which are managed through the narrowband switch and the voltage amplifier is connected to the input line of the inverter voltage - current output which is the output of the generator. Synchronous detector Rosignano contains serially connected differential amplifier, bandpass filter and inverter, as well as a managed switch, switchable inputs connected to the input and output of the inverter, the input of the synchronous detector are the inputs of the differential amplifier and the control input of the controlled switch, the output - output controlled switch. Dual precision current generator contains two frequency divider whose inputs are combined and are driving generator input, and outputs through a capacitance of 10... 20 pF are connected: the first with outputs for connection to the working electrode, the second is to connect the reference electrode. Amplifying channel multi-channel amplifier bioelectric brain activity contains serially connected differential amplifier, a noninverting input connected to the input pollutionintensive working electrode, and inverting through matching cascade input for connecting the reference electrode, the amplifier gain DC current equal to one, and increased in the operating frequency band equal to the nominal, and the lowpass filter.

The way of measuring subelectrode resistance is samostojatelnim object of the invention.

There is a method of measuring skin resistance, is protected by the copyright certificate of the USSR No. 1821195, IPC5A 61 N 39/00, And 61 In 5/05, publ. 1993, which impose on the skin of the measuring electrodes, passed between them repeated the stable electric pulses with duration of 200... 380 µs at the current density of 7.1... 36,2 MCA, repeatedly measure the resistance at the end of each pulse, calculates the correction value to the measured resistance as the difference between the resistance value at the first measurement and the resistance value of the second via 42 seconds after the first measurement, and the resistance value at each subsequent measurement is determined with regard to this amendment. This method is not applicable for simultaneous measurement subelectrode resistance during registration of brain potentials and/or electrical signals generated by the heart and/or electrical signals of muscle movements.

By way dohale tregnago measure the electrical resistance of biological objects, protected by the copyright certificate of the USSR No. 1204182, IPC4And 61 In 5/05, G 01 R 27/02, publ. 1986, on the examined object is placed electrodes, through which pass the measuring current and the measured interelectrode resistance R1, then change the value of the measurement current and the area of the electrodes in k times under the condition of constant external dimensions of the electrodes and measure the new value of the interelectrode resistance R2 and the resistance value of the tissue of the biological object and the subelectrode resistance R3 is calculated by formulas. This method is also unacceptable for simultaneous measurement subelectrode resistance during registration of brain potentials and/or electrical signals generated by the heart and/or electrical signals of muscle movements.

The technical result from the use of this invention is the provision of opportunities for simultaneous measurement subelectrode resistance during registration of brain potentials and/or electrical signals generated by the heart and/or electrical signals of muscle movements.

This result is achieved in that in the method of measuring subelectrode resistance during registration of brain potentials and/or electrical signals generated by the heart, and/or electrical signals muscle movements using differential is different amplifiers of these signals, on each working electrode signal from a narrowband power generator with a frequency f1above the upper frequency of the recorded signals ftopand on the reference electrode signal from a narrowband power generator with a frequency f2f1>ftopnarrowband filtering is isolated and measured at the output of each amplifier voltage with frequency f1and f2- Uf1and uf2and subelectrode resistance of each of the electrodes is determined taking into account values of current narrowband current generators with frequencies f1and f2- Jf1I , Jf2and measured voltages with frequencies f1and f2- Uf1Uf2. Subelectrode resistance of each working electrode is determined by the formula Zj=Ujf1:(Jf1×Kj), where Zj- subelectrode resistance of the j-th electrode, Ujf1the voltage at the output of the j-th amplifier with frequency f1I , Jf1current narrowband power generator with a frequency f1, Kjthe gain of the j-th amplifier, and the subelectrode resistance of the reference electrode is determined by the formula: ZA=Ujf2:(Jf1×Kj), where ZA- subelectrode the resistance of the reference electrode, And, is involved in the j-th amplifier, Ujf2the voltage at the output of the j-th at is elites with frequency f 2I , jf2current narrowband power generator with a frequency f2.

The applicant has not identified the sources containing information about technical solutions, identical to the present invention, which allows to make a conclusion about their compliance with the criterion of "novelty".

The applicant is not aware of any publication that would contain information about the impact of the distinctive features of the inventions in the technical result achieved. In this regard, according to the applicant, it is possible to draw a conclusion on the conformity of the proposed technical solutions to the criterion of "inventive step".

The invention illustrated by the drawings. Figure 1 shows the structural diagram of the device for the study of the functional state of the brain, figure 2 - functional diagram of the amplifier channel amplifier signals bioelectric brain activity, figure 3 - functional diagram of the generator current Rosignano, 4 is a functional diagram of the synchronous detector Rosignano, 5 is a functional diagram dual precision current generator, 6 and 8 show some examples of values of physiological signals: left initial background state, right - trachinotus hyperventilate, 7 and 9 - cardio-cyclic dynamics of physiological parameters for these examples, figure 10 shows the functionality of the full scheme, explaining a method of measuring subelectrode resistance.

The list of positions in figure 1 - figure 5:

1 - electrode Assembly for pickup signals of bioelectric brain activity;

2 - sensor unit electrophysiological signals;

3 - unit current and potential electrodes to provide a record of Rosignano;

4 - switch leads;

5 - generator current RESIGNAL;

6 - a synchronous detector RESIGNAL;

7 is a multichannel amplifier bioelectric brain activity;

8 - amplifiers electrophysiological signals;

9 - demultiplexer;

10 is a multichannel amplifier RESIGNAL;

11 - multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter (MACP);

12 is a microcomputer with a galvanically isolated port I / o;

13 - dual precision current generator;

14 - PC standard configurations;

15 - operated switch;

16 is a lowpass filter;

17 - bandpass filter;

18 - operated switch;

19 is a frequency divider with a frequency f1;

20 is a frequency divider with a frequency f2.

The claimed method of the study of the functional state of the brain is implemented as follows. On the head of the patient to impose electrodes for removal of bioelectric brain activity and to register R is graficheskih signals in the basins of the carotid and vertebral arteries, on the chest is fixed electrodes for removal electrocardiographic signals, sensor, galvanic skin response sensor, a respiratory waves (if necessary), on the fingers - sensor pulse wave (blood). Electrodes and sensors are connected each to a separate input multi-channel amplifier, connected to a multichannel analog-to-digital Converter, the output of which is connected to the galvanically isolated port I / o of microcomputers. This allows for synchronous real-time multi-channel recording of the electroencephalogram (EEG), the recording rheoelectroencephalography (REG) in the basins of the carotid and vertebral arteries, recording the electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (FPG) and pneumogram and make their computer analysis. Simultaneously with multi-channel recording of the electroencephalogram, rheoelectroencephalography and electrocardiogram measure subelectrode resistance, which provides not only control the reliability of contact of the electrodes with the skin, but also higher accuracy indicators electroencephalogram, registration superslow brain activity (MCA) for carrying out functional tests. Computer analysis and processing of electrophysiological signals in the PC allow in a single cardio-cyclic time scale, i.e. in relation to each of the automatically recognized cardiocycle, to perform the calculation and visualization of physiological parameters bioelectrical activity of the brain - absolute and relative values of power of alpha activity, abnormal slow-wave activity in the range of Delta and theta waves, the dynamics of the level of metabolic brain activity on a permanent component of the EEG, heart rate, ECG, indicators pulse blood vessels of the brain iographica.com index REG, index of peripheral resistance of cerebral vessels (PCSL), a measure of peripheral vascular tone in the form of amplitude ripple peripheral PPG, metric tone of great vessels at the time of propagation of the pulse wave from the Q wave of the ECG signal prior to the beginning of the systolic wave peripheral Figs, metric tone postcapillary-venular vessels at a constant component of the PPG, the spectral analysis of their artifacts, fragments of EEG with the estimation of power spectrograms in the standard frequency bands. The determination of all these parameters is performed by known formulas. After you enable and test the operation of the apparatus carry out a functional test for hyperventilation in standard mode. The patient is offered a deep and rhythmic breathing for 3 minutes. The depth of the breath and depth of exhalation should be the maximum, astate breathing within 16... 20 per minute. The respiration parameters to be monitored via the sensor respiratory waves. Recording of electrophysiological parameters must be made at least 3 minutes before the trial and for at least 5 minutes after its completion. When discovering in the process the test of the presence of a reducing eographical index and proximately manifestations on EEG in the form of a sharp increase in relation abnormal slow-wave waves in the Delta and theta ranges for alpha activity there are potentially possible causes of paroxysmal EEG manifestations. Differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations is the following. If in the beginning there was a decrease eographical index by more than 20%, and then there are paroxysmal symptoms, the cause should be considered with a high probability vascular disorders of the brain. If the reduction eographical index REG and the emergence of proximally manifestations EEG is accompanied by a shift of the level of constant potential, then the conclusion is made about the presence of the influence factor on vascular proximally manifestations, accompanied by metabolic changes. If the reduction eographical index REG and the emergence of proximally manifestations EEG is not accompanied by a significant reduction in peripheral blood flow to the PPG, it is potentially possible cause of vascular disorders of the brain may be the lack of regulatory processes by a compensatory reduction in peripheral blood flow and redistribution of the total blood flow in vital organs. If the reduction eographical index REG and appearance proximally manifestations on EEG are the same, it is additionally a conclusion about the presence of the pathological focus of activity that defines the inadequacy of regional cerebral blood flow. If, prior to the carrying out functional tests on hyperventilation was observed disorganization EEG, decreased pulse blood and toning on the REG, and in the process of conducting samples were observed normalization of indicators of cerebral blood flow, such as enhancement of pulse blood, reducing peripheral resistance of cerebral vessels, and normalization of the EEG, which is expressed in increased levels of alpha activity with preservation of zonal differences in fronto-occipital areas, the decrease of the ratio of abnormal slow-wave waves in the Delta and theta ranges for alpha activity, suggest the presence of cerebrovascular disorders associated with disturbance of blood gas composition in the initial background state. If you carry out a functional test on hyperventilation and in the process of carrying out the ia sample ECG signal observed extrasystoles and they precede an epileptic on simultaneously recorded EEG signals, then conclude zerbrochenem nature of cardiac arrhythmias. If there is no causal and temporal relationship between seizures on EEG and PVCs on the ECG, it is concluded cardiogenic nature of cardiac arrhythmias. To identify the causes cynocephalic States spend extended passive orthostatic test and, if during the test the patient is fixed cynocephalidae state, when pronounced bradycardia or asystole ECG before sincopalnah state and the decline of cerebral blood flow by REG diagnose cardioinhibitory the cause of the syncopal status pre cynocephalidae condition expressed signs deposition of blood in the extremities PPG and decrease in cerebral blood flow on the REG, and no significant reduction in heart rate by ECG diagnosed vasodepressive the cause of the syncopal status, and pre-syncopal status epileptic EEG and no significant reduction in heart rate at ECG and pronounced signs of deposition of blood in the extremities in figs diagnosed with spasmodic type of fainting.

Simultaneous registration of EEG, REG, MCA and other signals with the possibility of a compressed representation in a single time scale required is Dov physiological parameters allows to extend the diagnostic capabilities in the study of various diseases and disorders. It allows you to control the correctness of the research (in particular, provoking samples for hyperventilation), influenced by the vascular factor in epilepsy, to identify patients with malformed breathing pattern, leading to cerebrovascular violations, to provide useful information for differential diagnosis of syncopal States, to explore the nature of interactions between body systems at various violations, to provide a more informed choice of therapeutic measures and evaluating their effectiveness.

Due to the importance of comprehensive research, allowing you to simultaneously monitor changes in EEG and REG in the process of conducting various functional tests, the results of which can be established a significant relationship between abnormal EEG rhythms and dynamics of changes of cerebral blood flow - amplitude REG, the tone of the arterioles and venous outflow. The above technical result is illustrated by the following examples At the initial manifestations of insufficiency of cerebral blood circulation (initial presentation of inadequate) often EEG with a high degree of synchronization (mainly in the alpha range). This is due to the activation of integrative structures mesencephalic levels that occur in response to the deteriorating crowsnest is of the brain. When dyscirculatory disorders of the vertebrobasilar mainstream phenomenon can be observed in timing and flattening of the EEG, thrombosis and stenosis with relevant clinical manifestations (paresis, intermittent blindness and aphasia) EEG changes appear slow wave Delta and theta range. Revealed a close correlation between the volume of blood flow in the basin of the affected vessel and the average frequency of rhythmic activity in this area, which makes it possible to judge according to EEG about the possibilities of compensation and rehabilitation in ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation. On the same basis EEG is used to monitor brain function during surgery carotid endarterectomy.

In ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation EEG data can to some extent serve as differential diagnostic purposes. So, when carotid stenosis abnormal EEG occur in 50% of patients with thrombosis of the carotid artery is 70%, and thrombosis of silvaloy artery - 95%. It is of some significance electroencephalography in the differential diagnosis of vascular stroke. In hemorrhagic stroke EEG changes much more rough and persistent, accompanied by more pronounced cerebral changes that correspond to a more severe clinical picture. Synchron is th registration listed electrophysiological signals makes it possible to detect the influence of the vascular factor in paroxysmal States and epilepsy by mapping changes in cerebral blood flow, previous manifestations of epileptiform activity. For example, inadequately strong deterioration of parameters of cerebral blood flow (this is most often expressed in the decrease of pulse blood, increased vascular tone, increased instability indices tone etc.) conducted functional tests can cause epileptiform activity on EEG. Comparing the rate of change of the parameters of cerebral blood flow on the REG with the corresponding changes in the EEG, and timing of these changes may be decided predominant emphasis in the treatment of vascular disorders or joint medication, improves cerebral hemodynamics and anticonvulsants. Simultaneous registration of the respiratory curve using a respiration belt helps to control the correctness of the implementation samples with hyperventilation and breath holding. Such control is highly desirable for correct content interpretation, since the surface fast or, on the contrary, slow breath when performing hyperventilation can lead to the opposite physiological effect (hypercapnia instead of hypocapnia).

If the time of occurrence of epileptiform bursts and discharges preceded by significant changes of cerebral blood flow, it is may indicate the primary influence violations exactly cerebral blood flow. For example, before a three-minute hyperventilation in the initial state was observed somewhat disorganized alpha-activity of high amplitude, irregular in frequency. Rheoencephalogram in the initial state was relatively normal form with a slightly higher tone. In the third minute of hyperventilation began to show flashes of polymorphic, mostly slow-wave (theta-band and part of the Delta), epileptiform activity. Before the outbreak in the REG, there is a significant instability of pulse blood and tonus of vessels of different caliber, even in neighboring cardiocycle ripple amplitude REG differs in one and a half times or more, the shape of rowany varies from hypotonic to hypertonic. There are some changes and in the peripheral photoplethysmogram (PPG), in particular improving the tone of resistance vessels (a decrease in the amplitude of pulsation PPG).

Low values of the tone of the arterioles of the cerebral vessels comply with the minimum in comparison with other groups of patients, changes in EEG. The growth of the pathological elements of the EEG increases in proportion to the growing phenomena of intracranial hypertension. From the prognostic point of view, the low initial values of tone are testimony to the preservation of the Central mechanisms soudo Whateley regulation, and high values of tone correlate with loss of Central mechanisms of vasomotor regulation and the initial manifestations of ischemic brain disease.

As an illustration, let us consider a few examples of research.

Example 1. In the first study (6 and 8), the patient was revealed reduction of the threshold of convulsive readiness to hyperventilation. In the second study (7 and 9) patient was recorded normalization of EEG and REG on hyperventilation.

Images 7 and 8 illustrate the dynamics of trends in the initial state and when conducting provoking 3-minute sample hyperventilation following physiological parameters: heart rate (HR), systolic amplitude of the PPG wave (DIA PPG), the time of propagation of the pulse wave (wrpw, figs), alpha-index EEG left occipital abstraction ratio of output slow-wave components of the EEG (sum podilato Delta and theta waves) to the alpha power of the left frontal EEG leads (D+T/A, F3-A1), eographical index left fronto-mastoidectomy abstraction REG (RI, FM_L), constant component (MCA) in the left frontal EEG recordings (PS, F3-A1).

7 significant characteristic moments. Provocative test for hyperventilation leads to concomitant changes in almost all fisiologicas the x signal, in particular the sharp increase in heart rate (from 84 to 106 BPM), the sharp increase in the tone of peripheral resistance vessels (ASV Fig in the background was about 4 pm, and when GW reached values of 0.47 pm, i.e. the amplitude of pulsation of resistive vessels decreased in several times), a significant reduction of alpha-index in the 3rd minute of hyperventilation (in the background is about 70%for 3 minutes - about 20%), a sharp increase in the prevalence of abnormal slow-wave components (Delta and theta) above normal alpha activity - more than 10 times, a sharp decrease in pulse blood on the REG-RI decreased from 1.2 to 1.35 0.7-0.8 Ohms, the increased level of constant potential during hyperventilation (about 2 MB). Completion provoking samples led to a gradual normalization of most physiological parameters: heart rate decreased to initial values (87 BPM). Wrpw increased above baseline values, indicating a substantial decrease in the tone of the main arteries. Alpha index occipital EEG recovered. The ratio of slow-wave and fast-wave components of the EEG normalized.

Figure 6 presents the physiological signals (EEG, REG, ECG, PPG). Left : the original, the background on the right is the 3rd minute of hyperventilation. Noticeably pronounced deterioration of the EEG signals and the REG on provoking near the step, in particular, the reduction of pulse cerebral blood vessels (RI REG) and the appearance of paroxysmal bursts of slow-wave activity on EEG.

Example 2. On Fig and 9 shows a comparative chart of the dynamics of the average EEG, REG, ECG, PPG on provoking impact in the second study, when the patient was recorded normalization of EEG and REG on hyperventilation. The initial state is characterized by low-amplitude desynchronizing EEG (alpha-waves almost not noticeable), increased tone of cerebral vessels (second systolic wave is higher in amplitude than the first, PCSL 100%), reduced pulse volume (RI-level... 0,09 0,08 Ohms). When provoking influence in the form of hyperventilation observed the following changes: alpha rhythm is significantly more pronounced with preservation of the normal zonal differences, the tone of cerebral vessels is normalized (the second systolic wave has become lower than the first amplitude, PCSL 70%), pulse volume of cerebral vessels normalized (RI at the level of 0.12 Ohms).

Comparison of the deviations of physiological parameters in two patients allows to draw the following conclusions. On the 1st patient with the detection of increased threshold of convulsive readiness when hyperventilation should be noted that the deterioration of the EEG (reduction and is the activity by 40%, the increase in ratio slow-wave Delta and theta activity to alpha 4.7 times) is accompanied by deterioration of pulse cerebral blood vessels (reducing eographical index 30%). First, there is a significant deterioration of cerebral blood flow (observed from the 1st minute of hyperventilation), and then the occurrence of paroxysmal manifestations of pathological activity (on the 3rd minute of hyperventilation). When hyperventilation occurs a decrease in the amplitude of pulsations in the peripheral PPG (46%).

The patient with normalization of the EEG during hyperventilation there is another picture. A sample of hyperventilation leads to normalization of the EEG (increasing alpha index by 64%, the decrease of the ratio of slow-wave Delta and theta activity to alpha 35%) is accompanied by improvement in pulse cerebral blood vessels (increasing eographical index by almost 30%). Normalization of EEG and REG starts at the same time within 30 seconds after the onset of hyperventilation. A sample of hyperventilation leads to a significantly higher increase of peripheral vascular tone (decrease in the amplitude of pulsation finger PPG 5.5 times, while the first patient reduction in FPG was only 2 times).

It can be assumed that the second patient in the initial state b is lo the lack of oxygen in the blood, what baseline EEG and REG were somewhat disturbed. Hyperventilation resulted in increased oxygen content in the blood, which led to normalization of cerebral blood flow and EEG parameters. In addition, the second patient, apparently, more developed adaptive capacity, as if provoking influence worked adaptation mechanisms for enhancing the tone of peripheral vessels, and thus improved ratio for General redistribution of blood flow in favor of the brain through peripheral. The first patient peripheral vascular tone is increased slightly, the corresponding redistribution of blood flow has not occurred, cerebral blood flow decreased significantly, which could lead to deterioration of the EEG.

It should be noted that abrupt changes of the EEG, REG, MCA observed in many cases and the execution of mental stress. Figure 10 shows the trends of physiological parameters in EEG, REG, ECG, CMA - constant component of the electrocardiogram (PS EEG) when performing arithmetic and linguistic samples. Noticeable abrupt changes in the alpha index and PS EEG. After mental strain, there is a compensatory increase in RI REG. Method of aggregate analysis of the EEG, REG and MCA can also be successfully used for research in various gr the PP patients with mental and neurological disorders for studies of the mechanisms of memory, etc.

Device for the study of the functional state of the brain, from which the claimed method is implemented, contains (1) block 1 electrodes for pickup signals bioelectrical activity of the brain, block 2 sensors electrophysiological signals, block 3 current and potential electrodes to provide a record of Rosignano, switch the leads 4, the generator 5 current Rosignano, synchronous detector 6 Rosignano, multichannel amplifier 7 signals the bioelectrical activity of the brain, the amplifier 8 of electrophysiological signals, the demultiplexer 9, multichannel amplifier Rosignano 10, multichannel analog-to-digital Converter (MACP) 11, a microcomputer 12 with electrically isolated input port-output, dual precision current generator 13 and 14 standard PC configuration. Unit 1, including a device for securing electrodes, working (signal), reference and zero electrodes, wires and a connector for connecting to multi-channel amplifier 7 may be made in the form of an elastic cap and is designed for easy and comfortable fastening of the electrodes on the patient's head. Unit 2 includes at least electrocardiographic electrodes and sensors photoplethysmography and oculogram elements and fixing the electrodes and tchikov on the patient's body. If necessary, control the length and depth of breathing during functional tests on giperventilatia unit 2 may further comprise a sensor respiratory waves (e.g., respiratory zone). Block 3 includes a current electrode for supplying a current pulse signals and potential electrodes for pickup voltage drops from the current pulse signals, and can be combined with unit 1, i.e. the current and potential electrodes can be mounted on the same elastic cap, with the fastening elements of the electrode unit 3 are grouped in pairs - current electrode b1and the corresponding potential of the electrode B1. The switch 4 is intended for the temporary separation of Rosignano and includes two demultiplexer, one of which connects to the generator output 5 current electrode unit 3 and to the input of the synchronous detector 6 potential electrode unit 3 with even numbers, the other with odd. The generator 5 (Fig 3) contains the constant voltage source E, the poles of which are managed through the switch 15, a narrow-band amplifier, including C3, R7, U3, and a low-pass filter 16 is connected to the input line of the inverter voltage - current (A4, Tp1, R8). Generator output 6 frequency sinusoidal current is equal to the switching frequency of the controlled switch 15. Sync the first detector 6 (figure 4) contains a differential amplifier a with bandpass filter 17 at the output and a controlled switch 18, one input of which is connected to bandpass filter directly and through the second inverter. The control inputs of the switches 15 and 18 are served synchronous signals from the microcomputer 12. Multi-channel amplifier 7 is designed for amplification of the signals bioelectrical activity of the brain, shoot with the working electrode block 1. Each channel gain of this amplifier contains (2) serially connected differential amplifier (U1, R1, R2), power factor DC equal to one, and increased in the working frequency band (U2, R3, R4, R5, S1), and a lowpass filter. Non-inverting input of the differential amplifier is connected with the corresponding working electrode unit 1 and one of the outputs precision dual-frequency generator 13, and inverting through matching cascade with the corresponding reference electrode A. precision Dual-frequency generator 13 current synchronization from the microcomputer 12 can be implemented in the form of two divisors of the reference frequency with different ratios (figure 5). Frequency f1the output of the frequency divider 19 more in 1.5 to 2.0 times the upper ftopthe frequency of the analyzed signal, the frequency f2the output of the frequency divider 20 is larger than the frequency f1for example, if the upper frequency of the analyzed electroencephalographically signals 300 Hz, castorena the output of the frequency divider 19 is installed within 450... 500 Hz. The frequency divider 20 is installed is different from the frequency divider 19 to 50... 100 Hz. Narrowband digital filtering methods the signals of these generators stand out from the output voltage of multichannel amplifier 7 and is used when calculating the subelectrode resistance. Mode current generator is provided that the output of the divider is connected to each electrode unit 1 through a high-q capacitor with small capacitance (10... 20 pF). The output of the frequency divider 19 is connected with the working electrode block 1, the output of the frequency divider 20 is connected to the reference electrodes. The amplifier 8 includes an amplifier cascade for each of electrophysiological signals. Circuit these cascades are made without any of the features described in the textbooks. The output of the synchronous detector 6 is connected to the input of the multiplexer 9, the outputs of which are connected to the inputs of the amplifier system 10. The connection of the outputs of the multiplexer 9 is supplied from the microcomputer 12 synchronously with switching of the electrode unit 3 switch lead 4. The multichannel outputs of the amplifiers 7 and 10 and the amplifier 8 is connected to the corresponding inputs of multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter 11, the purpose of which is to convert the analog signals into discrete form of the spatial section the population of channels. The microcomputer is designed to provide removal in real time of all signals pre-processing (digital filtering), the control operation unit 1 and a multichannel amplifier 7 and the operation of the switch 4, the generator 5, the synchronous detector 6, a multiplexer 9, precision dual-frequency generator 13 and the multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter 11. The microcomputer 12 of the exchange channel is connected to the PC 14. The purpose of the PC 14 - aggregate recorded synchronously in real-time values of electrophysiological signals (EEG, ECG, REG, MCA, figs), the computation in a single cardio-cyclic time scale, i.e. in relation to each of the automatically recognized cardiocycle, physiological parameters: bioelectrical activity of the brain - absolute and relative values of power of alpha activity, abnormal slow-wave activity in the range of Delta and theta waves, the dynamics of metabolic brain activity on a permanent component of the EEG, heart rate on ECG, pulse blood vessels of the brain iographica.com index REG, peripheral resistance of cerebral vessels (PCSL), the tone of the peripheral in the form of amplitude ripple peripheral PPG, tone of great vessels on the straps of propagation of the pulse wave from the Q wave of the ECG signal prior to the beginning of the systolic wave peripheral PPG, tone postcapillary-venular vessels at a constant component of the PPG, the display of these indicators on the display screen in the volume and to allow differential diagnosis of epilepsy and epileptiform manifestations.

The claimed device operates as follows. The electrodes for the removal of the electroencephalogram and rogramme fixed to the head with elastic helmet (special elastic electrode cap), electrodes for pickup electrocardiogram and sensors, galvanic skin response, pulsometry (FPG) and biografii fixed to the patient using a conductive adhesive or adhesive tape, the sensor respiratory waves - using a respiration belt. With long-term monitoring, when the channel exchange of microcomputers 12 PC 14 arranged on the air, on the patient may be optionally attached accelerometers, the signals on which is mounted motor activity of the patient. Communication, the PC 14 to the computer 12 over the air not only allows the patient to be in a comfortable environment, but also to simultaneously monitor multiple patients. After installation of the electrodes and sensors block 1...3 and power on, check the efficiency and reliability of the connection electrodes and sensors. Measured subelectrode resistance is ellenia and if subelectrode resistance of any electrode exceeds the threshold value, then check its operability and reliability of the installation, faulty electrode is replaced, repaired, installed again. Then on the microcomputer 12 in the mode of removal of physiological signals. Electrical signals applied to the inputs, amplified, converted to MACP 3 analog-to-discrete, cleaned from artifacts in the microcomputer 4 and the code as stored in the memory 10. The performance of the microcomputer 4 and the capacity of the drive 10 allow real-time synchronous write and save data daily monitoring: EEG signals over the desired number of leads (up to 32 digital displayer); eographically signals (up to 6 channels); physiological signals on channels: ECG, EOG, PG, EMG; signals about the body's position from the gyroscopic sensors; values subelectrode resistance; markers of various types; reflecting these or other events; functional tests outlined by the program or performed by a doctor during EEG-video monitoring; results of pre-processing to identify anomalies EEG and ECG. Recorded information from the microcomputer 12 is transmitted to the personal computer 14 connected it to the PC port 14, or over the air. In the PC 14 will process the necessary fragments of electrophysiological signals is s and depending on the purpose of the study, displaying in a single time interval required for visual evaluation by a physician of the processes.

Processing is performed using all the possibilities of mathematical processing. For example, the electroencephalogram processing is performed using all the possibilities of computerized EEG, such as the reference reconstruction, vertical split, automatic search of artifacts and epileptiform activity, two - and three-dimensional toposcope, spectral, avtorestavratsionnaya analysis and coherence function with the topographic mapping, analysis of functional asymmetry, as well as automatic generation of the description and classification of EEG allows editing, three-dimensional localization of the sources of pathological electrical activity of the brain, etc.

Long-term monitoring of EEG and synchronously removed from her other physiological parameters is an important diagnostic method to differentiate between pseudoepinephrine and true epileptic seizures. EEG-video monitoring is used when necessary to confirm the preliminary diagnosis “epilepsy”, especially in complex cases where accurate differential diagnosis is when the brand is important to select the best treatment strategy and prognosis of the disease. The diagnosis “epilepsy” obvious upon detection of epileptic EEG patterns on interictal/paroxysmal EEG. The absence of anomalies in interictal EEG/paroxysmal period does not completely rule out epilepsy. It is known that a significant number of simple partial seizures are accompanied by autonomic and somatosensory symptoms, often characterized by the absence of changes in EEG during surface mapping electrode. The presence of epileptic EEG patterns during the time of the attack is also not absolute proof of epilepsy. In patients with repeated rhythmic motor phenomena in EEG in some cases, there are artifacts resembling epileptic EEG patterns and are able to mislead the inexperienced electroencephalographic. To avoid errors, you must map the synchronous changes of EEG and REG research. When preparing the patient, it is advisable to use a combined electrode system containing lead EEG and REG channels.

To obtain comprehensive information by examination of a particular patient used a simultaneous total registration of brain electrical activity and parameters of cerebral circulation. This approach not only provides time-saving research at the expense of one record is in the original (background) and when carrying out functional tests under simultaneous EEG-REG-study. Get complete information when mapping the dynamics of synchronous changes of EEG, REG and ECG during execution of concurrent studies, which in turn allows you to:

- to assess the possible impact of vascular factor in paroxysmal symptoms (if any);

- to identify possible cerebrovascular causes changes in the bioelectrical activity of the brain;

- to compare paroxysmal manifestations of EEG and signs of cardiac rhythm and conduction ECG (if available) to identify the type of violation (cardiogenic or cerebrogenic);

- to analyze the interaction of the CNS, ANS and cerebral blood flow on the basis of comparison of the dynamics of EEG signals, REG and ECG, as well as physiological indicators calculated on the basis of these signals.

According to the data obtained using the claimed device, for patients with baseline low volume cerebral blood flow is characterized by a significant increase in the number of diffuse pathological theta inclusions are equivalent to the processes of demyelination, atherosclerosis, and diffuse cerebral ischemia. In patients with excessive plethora of cerebral vessels (p=0.3 Ohms), moderately reduced tone and delayed venous outflow is also showing signs of bilateral synchronous rhythm, OTP is concerned with phenomena dysfunction of the median formations of the brain. That is, in fact, and in another case of significant deviations hemodynamic components of the brain reveal a violation of the Central mechanisms of regulation of vasomotor control. The slowing of the venous outflow-specific effects of increased brain blood supply and high tone of the arterioles is an indication of increasing intracranial hypertension with the loss of negative feedback between the center and Osnovnye components of cerebral blood flow with which correlate EEG manifestations of irritative and diffuse changes of the functional state of the brain stem. Low values of the tone of the arterioles corresponded to a minimum in comparison with other groups of patients, changes in EEG. The growth of the pathological elements of the EEG increased in proportion to the growing phenomena of intracranial hypertension. From the prognostic point of view, the low initial values of tone are testimony to the preservation of the Central mechanisms of vasomotor regulation, and high values of tone correlate with loss of Central mechanisms of vasomotor regulation and the initial manifestations of ischemic brain disease.

The importance of the mapping of EEG and REG from the point of view of identifying the precipitating factors of the elements of epileptiform activity. If the time poyavleniyaetoy outbreaks and digits are preceded by significant changes of cerebral blood flow, this may indicate the primary influence violations exactly cerebral blood flow.

However, this is not limited to the scope of application of the simultaneous recording of EEG and polygraphic signals reflecting the activities of cerebral and peripheral blood flow. Given the dependence of the functional state of the brain from the state of the cardiovascular system, accounting changes recorded indices of cardiovascular system may help in the interpretation of emergent phenomena in EEG. This may relate to the identification of precipitating factors of epileptic seizures (analysis of changes in cerebral blood flow before the onset of the attack), and for the differential diagnosis of epileptic and nonepileptic seizures (for example, wingline syncopal conditions associated with heart rhythm or vasodepressor reaction), to identify violations of EEG cerebralischemia character (in fact the normalization of EEG and REG when carrying out any of the samples, such as hyperventilation), and to confirm the presence of regulatory violations shown on EEG, REG and heart rate variability. In a separate research EEG, REG, kardiointervalografii, indices of Central hemodynamics often use the same functionalarea. Simultaneous registration of these data allows not only to reduce the total time of study, but also get a unique opportunity to compare scores obtained on different types of signals for a more reliable interpretation of the data. Comparison of these data allows us to clarify the nature of the primary disease and the regionality of cerebrovascular disorders. In addition to the REG and ECG advisable to use other physiological signals. This can include the peripheral photoplethysmogram (figs, to control the reactivity of resistive vessels, tone of main arteries, state postcapillary-venular bed), galvanic skin response (GSR to control emotional tension, especially when conducting psychological tests), pneumogram (PG, to assess the frequency and depth of breathing, control of the correct implementation of various respiratory samples) and other signals.

Analysis of the slow activity of the brain is virtually the only electrophysiological method that allows to estimate the value of cerebral energy consumption. Metabolic disorders play an important role in the development of vascular and atrophic diseases of the brain, epilepsy and affect the flow of neurotic disorders. Check the CMA with the required accuracy is ensured if the ü measurement subelectrode resistances, and based on their changes during monitoring.

The way of measuring subelectrode resistance illustrated by the scheme depicted in figure 10. Figure 10 illustrates: 1D, 2D - electrodes connected to the inputs of the differential amplifier 1... working electrodes and reference electrodes, Jf1generator current with frequency f1, Jf2generator current with frequency f2, Z1, Z2, Za, Z1... Z - subelectrode resistance of the electrodes 1D, 2D, and 1...K respectively, UD, Ua, U1... UK - differential, reference, and operational amplifiers, respectively, f1f2- bandpass filters, Uf1uf2the voltage at the output of amplifiers UD, Ua, U1... UK.

The claimed method of measurement subelectrode resistance when you register using the input amplifiers of brain potentials and/or electrical signals generated by the heart, and/or electrical signals of muscle movements is as follows. On each working electrode signal from a narrowband power generator Jf1with frequency f1above the upper frequency of the recorded signals ftopand on the reference electrode signal from a narrowband power generator Jf2with frequency f2f1>ftop. Narrowband filtered out from the output voltage of each working amplifier U1... of the criminal code and measure n is Prairie with frequency f 1-Uf1and voltage with frequency f2- Uf2, subelectrode resistance of the working electrode is determined by the formula Zj=Ujf1: (J1×Kj), where Zj- subelectrode resistance of the j-th working electrode, Ujf1the voltage at the output of the j-th desktop amplifier with frequency f1, Jf1current narrowband power generator with a frequency f1Tojthe gain of the j-th working amplifier, subelectrode resistance of the reference electrode is determined by the formula Za=Ujf2: (Jf2×Kj), where For - subelectrode resistance of the reference electrode, is involved in the j-th desktop amplifier, Ujf2the voltage at the output of the j-th desktop amplifier with frequency f2I , Jf2current narrowband power generator with a frequency f2. The gains of the amplifiers are measured before installation of the electrodes, for example, as the ratio of the voltage at the amplifier output to a calibrated input voltage. Also can be pre-calibrated current generators Jf1and Jf2. Frequency f1and f2selected from the exception conditions influence on the measurement results of the analyzed signals. So as to change subelectrode resistance is affected by this slow process, the operation of the generators Jf1and Jf2can the be spaced in time. Then there is no need to struggle with the Raman frequencies.

1. The method of evaluation of the functional state of the brain, including multitrack recording electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and carrying out functional tests, characterized in that it further with multi-channel EEG recording and computer spectral analysis devoid of artifacts from EEG fragment with the estimation of power spectrograms in the standard frequency bands simultaneously and in real-time registration superslow brain activity, recording of rheoencephalography (REG) in the basins of the carotid and vertebral arteries, photoplethysmogram (FPG) of the fingers and/or toes and measurement subelectrode resistances of electrodes for pickup signals bioelectrical activity of the brain, with a single cardio-cyclic time scale, i.e. in relation to each of the automatically recognized cardiocycle, perform the calculation and visualization of physiological parameters bioelectrical activity of the brain - absolute and relative values of power of alpha activity, abnormal slow-wave activity in the range of Delta and theta waves, the level of constant potential slow brain activity, heart rate, ECG, indicators pulse shelter is zapolneniya vessels of the brain iographica.com index REG, the indicator peripheral resistance of cerebral vessels (PCSL), an indicator of the tone of peripheral in the form of amplitude ripple peripheral PPG, metric tone of great vessels at the time of propagation of the pulse wave from the Q wave of the ECG signal prior to the beginning of the systolic wave peripheral PPG, metric tone postcapillary-venular vessels at a constant component of the PPG, and the functional state of the brain is determined by the dynamics of changes of physiological parameters before, during and after carrying out functional tests.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that conduct a functional test for hyperventilation and if after the beginning of the test there is a decrease of more than 20% eographical index REG, and then there are paroxysmal manifestations on EEG in the form of a sharp increase in the pathological relationship medlennovolnova waves in the Delta and theta ranges for alpha activity, a potential cause proximally manifestations on EEG formulate vascular disorders of the brain.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that if the reduction eographical index REG and the appearance of paroxysmal EEG manifestations accompanied by a shift of the level of constant potential slow brain activity, then the conclusion is made about the presence of influence suck the East factor on paroxysmal manifestations, accompanied by metabolic changes.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that if the reduction eographical index REG and the appearance of paroxysmal manifestations, EEG is not accompanied by a significant reduction in peripheral blood flow by PPG, a potential cause of vascular disorders of the brain to formulate the failure of regulatory processes by a compensatory reduction in peripheral blood flow and redistribution of the total blood flow in vital organs.

5. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that if the localization reduction eographical index REG and appearance proximally manifestations on EEG same, it is additionally a conclusion about the presence of the pathological focus of activity that defines the inadequacy of regional cerebral blood flow.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that conduct a functional test for hyperventilation and if, before conducting functional tests was observed disorganization EEG, decreased pulse blood and toning on the REG, and in the process of conducting samples were observed normalization of indicators of cerebral blood flow, such as enhancement of pulse blood, reducing peripheral resistance of cerebral vessels and normalization of the EEG in terms of the increased level of alpha activity and preserving zonal differences in fronto-occipital areas, the decrease of the ratio of abnormal slow-wave waves in the Delta and theta ranges for alpha activity, then formulate an assumption about the presence of cerebrovascular disorders associated with disturbance of blood gas composition in the initial background state.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that conduct a functional test for hyperventilation and if in the process of conducting tests on the ECG signal are observed extrasystoles and they precede an epileptic on simultaneously recorded EEG signals, we conclude zerbrochenem nature of cardiac arrhythmias.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a long-term passive orthostatic test and if the test patient recorded cynocephalidae state, when pronounced bradycardia or asystole ECG before sincopalnah state and the decline of cerebral blood flow by REG diagnose cardioinhibitory the cause of the syncopal status pre cynocephalidae condition expressed signs of deposition of blood in the extremities PPG and decrease in cerebral blood flow on the REG and no significant reduction in heart rate by ECG diagnosed vasodepressive the cause of the syncopal status, and pre-syncopal state of PA is oximax on EEG and no significant decrease in the frequency of heart rate on ECG and pronounced signs of deposition of blood in the extremities in figs diagnosed with spasmodic type of fainting.

9. Device for the study of the functional state of the brain, containing serially connected multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter, a microcomputer with a galvanically isolated ports I / o and PC standard configuration, the electrode Assembly for pickup signals of bioelectric brain activity connected to multi-channel amplifier bioelectric brain activity, the sensor unit electrophysiological signals connected to the amplifier electrophysiological signals, the unit current and potential electrodes to provide a record of Rosignano, multi-channel amplifier Rosignano, generator current Rosignano and synchronous detector Rosignano, further comprises a two-frequency precision current generator that specifies which input is connected to the microcomputer, the first group of outputs connected with the working electrode and the second reference electrode of the electrode Assembly for pickup signals of bioelectric activity of the brain, the switch lead, the first group of inputs of which are connected with potential electrode unit current and potential electrodes to provide a record of Rosignano, the second group of inputs - outputs of the generator current Rosignano, the first group of outputs - with electric current is DAMI block current and potential electrodes to provide a record of Rosignano, the second group of outputs with the inputs of the synchronous detector Rosignano, the demultiplexer, the input connected to the output of a synchronous detector Rosignano and outputs - inputs multi-channel amplifier Rosignano, outputs multi-channel amplifier bioelectric brain activity, multi-channel amplifier Rosignano & amp electrophysiological signals connected to respective inputs of the multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter, the outputs of the microcomputer is connected to the control input of the switch leads, the control input of the demultiplexer, the control input multi-channel analog-to-digital Converter and the inputs of the sync generator current Rosignano and synchronous detector Rosignano.

10. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the sensor unit electrophysiological signals contains electrodes for reading the electrical activity of the heart, electrical signals of the motor activity of the muscles, the photo-sensor pulse wave sensor respiratory waves.

11. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that the generator current Rosignano contains a source of constant voltage, the poles of which are connected to a switching input of the controlled switch, the output controlled switch through a narrow-band amplifier is connected to the input line of the inverter voltage current, the output of which is the output of the generator.

12. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that the synchronous detector Rosignano contains serially connected differential amplifier, bandpass filter and inverter, as well as a managed switch, toggle input of which is connected to the input and output of the inverter, the input of the synchronous detector are the inputs of the differential amplifier and the control input of the controlled switch, the output - output controlled switch.

13. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that the two-frequency precision current generator contains two frequency divider whose inputs are combined and are driving generator input, and outputs through a capacitance of 10... 20 pF respectively connected to the working electrodes and reference electrodes.

14. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that the amplifying channel multi-channel amplifier bioelectric brain activity contains serially connected differential amplifier, a noninverting input connected to the input connection of the respective working electrode, and inverting through matching cascade - input for connecting the reference electrode, the amplifier gain DC current equal to one, and increased in the third frequency band, equal to the nominal, and the lowpass filter.

15. The way of measuring subelectrode resistance when registering with the use of differential amplifiers of brain potentials, wherein each working electrode signal from a narrowband power generator with a frequency f1above the upper frequency of the recorded signals ftopand on the reference electrode signal from a narrowband power generator with a frequency f2f1>ftopnarrowband filtering is isolated and measured at the output of each amplifier voltage with frequency f1and f2- Uf1and Uf2while subelectrode resistance of each working electrode is determined by the formula Zj=Ujf1: (Jf1×Kj), where Zj- subelectrode resistance of the j-th electrode, Ujf1the voltage at the output of the j-th amplifier with frequency f1I , Jf1current narrowband power generator with a frequency f1, Kjthe gain of the j-th amplifier, and the subelectrode resistance of the reference electrode is determined by the formula ZA=Ujf2: (Jf2×Kj), where ZA- subelectrode the resistance of the reference electrode, And, is involved in the j-th amplifier, Ujf2the voltage at the output of the j-th amplifier with frequency fsub> 2I , Jf2current narrowband power generator with a frequency f2.



 

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