# Method for measuring linear displacement of object and device for realization of said method

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method and device with forming of even-signal basic line are based on direct measurements method different from zero, error signal is recorded having linear dependence from displacement value, which in turn depends on all measuring distances only from normal error signal with constant proportionality coefficient. This is achieved due to mounting of bright elongated lighting system before input pupils and also photo-detecting system with square receiver of square diaphragms of different sizes, realization of recording of distribution of radiation level in focus plane of receiver system and normalizing error signal to basic level.

EFFECT: higher precision and sensitivity.

2 cl, 3 dwg

The invention relates to measurement devices, to methods and devices controlling the linear displacement of the object and can be used for a wide range of scientific and technical tasks, such as measurement of nparalleled and flatness, alignment of the turbine elements, guides, bulky machines and other

When developing control technologies straightness of the rails of metal-working machines, of mutual arrangement of the bearing supports the shaft lines, alignment of the position of body parts, etc. are used the precise methods of optical diagnostics. Current methods and devices, which are based on the principle of “zero method”, make a significant error in the measurement results make it difficult to automate the process of monitoring, complicated in operation and maintenance.

Known technical solutions control the linear displacement of the object based on the formation of ravesignal baseline. For example, the method for measuring the linear displacement of the object / see A.S. USSR, No. 1312384, IPC G 01 21/00, prior. 03.01.86./, including the formation of ravesignal baseline formation on a position-sensitive receiver distribution oblojennosti, converting the light signal into an electrical emitting differential signal, the compensation signal R is soglasovanija (drive zero) by the baseline shift and the definition of it offset value object.

A device that implements the described method /see A.S. USSR, No. 1312384, IPC G 01 21/00, prior. 03.01.86/includes intended for placement on the object of the control element in the form of a lens / mirror reflector, the receiving system placed along the beam by a lens, beam splitter and the photodetector, the signal processing unit emitting a differential and drive with the Registrar. Reflected from the offset of the object stream is directed to the photodetector, the signal of which is fed to the signal processing unit, where the signal transfer control plane-parallel plate for the implementation of the zero method.

Significant disadvantages of this group of inventions is not high enough precision when working in a large range of working distances, caused by instability ravesignal zone, the need for compensation differential signal, a large variation in sensitivity within the measurement range.

Known technical solutions based on the principle of creating runecasting zone. For example, we have chosen as a prototype method for measuring the linear displacement of the object (see U.S. Pat. The Russian Federation, No. 2155321, IPC G 01 21/00, prior. 25.01.99/, including the formation of runecasting baseline imaging light marks on position-sensitive is zemnoi system, the formation of the distribution oblojennosti in the image light brands for different distances within the measured range, converting the light signal into electrical, check the error signal, its compensation and the determination of the offset value.

A device that implements this method (see U.S. Pat. The Russian Federation, No. 2155321, IPC G 01 21/00, prior. 25.01.99/includes intended for placement on the object revearse extended illuminator mounted on the optical axis of the instrument with the ability to move in planes perpendicular to it, the receiving system placed along the beam by a lens, beam splitter, near the focal plane of the lens the two separating elements with mutually perpendicular dividing faces and installed in pairs with each separation element four independent receivers whose outputs are connected to the signal processing unit emitting differential, and drive with the Registrar.

This group of inventions has a number of disadvantages, which include:

- variable sensitivity when changing the distance, which reduces the accuracy of measurements;

- use the “zero method” in this group of solutions requires compensation differential signal due to baseline shift (or light brand otnositel the baseline), technical implementation which reduces the accuracy of measurements;

- the absence of direct measurements makes it difficult to automate the process of monitoring, makes the solution more complex, expensive, including in the operation.

We proposed the Method for measuring the linear displacement of the object and the device for its implementation” based on the direct method of measurement other than “zero”, have high accuracy and sensitivity of measurements, simple in operation and service, allow you to automate the measurement process.

This technical result obtained when

in the method of measuring the linear displacement of the object, including the formation of runecasting baseline, the formation of a distribution of oblojennosti in the image long rewearch light brands for different distances within the measured range, converting the light signal into an electrical measuring of basic signal allocation and registration of the error signal, determining an offset value, the new is the fact that the distribution of oblojennosti from each distance form similar to the form in the form of a square, with an area of constant oblojennosti in the center of the image light of the brand and its decline to the border of the image light brand is linear, log the error signal having LINENO the dependence on the magnitude offset, normalized signal the error to the underlying signal according to the formula:

U*_{c.p}=U_{c.p.}/U_{b},

where U*_{S.R.}the normalized signal mismatch

U_{c.p}- the error signal,

U_{b}- base signal;

and the amount of displacement l of the controlled object is determined by the normalized value of the error signal according to the formula:

l=k× U*_{c.p.},

where k - the coefficient is constant for all measurement distances within the dynamic range;

in the device for measuring the linear displacement of the object, including intended for placement on a controlled object illuminator, forming long revearse radiation source mounted on the optical axis of the instrument with the ability to move in planes perpendicular to it, the receiving system of the lens and photodetector device with four sensitive areas, the boundaries of which coincide with the coordinate axes OX and the shelter and have a common point, which is the center of the entrance pupil of the lens lying on the optical axis, forming a base line from which is counting measure linear displacements connected to the outputs of sensitive sites block processing the electrical signals for selecting and reception signals of the error, what is new is that in the device in the opt the political axis of the device is additionally equipped with two different square aperture size at the entrance pupil of the illuminator and the entrance pupil of the lens receiving systems
that side "a" and "A" of these squares in pairs oriented parallel to the coordinate axes, which are the measurement of linear displacements, and their difference Δ =(a-a) in absolute value is equal to the dynamic range of the measured displacements, the photo receiving device is made in the form of a quadrature receiver installed in the focal plane of the lens receiving system, a signal processing unit designed in a way that provides registration of the underlying signal incident on the receiver, the calculation of the normalized signals U*_{c.p.x}and U*_{SRU}misalignment of the axes OX and the shelter and the calculation of the displacement of the object relative to the reference line based

l_{x}=k× U*_{c.p.x}and l_{y}=k × U*_{c.p.y},

where l_{x}and l_{y}- offset value respectively along the axes OX and OY;

k is a constant for all distances and in all operating range factor k=A/2 when A>a and k=a/2 when A<.

This decision was made possible after we have been justified theoretically and confirmed experimentally that in the focal plane of the receiving system image formation longest rewearch illuminator with the same relative distribution for all measuring ranges, making it possible to record a signal having a linear dependence on the magnitude of the bias that PTS who once depended for all measuring ranges from only formed of the error signal with a constant coefficient of proportionality k=A/2 when A> a and k=a/2 when A<a (see Annex).

Figure 1 presents a diagram of a device implementing the method for measuring the linear displacement of the object, where the illuminator 1, the controlled object 2, the reception system 3 of the lens 4 and the photodetector 5, a square aperture 6 of the illuminator, a square aperture 7 of the receiving system, the amplifier 8, block 9 processing, the lens 10 of the illuminator;

About the center of the photodetector (common point of the four sensitive areas), O_{1}center of the entrance pupil of the lens, D is the diameter of the exit window of the light source and the direction of the square aperture 6, And the side of the square aperture 7;

OX - horizontal axis;

OY - the vertical axis.

Figure 2 (see Annex) presents the distribution type of oblojennosti on the photodetector when offset by the value of the^{'} _{about}where

I, II, III, IV image light marks on the sensitive areas of the photodetector; V - region of uniform distribution of oblojennosti in the image light brand;

About the center of the photodetector (common point of the four sensitive areas);

a - side of a square aperture 6,

A - side of a square diaphragm 7;

the^{'} _{about}- the offset image of the exit pupil of the illuminator axis OY;

V - the increase for the receiving system.

Figure 3 (see Appendix) shows the effective area of the entrance pupil of the object is and the receiving device
forming irradiance in the plane of the photodetector at a point offset from the axis on values of x^{'}and^{'}where

a - side of a square aperture 6,

A - side of a square diaphragm 7;

S_{eff}- the effective area of the entrance pupil of the receiving system with the sides a_{x}d_{y}forming the irradiance at the point with coordinates Vx' and Vy',

The method of measuring the linear displacement of the object and the device for its implementation are as follows. Revearse extended illuminator (light) 1, sealed with the controlled object 2, directs the radiation beam in the receiving system 3. Approaches to building rewearch extended illuminator known.

The receiver system to establish a baseline measurement lines and build distribution oblojennosti in the image light brand includes lens 4 mounted at the focal plane of the photodetector 5. The optical axis of the instrument passes through a common point On chetyrehyadernogo position sensitive photodetector and the point O_{1}(the center of the entrance pupil of the lens), forming in the measuring space of the base runecasting line against which counting linear displacements light marks in the vertical OY OH and horizontal directions. Installation before illuminator 1 square is iaphragm size 6 and×
and within which is stored revealsthe, provides for all measuring ranges are finite distances) forming lens 4 of the receiving system rewearch long image square shape for the focal plane.

In front of the entrance pupil of the receiving system is also installed square aperture 7 with a side of “A” (≠ a); both diaphragms in pairs oriented, which ensures on the one hand the formation of oblojennosti and in the focal plane with a uniform distribution of a quadratic form in the center of the image, the size of which is equal to |a-a|/V, where V=s/ƒ^{'}- increasing, s - measuring the distance ƒ^{'}- focus lens of the receiving system, and on the other hand, the decline of oblojennosti linearly to the edge of the image.

It is the installation of the receiver in the focal plane, where the image analysis, provides the creation of a distribution oblojennosti similar for the entire range of controlled distances (variable brightness with the same relative distribution).

Set before the eyes of the diaphragm specially chosen with different size parties, while not essential, what more diaphragms. (When installing the diaphragms of equal size in the image there would be a region of finite size uniform about is lucenti.
At this irradiance from the edges of the image would grow up to center, and then symmetrically fell to the opposite edge, not providing a dynamic range of measurement of linear displacements; in this case it is equal to 0, and the system can only work at “zero” method.) Since the sides of a square image is oriented parallel to the boundary quadrant of the receiver, which in turn coincide with the coordinate axes, where is the dimension, then the offset of the luminaire from the baseline increase of light on a pair of sensitive areas and the corresponding decrease in the other pair is linear for the entire measured range of linear displacement equal to |a-a|. Linearity is ensured by a uniform distribution of oblojennosti in the center of the image and the linearity of its fall to the edge (see Annex). Ground receiver generates electrical signals, which after the amplifier 8 are received in the processing unit 9, where the calculated difference signals U_{SRH}U_{SRU}proportional linear displacement along two axes, and the base signal from the four sites. Algorithms for implementing such functions are known.

The received differential signals U_{SRH}and U_{SRU}are normalized to the base. The operation of regulation necessary to provide the same sensitivity for all meter what's distances,
that provides a constant coefficient of proportionality k between the value of the differential signal and the magnitude of the displacements. Approaches to finding the "k" is known. The size of the linear displacement of the test object relative to the baseline, in particular, can be calculated by the formulas:

l_{x}=k× U*_{S.R.}, l_{y}=k× U*_{SRU},

where l_{x}, l_{y}- the linear displacement of the axes OX and shelter;

k is a constant for all distances and in all operating range factor, respectively, k=A/2 when A>a and k=a/2 when A<.

The Appendix contains the calculations, confirming the validity of ratio data.

An example of specific performance

Our company has been built model of the device that implements the claimed method of measuring the linear displacement of the object. The illuminator consists of a hollow sphere with a diameter of 40 mm, with an output window with a diameter of 10 mm Output window determines the size of the longest rewearch light source. The inner surface of the sphere is made with a diffuse-scattering coating (white, globalmodule on OCT-1898-73) with the reflection coefficient of 0.95. Inside the sphere placed 8 led AL 119. The LEDs are connected to the power supply, made in the form of a variable voltage generator on the basis of single-cycle timer type CV. Light source is to supply connected to the network =220, 50 Hz.

To increase the size of the output window before illuminator was installed two lens with focus 50 mm, projecting light source in the plane of analysis. For the lens set square aperture 10× 10 mm

Photodetector made in the form of a cylinder 50 mm in diameter and consists of trelinskogo lens with focus 100 mm, chetyrehyadernogo (quadrant) of the photodetector PD 142, three electronic circuit boards round shape, placed parallel to the plane of the photodetector. On the boards posted by pre-amplifiers, the switch signals and amplifier with programmable gain.

In front of the entrance pupil of the illuminator and lens receiving system installed square aperture size 30× 30 mm

The processing unit of electrical signals constructed using known approaches. It includes pre-amplifiers made on operational amplifiers with low noise level, type EO 284. Information on the amount of signals transmitted sequentially one electronic circuit, which is provided by switching analog signals from the switch type ADG 409. The change of distance is automatically compensated by the gain change of the electronic system. As the amplifier uses a precision amplifier with a variable to what fficient amplification type AD 526. The range of values of the gain 1-256. The selection control channel measurement and installation of necessary factor are programmable from a PC via a parallel port LPT.

Before measurements, the illuminator is mounted on a controlled object aligned and centered relative to the receiving system. When moving the illuminator controlled object (the guide of the machine) is controlled linear displacement in the vertical and horizontal planes on the magnitude of the differential signal.

Tests of a prototype device was produced for a range measuring range from 1 to 10 m, the most popular band (8 m) for the operation of the alignment of the turbines, control guide bulky machines and other Tests showed that under these settings, the device sensitivity to linear displacement as one of the key indicators of accuracy is several tenths of a micron, which is several times higher than the accuracy of modern methods and devices based on them.

At present, our company ends the adjustment of the design documentation on the results of the test layout, and in 2004 at the request of the Government of the Leningrad region it is planned to produce two samples of the device to the needs of industrial enterprises of the Leningrad region.

APPLICATION

CONCLUSION DEPENDENT on THE SECURITY of LINEAR DISPLACEMENTS of the MAGNITUDE of the NORMALIZED DIFFERENTIAL SIGNAL

The lens receiving system forms in the plane of the photodetector unfocused image square shape of the exit pupil of the illuminator with the sides of the square (A+a)/V, where V is the gain for the receiving system, equal to S/ƒ^{'}where S is the measuring distance; ƒ^{'}- the focal length of the lens of the receiving system.

Let the illuminator is shifted from the optical axis OY by the value of y_{o}. In this case, the image of the exit pupil of the illuminator is shifted along the axis OY', the value of y_{about} ^{'}=y_{0}/V (see figure 2), which leads to an increase of the radiant flux on sensitive sites I and II and decreased by the same amount on sensitive sites III and IV.

Therefore, we can write:

where Δ P - value differential of flux between sites I, II and III, IV at the offset of the light source with the optical axis of the receiving system;

The p - value of the radiation flux falling on each site of the receiver, when the illuminator is located on the optical axis of the receiving system;

Δ p_{I}that Δ p_{II}that Δ p_{III}that Δ p_{IV}- the change in flows radiation at each site in the displacement of the image of the light source relative to the center of the receiver to the_{about} ^{'}.

Given the symmetry of the image of the pupil of the illuminator in the plane of the photo is the receiver relative to the coordinate axes, received:

To calculate Δ p find the distribution of oblojennosti in the plane of the photodetector.

The irradiance E in the image of the exit pupil of the illuminator at an arbitrary point in the plane of the photodetector is determined by the formula [1]:

where In - luchistost exit pupil of the illuminator;

τ - the total transmittance;

f^{'}- the focal length of the lens receiving system;

S_{eff}- the effective area of the entrance pupil of the receiving system, forming the irradiance at the point with coordinates x^{'}and y^{'}.

In the present case (square pupils and placement of a sensor in the focal plane of the lens receiving system) effective area S_{eff}is determined by the intersection of two squares, one of which with the party And is the entrance pupil of the lens of the receiving system and the second side and the exit pupil of the illuminator, shifted relative to the first square on the quantities x and y, whereand(see figure 3).

The intersection area of the two squares is a rectangle with sides and_{x}and a_{y}therefore

It is easy to show that ifand
(respectivelyandthe rectangle into a square with sides a_{x}=a_{y}=a and S_{eff}=and^{2}.

Thus, within the image in the plane of the photodetector is formed, the area of a square shape with sides (a-a)/V constant oblojennosti E_{about}equal to:

Let us introduce the notation:

where f(x^{'}; y^{'}) is the normalized distribution function of oblojennosti in the plane of the photodetector.

***From the analysis of figure 3 it is easy to get:

Found the distribution function oblojennosti from the illuminator in the plane of the photodetector allows you to determine the differential and total flows by integrating this function with respect to x^{'}and^{'}.

Consider next the main interest case in a_{o}≤_{}(A-a)/2.

The magnitude of the differential flux at the offset of the luminaire from the optical axis by the value of y_{o}is determined by the formula:

Divide double integral with respect to values and the domain of the function ƒ (x^{'};^{'}):

Integrating, we obtain:

Similarly, we obtain the formula is La total flow from the four sensitive areas of the photodetector:

Energy quantities (flows radiation) Δ R and R are converted by the photodetector into an electrical signal proportional to volt sensitivity photodetectors S_{V}.

Therefore, we can write:

for a differential signal (the error signal)

for the base signal (sum signal with four sensitive areas of the photodetector)

Normalizing the current value of the error signal to the base signal, we obtain:

where U*_{c.p.}the normalized signal of the error.

Where finally we obtain:

Thus, the linear displacement depends for all measuring ranges only from normalized the error signal, the proportionality coefficient k=A/2 is constant for all measuring distances within the dynamic range (y_{about}≤_{}(A-a)/2).

It is easy to show that if A<a relationship is maintained. K=a/2.

The list of used sources

1. Gridin, AS the energy Distribution in the optical ravesignal zone.// WPI. higher education institutions. The instrumentation. 1967, No. 1, p.19-23.

1. The method of measuring the linear displacement of the object, vklyuchayuschimisya runecasting baseline the formation of the distribution oblojennosti in the image long rewearch light brands for different distances within the measured range, converting the light signal into an electrical measuring of basic signal allocation and registration of the error signal, determining an offset value, wherein the distribution of oblojennosti from each distance form similar to the form in the form of a square with an area of constant oblojennosti in the center of the image light of the brand and its decline to the border of the image light brand is linear, log the error signal having a linear dependence on the magnitude of the displacement is normalized signal the error to the underlying signal according to the formula

U^{*} _{S.R.}=U_{S.R.}/U_{b},

where U^{*} _{S.R.}the normalized signal mismatch

U_{c.p.}- the error signal,

U_{b}- base signal;

and the amount of displacement l of the controlled object is determined by the normalized value of the error signal according to the formula

l=k×U^{*} _{c.p.},

where k - the coefficient is constant for all measurement distances within the dynamic range.

2. Device for measuring the linear displacement of the object, including dedicated on which I host on a controlled object illuminator
forming long revearse radiation source mounted on the optical axis of the instrument with the ability to move in planes perpendicular to it, the receiving system of the lens and photodetector device with four sensitive areas, the boundaries of which coincide with the coordinate axes OX and OY and have a common point, which is the center of the entrance pupil of the lens lying on the optical axis, forming a base line from which is counting measure linear displacements connected to the outputs of sensitive sites block processing the electrical signals for the allocation and registration of the error signals, characterized in that the device on the optical axis of the device has two additional square the different size of the aperture at the entrance pupil of the illuminator and the entrance pupil of the lens receiving system so that the sides "a" and "A" of these squares in pairs oriented parallel to the coordinate axes, which are the measurement of linear displacements, and their difference Δ=(a-a) in absolute value is equal to the dynamic range of the measured displacements, photodetector made in the form of a quadrature receiver installed in the focal plane of the lens receiving system, a signal processing unit designed in a way that provides registration of the underlying signal, padajushego is on the receiver,
the calculation of the normalized signals U^{*} _{c.p.x}and U^{*} _{SRU}misalignment of the axes OX and OY and the calculation of the displacement of the object relative to the reference line based

l_{x}=k×U^{*} _{SRH}and l_{y}=k×U^{*} _{SRU},

where l_{x}and l_{y}- offset value, respectively, the axes OX and OY,

k is a constant for all distances and in all operating range factor k=A/2 when A>a and k=a/2 when A<.

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