Binary combined-cycle plant

FIELD: power engineering; developing and updating binary combined-cycle plants.

SUBSTANCE: proposed combined-cycle plant has low-pressure compressor 1, air intercooler 2, high-pressure compressor 3, combustion chamber 4, gas turbine 5, exhaust-heat boiler 6, steam turbine 7, and power generator 8. High- and low-pressure compressor stages are chosen to ensure high-pressure compressor pressure ratio corresponding to that found from formula proceeding from desired total efficiency of combined-cycle plant.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of intercooled binary combined-cycle plant due to optimal proportion of high- and low-pressure compressor stages.

1 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to energy and can be used in the establishment and modernization of combined binary combined cycle plants (CCGT).

Device such PSU, with few exceptions, based on the use of gas turbines operating in simple thermodynamic Brayton cycle, with application to use the heat of the exhaust gases, steam utilization circuits of different complexity (1). The main direction of raising the technical level, i.e. the power density and efficiency PSU such schemes are manifested in the increase of the basic parameters of thermodynamic cycle for the initial temperature before the turbine and pressure, as well as to increase the degree of utilization of heat of exhaust gases due to the complexity of the schemes, increasing the heat transfer surfaces and equipment heat recovery loop.

To the present time (2000-2001) the level of initial temperature in commercially available gas turbines brought to 1415° - (W501G) SIEMENS-Westinghouse, and the degree of pressure increase to 35 (Trent) Rolls-Royce (1).

There are other factors to improve the technical level PSU, associated with a certain complication of thermodynamic cycle of the gas turbine, for example the introduction of the intermediate cooling air when it is compressed in the compressor.

It is known that the use Prohm is filling cooling gives a considerable gain in power density of the gas turbine (power, attributable to the consumption of the working fluid) and simply implemented. However, due to the removal of heat from the cycle, intermediate cooling can affect thermal efficiency PSU as a whole (2). However, the analysis of thermodynamic cycle of the gas turbine with the introduction when air is compressed in the compressor group intermediate cooling shows that under certain conditions this introduction, increasing power density, can not only impair the efficiency of the PSU efficiency, but even some increase. This applies particularly to the PSU, which use a gas turbine, designed with the degree of pressure increase in the cycle, based on the achievement of maximum efficiency, and not on the specific operation.

Well-known binary PSU utilization type (3) with an intermediate cooling, in which the exhaust gas after the gas turbine before a recovery boiler is additional fuel combustion. PSU contains GTU, consisting of compressors, low and high pressure with an intermediate cooler between them, combustion chamber and gas turbine, HRSG and steam turbine.

This PSU technical result is ensured by the fact that part of the feed water in the steam turbine circuit, in excess of its consumption required for the optimal parameters of steam when afterburning, n is Prassede in the cooler GTU, in which it is heated to the boiling point, which then provides a higher power steam turbines.

The disadvantage of this device is that obtained in the cooler low-grade heat used in steam turbine circuit, with a relatively low efficiency, cannot fully compensate for the decline associated with the additional expense of fuel for ignition. The distribution of degrees of compression in the compressor taken on the basis of conditions provide the necessary heating of the air after CLP for heating in the cooler feed water is not lower than the boiling point, does not guarantee the efficiency of the intercooler efficiency, from the point of view of the ratio of the increment of power turbines to need an additional supply of heat in the combustion chamber.

Also known binary PSU (4), containing successively installed compressor low pressure (CLP), an intermediate air cooler, high-pressure compressor (HPC), a combustion chamber, gas turbine high-and low-pressure steam boiler two pressures, steam turbine and condenser. In this scheme through the first as the air is relatively hot section of the cooler, is ignored as deploying reagent low PA is of the heat recovery circuit, returned after heating in the area of the second pressure steam boiler, disposing thus the heat removed at intermediate cooling.

The disadvantage of this scheme is most similar to that proposed, is that the compression ratio and air temperature in KND, and hence the ratio of the degrees of compression of the KND and the ARCS defined by the number of stages of the compressor is determined based on the conditions of optimization by generating a pair of second pressure level of the boiler that can do intermediate cooling in General is not good for the PSU from the point of view of the ratio of the increment of the specific GTPP for the necessary additional amount of heat in the combustion chamber.

The invention solves the problem of improving the efficiency of binary PSU with intermediate cooling unit work by performing optimal speed KND and ARCS.

This problem is solved in the present binary combined-cycle power plant, containing successively installed the low-pressure compressor, an intermediate air cooler, high-pressure compressor, combustor, gas turbine, HRSG and steam turbine, due to the fact that the number of stages of the low-pressure compressor and high pressure compressor is selected such that otnoshenijami in the high-pressure compressor is determined by the expression:

where π *ARCS- the ratio of the pressures in the high-pressure compressor;

k - isoentropic exponent;

ηP- polytropic efficiency of the compressor;

ηPSU- power efficiency combined-cycle plant.

Such a device compressor group and in the whole PSU provides a significant increase in the specific operation without the loss of efficiency from the use of an intermediate cooling.

The drawing shows a structural diagram of the inventive PSU.

Binary combined cycle system includes a compressor 1 low pressure, intercooler 2 air compressor 3 high pressure, the combustion chamber 4, the gas turbine 5, boiler 6, the steam turbine 7, the current generator 8. However, the number of steps of the KND and the ARCS are chosen in order to provide the ratio of the pressures in the ARC equal to the corresponding value calculated using the above formula, based on the projected overall efficiency PSU.

The equal sign in the formula determines the ideal barrier value of the ratio of pressures in the high pressure compressor are necessary to obtain sufficiently significant increase in specific work binary PSU with intermediate cooling. The excess of the accepted relationship of the pressures in the ARC barrier against the established values leads to lower efficiency and the act on the specific work, when minor for the entire cycle PSU a possible increase in efficiency and should be set based only on the necessary compensation allowable hydraulic losses between CLP and ARCS if the assumptions of their essential values. This increase is installed in each case, the result of a detailed calculation of the cycle, taking into account all characteristics of the devices, the separation of the compressor group on KND and ARCS.

The device operates as follows.

The air passing KND 1, is cooled in the intermediate cooler 2, enters the ARC 3 and then into the combustion chamber 4. The products of combustion after combustion chamber 4 is expanded in the gas turbine 5, after serving in the steam boiler 6. The capacity of the gas turbine is removed in the current generator 8 or other device to the consumer of mechanical energy. Generated in the recovery boiler 6 pairs is sent to the steam turbine 7, the power of which, as well as the capacity of the gas turbine is passed to the consumer power.

To confirm the possibility of solving problems with the use of the claimed formula below is an example of a comparative test of the calculation of thermodynamic cycle without intermediate cooling of the air in the compressor and CCGT achieve the same efficiencyPSUwhen GTP same parameters, but with intermediate cooling is m the air. In accordance with the result determined the optimal ratio of compression stages KND and ARCS.

Held the calculation is based on the use of official data on actually existing samples GTE and PSU. The recovered data on the most effective PSU with GTE type LM6000 with the rotation frequency of 50 Hertz company Fiat Avio type SS (1), where: efficiencyPSU=52,8%, power PSU-53800 MW power GTD=39200 MW; the power of the steam turbine 14600 MW. The remaining data on the CCD taken according to the LM6000-PC - developer of this gas turbine General Electric company Industrial Airoderivate Gas Turbines, according to which:

the air flow in the cycle G=127 kg/s;

the ratio of the pressures in the compressor PTo*=29,4;

the initial temperature adopted 1250° C.

In the calculation of thermodynamic cycle using these data are obtained that correspond to them the power of the compressor NTo=68,43 MW, ηhell.=0,854, which corresponds to ηfloor=0,9. The power turbine shaft 107,6 MW. The supply of heat with fuel 97,62 MW. Efficiency of the CCD in the composition PSU=39,17%, with capacity of 39.2 MW.

Then at PSU, at the same flow rate of air through the compressor in the compressor group is introduced intermediate cooling. In accordance with the proposed equation is used to calculate the ratio of the pressures in the ARC necessary to maintain the efficiency of the PSU after the introduction of the intermediate cooling the Oia.

When K=1,4; ηP=0,9; get π *ARCS11 - (this barrier is) without consideration of possible additional losses in the cooler.

Considering the sign in the formula ≥ and preservation, despite the loss at intermediate cooling, the pressure before the turbine is identical with the calculation of the gas turbine type LM6000 when πTo=29,4, in a matching version is made somewhat greater π *To ARCS=12 π *To KND=2,5.

The comparative gas-dynamic test calculation cycles, it follows that when used in the scheme PSU with GTE type LM6000, but with intermediate cooling between CLP and ARCS with the calculated pressure ratios of 2.5× 12 if the pressure in the cooler 2% and the initial thermal temperature prior to ARC, equal to 35° C, the capacity of the compressor group decreased to 58,34 MW (17%), the power of GTU increased to 51.5 MW (31%).

The supply of heat in the cycle increased to 121,4 MW gas-turbine engine efficiency increased to 41.5% (6% relative). Power PSU increased to 65.3 MW (24%). The power of the steam turbine has not changed. The efficiency of the PSU remained at the level of 52.8%.

The calculation with an increased degree of pressure increase in the cell 15 and the corresponding redistribution of pressure in the KND and the ARCS shows a slightly larger increase in the efficiency of the PSU to 53,18. However, the benefits in mo the surface performance while significantly reduced.

Thus, installing a PSU with intermediate cooling KND and ARCS with the number of steps, providing the ratio of the pressures in the compressor is calculated according to the claimed formula, improves the efficiency of binary PSU with intermediate cooling unit.

Sources of information

1. GTW Handbook 1999-2000 Electric Power, Combined Cycle Plant Specification, p.47, 61.

2. J.G.Rice "Thermodynamic Evaluation of gas Turbine Cycles Upon". Energy and machinery. Proceedings of the American society of mechanical engineers. No. 1, 1987, p.8.

3. RF patent №2084644, publ. 20.07.1997.

4. Copyright certificate №1560733, publ. 30.04.90.

Binary combined cycle plant containing successively installed the low-pressure compressor, an intermediate air cooler, high-pressure compressor, combustor, gas turbine, HRSG and steam turbine, characterized in that the number of stages of the low-pressure compressor and high pressure compressor is selected such that the ratio of the pressures in the high-pressure compressor is determined by the expression

where- the ratio of the pressures in the high-pressure compressor;

k - isoentropic exponent;

ηP- polytropic efficiency of the compressor;

ηPSU- power efficiency of the PA is ahatovoy installation.



 

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