Cogeneration system

FIELD: thermal engineering; district heating from heat and power cogeneration systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system has extraction and condensing turbines, their waste steam cooling systems, heat pump units, peak heaters, and heat networks integrated by means of common delivery-water circuit so that common flow of return water is divided into parallel flows, each functioning as low-potential heat flow for heat-pump stations; each of heat-pump units of heat-pump station parallel-connected along delivery water flow affords same water cooling thereby providing for using identical design and thermodynamic cycles of heat-pump units; these thermodynamic cycles include two isobars (heat inlet and outlet) and two polytropes (working medium compression in compressor and expansion in turbine); in addition to recovered waste heat of turbine delivery water is heated by trash burning heat obtained by two alternative ways: for cogeneration power station situated outside the populated area it services incinerating plant heats water discharged from this power station which enables increasing power generated by its turbines, and when cogeneration station is located within populated area it services, water is heated downstream of condensing turbines which enhances power output of the latter.

EFFECT: enhanced competitive strength of district heating cogeneration system.

1 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to a power system, namely the centralized heat supply based on the joint production of electricity and heat on a steam turbine CHP citywide destination.

One of the areas of improvement of district heating is to reduce the temperature of the return water network due to the additional cooling in the evaporator of heat pump units (HPU) [1], which allows to increase the performance of the heating system and reduce unit cost and energy loss of the main heat pipes.

Known heating system, including TPP and TPP [2], which serves as a prototype of the invention. In her feedback network water comes to the number of series-connected on the go water heat pump stations (HPS), which includes several of the University. Chilled, for example, 5-10°evaporators TNU network single stream water enters the cooling system of the spent steam is sequentially enabled during network of water condensing turbines, then distributed on parallel threads according to the number of turbines in the system exhaust steam which doreverse to the design temperature of the water that enters the network heaters turbines. The heated water in them, and in peak mode and additionally heated in the boilers is fed to the consumers of heat. System is hladiny condensation and heating parts of the complex are also conventional drainage system waste heat turbine, which included insufficient heat sink supercooled network water.

This solution, based on the use of the model of the University, working on the reverse Rankine cycle including the evaporator, the working fluid, the compressor, the condenser and the throttle valve, has the following disadvantage. Each of the cascaded THC has a lower return temperature of the water compared with the previous TNS and, consequently, a lower evaporation temperature of the working fluid. This leads to deterioration of thermodynamic and technical-economic indicators of the University and even in the same project teploproizvoditelnosti will lead to different sizes of the University, more complicated and expensive system.

In addition, considered the prototype of the two versions of the accommodation complex - fully and partially outside of the cities serviced underutilized another opportunity to improve the complex, namely, by taking them out of the city of environmentally hazardous waste incineration plants, the heat output which can be used.

The aim of the invention is to improve the economic and environmental competitiveness of the proposed prototype system.

This goal is achieved by the fact that a single reverse net flow of water razdelyaete the parallel threads each of which serves as a source of low grade heat for the heat pump unit heat pump stations so that provided the same cooling water in each of them, for example, from 40-50°and 5-10°With, at the same time to reduce the exergy losses (arising when the heat exchange mediums, one of which (mains water, brine) is variable, and the other (working fluid thermodynamic cycle of the heat pump unit) - constant temperature) and increasing the conversion efficiency of the heat pump unit uses a thermodynamic cycle with variable temperatures of the working fluid, namely, the cycle Joule with two isobare and two polytropes (compression of the working fluid and the compressor and expansion turbine) cycle, the current in the field of superheated steam, in addition to using heat of exhaust steam condensing and extraction turbines for heating supercooled water network uses the heat of combustion, and in the following two versions: for bred outside the serviced city CHP incineration plant heats the water after line heaters turbines that allows you to increase power generation turbines, and saving CHP in the city - after condensing turbines, which will increase their electricity production.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of energokom the Lex. He works as follows. Heated in a network heaters turbines 1 water supply mains 3 is supplied to consumers of heat 4. Reverse network water mains 5 is supplied to a paralleled by the water network TNS 6, each of which (arbitrarily shown for one THC) supplies heat (7 - backup-peak boiler) consumers 8. The cooled evaporators TNS network water enters a uniform flow in the cooling system of the spent steam condensing units 9, then the heating system incinerator 10 and then into the network heaters turbines CHP - for option, placing the plant in the city. When placing CHP outside cities serviced heating system water network 10A is placed after line heaters CHP.

Figure 2 shows thermodynamic cycles of TNU "T-S diagram for: a) commonly used reverse Rankine cycle and b) cycle Joule.

The Rankine cycle includes the processes of: "1-2" compression of the working fluid in the compressor; "2-3-4-5" - exhaust heat to the coolant; "5-6" - throttling the working fluid in the throttle valve and "6-1" - evaporation of the working fluid by the heat of the reverse system water. Cycle Joule includes the processes: "1-2" compression of the working fluid in the compressor; "2-3" - exhaust heat to the coolant; "3-4" extension work is about the body in the turbine and "4-1" - heating the working fluid by the heat of the reverse system water. Since the loop is in the region of superheated steam, the phase transition is absent here. This allows you to bring the line of heating and cooling of the heat carrier and the network of water to the working fluid and thereby significantly reduce the exergy losses in the heat Δf1and Δf2proportional to the space between the lines of the working fluid and the heated and cooled environments compared with the cycle Renna. Together with the replacement of the throttle valve on the turbine, reducing the drive power of the University, this leads to a significantly higher measure its efficiency - the ratio of energy conversion.

Another advantage of the cycle Joule is the ability to completely reverse cooling system water to a predetermined temperature - 5-10°that allows to unify used TNU and TNF. When using a reverse Rankine cycle to get the temperature to an acceptable value of the conversion factor is impossible. To improve it you need to install consistently included (along the network of water) the number of TNS, as proposed in the prototype of the invention, which will lead to a rise in the number of sizes of TNU and TNF.

All of the above applies to the design mode is urban CHP and THC, that is, when they have maximum performance without the inclusion of peak boilers 2 and 7. At peak operation, which takes 15-20% in annual production of heat, the temperature in the flow CHP increased to 130-150°and the temperature of the return water network to 60-70°C. This means that for a given heat output of the heat pump unit inlet temperature in a refrigeration system condensing turbines will increase to 25-30°that is unacceptable. In this case, the cooling system is transferred to operation in the reset mode exhaust heat through the usual system of technical water supply.

Both the use of heat from waste incineration plants allow not only to increase power generation turbines CHP or 9 units, but will contribute to the improvement of the ecological situation in the cities serviced by power, including due to displacement of urban CHP and boilers more perfect heat sources - TNF.

As we talked above about condensing turbines, which are part of both condensation and steam and nuclear power plants, the invention applies to all these types of power plants.

Sources of information

1. Heinrich, Hyarc, Wrestler. Heat pump installation for heating and hot water. M, Stroiizdat 1985, s.

2. Wepresent. Energy complex. RF patent for the invention №2188324.

Energy complex, including district heating and condensing steam turbine, cooling their exhaust steam, heat pump installation, the maximum heaters and heat network, characterized in that the total flow back water network is divided into parallel streams, each of which is a source of low grade heat for heat pump units heat pump stations, carrying out a complete cooling system water up to the minimum temperature (5-10° (C) by using a reverse thermodynamic cycle that includes two Isobar - supply and removal of heat and two polytropic compression of the working fluid in the compressor and the expansion turbine, the complex is used an additional source of heat is placed outside of cities served in the incineration plant, which produces heating network water after it is heated in the cooling system of the spent steam condensing turbines when placing and energy complex in the city and the heating network water network after heaters turbines when wegorowska placement .



 

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FIELD: thermal engineering; district heating from heat and power cogeneration systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system has extraction and condensing turbines, their waste steam cooling systems, heat pump units, peak heaters, and heat networks integrated by means of common delivery-water circuit so that common flow of return water is divided into parallel flows, each functioning as low-potential heat flow for heat-pump stations; each of heat-pump units of heat-pump station parallel-connected along delivery water flow affords same water cooling thereby providing for using identical design and thermodynamic cycles of heat-pump units; these thermodynamic cycles include two isobars (heat inlet and outlet) and two polytropes (working medium compression in compressor and expansion in turbine); in addition to recovered waste heat of turbine delivery water is heated by trash burning heat obtained by two alternative ways: for cogeneration power station situated outside the populated area it services incinerating plant heats water discharged from this power station which enables increasing power generated by its turbines, and when cogeneration station is located within populated area it services, water is heated downstream of condensing turbines which enhances power output of the latter.

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1 dwg

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2 dwg

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2 dwg

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1 dwg

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