Foam forming composition for productive stratum development

FIELD: oil and gas production industry, in particular two-phase foam forming composition for development of productive stratum under abnormal law stratum pressure.

SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains foam forming agent, stabilizer, inhibitor, and processing water. Bone glue in amount of 3-5 mass % is used as foam forming agent, stabilizer and inhibitor, and balance: processing water. Composition of present invention makes it possible to produce foam with increased order, stability, inhibiting and geological properties, low filtration factor, improved holding properties.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of stratum development.

3 ex

 

The invention relates to the oil and gas industry, in particular foaming compositions of two-phase foam opening of productive layers in conditions of abnormally low formation pressure.

Analysis of the existing state of the art showed the following:

a well - known composition for the opening of the reservoir, containing the following components, wt%:

Acetylcellulose (TEV), or

Karboksimetiltselljuloza (CMOAT) 0,2-1,0

The starch of 0.05-3,00

Potassium chloride, or sodium, or calcium 1,0-20,0

Surfactant is 0.1-0.5

Water the rest

(see A.S. USSR №1724671 from 11.05.1989, CL 09 To 7/02, publ. ON No. 13, 1992).

As the surfactant composition contains a sulfonic acid and/or the condensation products of mono - and dialkylphenols, alkyl-polybutylene with ethylene oxide OP-10, and/or by-product of the production of isoprene from isobutylene and formaldehyde T-80, and/or connection of potassium methyl siliconate NGL-10, and/or modified aminopurin ANP-2.

Explore only briefly-active substance acts as a foaming agent, TEV or CMOAT-stabilizer, potassium chloride, or sodium, or calcium - inhibiting reagent.

The disadvantages of this structure is the low efficiency of the opening of productive layers. This is due to the following reasons: formed from specified the second part of a two-phase foam is not sufficiently high foaming ability (multiplicity) and stability.

This is due to the fact that, firstly, when using the components in the specified amounts, namely foaming agent is 0.1-0.5%, and electrolytes - these chlorides to 20%, normally suppressed the process of foaming, secondly, the presence of two polymeric reagents (TEV or CMOAT and starch) contributes to the dilution of the composition so that the resulting foam has no viscous mezhplanetnoi structure, thereby decreasing the strength of the foam film and increases the speed of the expiring fluid, increased capillary pressure in the channels of the Gibbs-Plateau and the diffusion rate in the foam deteriorates foaming and reduced foam stability.

In the process of opening the productive layers often have forced a technical stop. To keep particles drilling cuttings in the annular space of the borehole is in a suspended state, the foam must have certain rheological properties, describing in turn the holding capacity. Low viscosity characteristics of the foam produced from the specified structure does not allow it to provide for the removal and retention of the drilled rock. It is known that good conditions of removal and retention of clay particles breeds productive formations are observed when the plastic viscosity in the range of 6-8 MPa· and a static shear stress (SNA) through 1 mine is 2.5 to 5.0 PA, after 10 minutes of 7.5 to 15.0 PA (see Attainin, Athletico, Basicity. The technology of drilling exploratory wells for oil and gas. M.: Nedra, 2001, s). Insufficient holding capacity due to the low value of the SNA after 1 minute of 1.8 PA, after 10 minutes of 2.4 PA, and passing ability - low plastic viscosity of 2.7 MPa· C. the figures viscosity does not provide treatment of the wellbore, which can lead to zahlamlenyyu trunk. By inhibiting properties of the above composition should have an impact as a commercially available formulation of polymers and potassium chloride, or sodium, or calcium. However, it does not provide an effective inhibition because of the content of these chlorides - electrolytes to 20 wt.%. When the content of polymer electrolytes (TEV or CMOAT) is not able to sagemath water, and stabilization-inhibition clay particles breeds productive layers improves as the polymer saguday aqueous phase. Because the system remains loosely bound water, it is easily filtered into the reservoir and hydrated clay particles of the reservoir, which in turn collateral the reservoir. Low indices of inhibition caused by the fact that the molecules of the electrolyte involved in the formation of adsorption layers of bubbles of the foam, i.e. positive and otricatelniy associated with surface-active substance and CMOAT in building a fragile adsorption layers of bubble foam, but not in cation exchange with clay particles breeds of productive layers. The application of the composition with the use of calcium chloride on the swelling clays and marls at the opening impractical, as confirmed by the practice of drilling. Fine particles of starch, not involved in the process of solvation with water molecules penetrate deeper inside clayey sediments composing the productive formations. This complicates the development of the productive strata and, ultimately, reduces the yield of the well.

As the prototype was taken foamable composition comprising the following components, wt%:

The sulfonic acid 0,01

Carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) 1,0

Calcium chloride 1,0

The calcium hydroxide of 0.2

Technical water the rest

(see Vahanian, Avigen, Npositive. Dissection and exploration of oil and gas reservoirs. M., Nedra, 1980, pp.118, 206).

When the sulfonic acid is a foaming agent, CMC-stabilizer and calcium chloride with calcium hydroxide - inhibiting reagent.

The disadvantage of this structure is the inefficiency of the opening of productive layers. This is due to the following reasons: formed from the specified composition of the two-phase foam is characterized by insufficient high multiplicity and stability.

Structural-mechanical factor in the stabilization of foams, swasana specific hardening of thin films due to the hydration of the adsorption layers, and by increasing the viscosity of mezhplanetnoi liquid.

The stability of the foam is enhanced by the ability of hydration of polar groups of the surfactant, preventing the flow of fluid. Such hydrated molecules contribute to the formation of surface layers, increasing the stability of the bubbles.

The content of anionic surfactants in an amount of 0.01 wt.% in a solution of potassium chloride mixture CMC does not provide high levels of multiplicity, because, first, its molecules are on the surface of the water, moving in all directions, like the gas molecules, and, secondly, hardness salts, as a rule, suppress foaming. The system stabilizer CMC should increase foaming capacity and stability, however, the introduction of CMC in the specified quantity does not increase the foaming and stability, since the optimal action of the reagent is achieved by keeping him in the amount of 0.2 to 0.75 wt.%.

To improve the viscosity characteristics you want to maintain reagent containing a polar organic groups to adsorb at the interface liquid-gas, and which should provide a lower flow rate of liquids and high viscosity of adsorbed layers. This function performs the CMC. However, the presence of lorida calcium and hidroxizina calcium, which several thin CMC, in solution, thereby increasing the value of the rate of filtration, as a consequence, will lead to the infiltration of leachate into the borehole walls. All this, ultimately, will not increase the viscosity mezhplanetnoi fluid and thereby reduces the rheological properties (plastic viscosity, SNA). These low rheological properties, in turn, cause a lack of restraint and external capacity at completion.

In addition, the foam has a low any abscopal properties. Inhibitory reagent in the formulation of the composition represented by compounds of calcium, does not provide a high inhibitory effect on clay particles productive strata, that is not actively in the process of cation exchange between the clay particles of the rocks of the productive formation and the cations of calcium, first, because of the lack of content inhibitory reagent, and secondly, a large part of the ions of the electrolyte goes into the creation of the adsorption layer of bubble foam and only a very small portion is introduced into the crystal lattice of the clay particles.

The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the present invention, is as follows:

improving the efficiency of the opening of productive layers due to the use of the Finance generated from the proposed composition of the foam with high multiplicity, stability, high any abscopal properties, allowing to prevent the swelling of clay particles of rocks of productive strata, low values of the rate of filtration, improved retention and extension capabilities by improving its rheological properties.

The technical result is achieved by using known foamable composition for the opening of productive layers, consisting of a foaming agent, stabilizer, inhibiting reagent and technical water as a foaming agent, stabilizer and inhibitory reagent contains bone glue in the following ratio, wt.%:

Bone glue 3-5

Technical water 95-97

The inventive composition meets the condition of "novelty."

Use bone glue on GOST 2067-93.

Bone glue is a protein product of the processing of the bones and tendons of animals. Amino acid and elemental composition of bone glue close to the collagen.

Elemental composition of bone glue,%:

50-55

N 6,5-7,3

N 15,0-17,6

About a 21.5 to 23.5

S 0,3-2,5

Mass fraction of moisture,% - less than 17

Mass fraction of total fat,% not more than 3.0

Mass fraction of ash,% not more than 3.5.

The most frequent complications in the drilling practice associated with impaired resistance of the rocks composing the walls of the wells.

Analysis of mining geologists of the definition drilling conditions shows in most cases, these complications occur at the opening of argillaceous formation. Clay rock is a mineral rock, having in its composition a certain amount of colloidal particles and the interaction with water, the filtrate of drilling fluids capable of hydrating, dispersion, especially in the fractured (broken), and to changes in the physico-mechanical properties in the array. The behavior of the clay-containing rocks by interaction with water (leachate) is determined primarily by the content of those or other clay minerals. The main factor of instability is the interaction of the clay with water, causing swelling, disintegration in the near-wall zone of the well; refer to accompanying stress state of rock mass around the well, the presence of macro - and microcracks, the presence of high pressure water and gas saturation of the clay.

The main event for the prevention of complications associated with the violation of the steady state species in the process of opening of the reservoir, is the application of process fluids having any abscopal effect against clay particles breeds of productive layers. To reduce the negative impact of the compositions for drilling water OS is ove its reservoir properties at abnormally low formation pressures applied two-phase foam system. Two-phase foam is an aerated aqueous solution of surfactants. Apply foam at the opening of the reservoir must be sufficiently stable. The strength and longevity of the foam depends on the properties of the film frame.

Molecule bone glue on the chemical composition consists of a protein part, lipids (fats), mineral salts and other compounds.

The protein portion of the molecule bone glue is represented by amino acids having acidic (carboxyl) and basic amino groups, which gives the solution of bone glue amphoteric character. For certain values of pH the pH in solutions of bone glue dominated by the dissociation of those or other groups, which gives the molecule bone glue the corresponding charge. The presence of these substances, as well as some organic and inorganic compounds in solution molecules bone glue cause its surface-active properties. Under vigorous stirring bone glue with technical water foaming - formed two-phase foam. Rich foaming (high frequency) due to the surface activity, which is increased due to the growth of the forces of attraction between hydrophobic parts of various substances in solution of bone glue. Surface-active properties coast is wow glue also depend on the composition and properties of amino acids, included in its protein part of the length and resetlenmisti hydrocarbon chain. Amino acids in a protein molecule bone glue are connected to each other ketoiminate (peptide) bonds (-CO-NH-), forming a long chain main valences - polypeptide chains:

where R', R", R"'... - side groups or side chains of the individual amino acid residues.

Peptide bonds are formed by removal of water from the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another. In the solution of the macromolecule bone glue can be considered as rolled into a ball of polymer chain composed of links of different polarity. When the foaming of such a macromolecule unfolds and is located on the interface in mezhplanetnoi fluid. The polar ends of the molecules included in the composition of bone glue, facing outwards in the water part of foam film, forming a chemical bond and intermolecular polar ends of the adjacent cell foam bubbles, and non-polar - inside (aerial part). Additionally, the aerial part of the bubble foam covered with a lipid (fat) film. The formation of the adsorption layer of high-molecular compounds and compounds with different chain length (the products of protein hydrolysis), which also possess surface activity. This is sposobstvuet increase the viscosity and stability of two-phase foam. Among the fats involved in the formation of internal (air) side of the film are triglyceridemia esters of fatty acids. They contain a mixture of fatty acids, of which one prevails over the other. The General formula of a molecule of fat

This leads to the increase in the number of structural shells bubble foam and, as a consequence, leads to an increase in viscosity characteristics, rheological properties (plastic viscosity, SNA), which affect the stability increase and decrease in values of rate of filtration, as well as improving retention and extension abilities that will prevent the penetration of foam into the wellbore. The foam in the well bore forms a chemical bond with the positively charged clay particles productive strata, as her film frame has polar particles of amino acids. It is adsorption is carried on the clay particles, which does not allow them to hydrogenate itself. This happens as follows: adsorbed on the surface of clay particles in the polar ends of the amino acids of the protein part of the molecule bone glue, formed structured durable shell that protects the clay particles from coagulation. From the point of view of the atomic-molecular theory, the interaction of clay particles breeds productive PLA is tov with amino acids in the protein part of the molecule bone glue is complex, the interaction goes on the electronic level, that is, the redox interaction. Positive and negative pairs are contained in the minerals (clay), and amino acids. In addition, the presence of lipids (fats) in the composition of bone glue contributes to a more complete waterproofing and as a result, the degree of inhibition of clay particles breeds of productive layers.

The content in the composition of bone glue in the amount less than 3 wt.%, and technical water - more than 97 wt.% does not ensure the formation of a foam system with the desired properties is worsening.

The content in the composition of bone glue more than 5 wt.%, and service water at less than 95 wt.% impractical because of the significant improvement in the properties does not occur.

Thus, according to the above, to achieve the claimed technical result.

Known for the complex cellular concrete mixture (see A.S. USSR №1719377 from 14.02.1990, CL 04 In 38/02, publ. in ABOUT No. 10, 1992, the combined effect of sulfonic acids and bone glue in it gives the effect of vostokovedenie and stabilize the foam. The purpose of this invention is to increase the degree of the closed porosity of the porous concrete and reduce its thermal conductivity.

According to available sources known not identified the technical solutions, have signs consistent with the distinctive features of the present invention according to the claimed technical result.

The inventive composition meets the condition of "inventive step".

In more detail the essence of the invention is described by the following examples.

In field conditions using foamable composition for the opening of productive layers at well # 100 Severostavropolskoye UGS.

Original data:

The outer diameter of the intermediate columns, m - 0,273

The diameter of the bit, ddm - 0,216

The depth, H, m - 834

The interval of the reservoir, m - 719-803

Pressure PPLMPa - 2,75

The pressure on the mouth, MPa - 0.1 to

Temperature, ° C - 30.

On SLE. 100 North Stavropol UGS to productive horizon drilling was conducted on clay density of 1120 kg/m3. Intermediate column down to the roof of the reservoir.

Further dissection of the productive formation are operating under the column diameter has 0.168 m bits in the interval of the productive horizon.

Before opening the productive formation produce the replacement of wellhead equipment, establish special ground processing equipment for drilling foam systems, and before working to produce opress the internals.

In the discharge line mounting foam preparation with a liquid-gas ejector and is made in the form of a bypass line. Ejector marks EGG 1-C-5,6 used for feeding gas from the compressor high and low pressure.

Block foam preparation includes a bypass line, mounted in the discharge manifold. In the bypass line install two ejector, in which lines with non-return valve serves gas from the compressor before and after the ejector install the valve.

Determine the amount of a foaming composition of Vpicnecessary for the preparation of foams according to the formula

Vpic=2VSLE,

where VSLE- volume wells, m3

(see safety Rules in oil and gas industry. M. 1998).

Therefore, Vpic=2· 30,6=61,2 m3.

Calculate the flow rate of bone glue on 1 m of drilling a well in the following way:

61,2:834=0,073 t/m or 73 kg/m sinking.

Prepare a foamable composition, wt.%:

Bone glue 3

Technical water 97.

The density of this composition Rpic=1030 kg/m3.

For the preparation of 78.6 m3foaming composition it is necessary to have two 40-cube containers and each container 918 kg bone glue dissolved in 29682 kg technical water.

The magnitude of the downhole well pressure P Zabof the conditions for the creation of repression on the layer is determined as follows:

PZab=2,75· 1,10=3,025 MPa,

where 1,10 - coefficient exceeding the hydrostatic pressure above the formation pressure (see previously mentioned Rules...). This pressure will provide a post foaming composition of Npic:

Determine density foam ρpwell considering its completion by the formula

Determine the degree of aeration of the foam in the well environment to maintain ρpthe specified density by the formula

Determine the desired degree of aeration, reduced to normal conditions. Normal conditions we consider P=0,098 MPa and T=293 K.

where Z0is the coefficient of sverkhlineinoi gas phase of the foam under normal conditions, 1,0;

The Z - factor sverkhlineinoi gas phase of the foam in downhole conditions, 0,9;

T1- downhole temperature, K;

Top- coefficient taking into account the properties of the foam (Kp=0,002-0,005).

Desired flow of gas for foaming is determined from the expression

where Qpicthe fluid flow generated by the pump o-6M 2A, m3/s

Specifications pump: diameter bushings - 160 is m, the filling ratio was 0.9.

Qd1·Qpic=9,31· 0,0253=0,236 m3/s

You must have well two compressors SD 9/101.

Foamable composition pump serves in the discharge line and then into the circulation system.

In the mixing chamber of the ejector gas from the compressor high pressure type SD-9/101. In the ejector mixing takes place foaming of the composition of the gas, the formation of foam, which is then fed through the riser into the well.

After filling the wells foam creates excessive pressure on the mouth of 0.5-0.7 MPa (depending on drilling conditions) and are under trial circulation with the objective of sampling nodes and elements of a land part of a closed circulation system.

Opening of a productive layer foam begin after reaching the optimal combination of process parameters leaching in ground her part.

The leaching parameters are monitored and recorded by the control station by using instrumentation. In the process of opening periodically check the properties of the foamable composition, which must be equal to the following quantities

density, kg/m3- 1030

viscosity, C - 58

yield, cm3/30 min - 3-4

pH 7

Coming out of the wells of foam flow through the exhaust rotary p is Aventura, installed on the wellhead complete with the BOP, enters the treatment unit and destruction of foam.

Example 1 (lab)

To prepare 100 g of a foaming composition to 3 g of bone glue that is 3 wt.%, poured 97 ml of process water, which amounts to 97 wt.%, and leave for complete dissolution to 10 hours, after which the composition is foamed on the mixer "Voronezh".

Foamable composition has the following properties: foam - 4,5, stability foam - 210,3/cm3the plastic viscosity of 6.3 MPa· s, SNA 1 minute to 2.5 PA, after 10 minutes of 7.0 PA, yield - 3.1 cm3for 30 minutes, the maximum swelling properties of the clay sample - 2,08· 10-3cm3/year

Example 2

Prepare 100 g of a foaming composition, g/ wt.%:

Bone glue 4/4

Technical water 96/96.

Conduct all operations as described in example 1.

Foamable composition has the following properties: foam - 3,8, stability foam - 254,0/cm3the plastic viscosity of 7.0 MPa· s, SNA after 1 minute of 3.8 PA, after 10 minutes - 9,0 PA, yield - 2.9 cm3for 30 minutes, the maximum swelling properties of the clay sample - 1,49· 10-3cm3/year

Example 3

Prepare 100 g of a foaming composition, g/ wt.%:

Bone glue 5/5

Technical water 95/95

Conduct all operations as described is example 1.

Foamable composition has the following properties: foam - 4,0, stability foam - 285,7/cm3the plastic viscosity of 7.6 MPa· s, SNA after 1 minute of 4.9 PA, 10 minutes and 11.8 PA, yield - 2.2 cm3for 30 minutes, the maximum swelling properties of the clay sample - 1,38· 10-3cm3/year

Thus, the claimed technical solution meets the condition of “novelty, inventive step and industrial applicability”, that is patentable.

Foamable composition for the opening of productive layers, consisting of a foaming agent, stabilizer, inhibition of reagent water and process water, characterized in that it as a foaming agent, stabilizer and inhibitory reagent contains bone glue in the following ratio, wt.%:

Bone glue 3-5

Technical water 95-97



 

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