Method of obtaining extracts from biological raw material

FIELD: solvent extraction.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises extracting with the use of a liquid extractant in the presence of ferments and separating the phases. The pressure in the extraction mixture is caused to drop repeatedly up to a value at which the extractant boils up and then the pressure is heightened again.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of extracts.

3 ex

 

The invention relates to extraction technology in the system of liquid - solid.

There is a method of extraction of plant material, providing for the mixing of raw materials with a liquid extractant, heating the mixture to a temperature of 40-80°With periodic vacuum extraction of the mixture with a supply of heat to maintain its temperature at 5-15°above the boiling temperature at the pressure of the vacuum and the pressure increases to its original value, followed by the separation of the extract (SU 1286232 A1, 30.01.1987).

The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of selection of raw materials chemically related substances.

Closest to the present invention is a method for the production of extracts from biological raw materials, providing for its extraction liquid extractant in the presence of enzymes and separation of phases (SU 664967, 30.05.1979).

This method allows you to extract chemically related substances, but has a high duration of the technological cycle, and the extracted target product contains a large amount of related substances, that are the products of deep enzymatic lysis by the source of raw materials.

The technical result of the invention is to reduce the duration of the technological cycle and improve the quality of the target product.

This result is achieved by the in the way of production of extracts from biological raw materials, based extraction liquid extractant in the presence of enzymes and separation of the phases, according to the invention, in the process of extraction pressure in the extraction mixture is periodically reset to the value that provides the lash of the extractant, and increase to its original value.

The method is implemented as follows.

Biological raw materials after characteristic for the traditional preparation is mixed with a liquid extractant containing enzymes. In the resulting reaction mixture pressure is periodically reset to the value that provides the lash of the extractant, and increase to the original value corresponding to the vapor pressure of the liquid extractant at a temperature of enzymatic lysis by. After enzymatic lysis by-extraction phases are separated.

Extraction in the presence of enzymes, usually carried out to convert the liquid phase substances associated with structure-forming substances of biological raw materials and/or exclusively located inside the cells and not passing the extract through the cell membrane of the extracted raw materials. The activity of the enzymes used is chosen so as to ensure the destruction of communication extractables with structure-forming substances of the cells treated biological materials and/or ruin their cell membranes. That is, regardless of the type of extracted substances used enzymes provide chemical destruction of the structure of the processed raw materials.

When the pressure relief education each bubble of gas phase in the extraction mixture is accompanied by the creation of a shock wave that destroys the structure of the biological raw materials, which leads to a drop in its diffusion resistance and the development of the surface of the contact phase. Evaporation of the liquid is always associated with absorption of heat, so that after each cycle the pressure changes in the temperature of the reaction mixture a few drops, which leads to the necessity of increasing pressure relief to ensure that boiling of the liquid phase in each subsequent cycle. The supply of heat to the temperature of the reaction mixture, as provided in this first analogue in this case is undesirable because of the possibility of inactivation of enzymes in the contact zone with teplopodvodyaschey surface.

The number of cycles of pressure relief set, as a rule, in the amount of 3-15 per cycle extraction or calculated for maximum efficiency effects of pressure changes on the processed raw materials by known dependencies (Lomachinskiy VA, Highly effective technologies of processing of vegetable raw materials. - M.: Russian technology, 1996, p.54-56).

It should be noted that education is denied enzymes and differential pressure accompanied by the boiling of the extractant, in the processing of biological raw materials have a synergy that is explained by the following. The enzymes destroy the structure of biological materials due to chemical effects on structure-forming substances as diffusion inside the particles of the processed raw materials. That is, the intensification of extraction under their influence due to the addition of enzyme activity, the speed of their diffusion inside the processed raw material. Periodic pressure change with boiling extractant does not affect the activity of enzyme systems, but accelerate their diffusion inside the processed raw materials.

The shock wave accompanying the formation of each bubble of gas phase in the extraction mixture, destroy the cellular structure of raw materials due to the dynamic and fatigue loads. It should be noted that in the proposed method, in the absence of external heat supply particles of solid phase of the processed raw materials are the centers of vaporization, and the bubbles of the gas phase are formed directly on the surface, and the first analog supplying heat, vapour bubbles are formed on teplopodvodyaschey surface at some distance from the particles of the solid phase. Since the action of shock waves accompanying the formation of each bubble of gas phase in the liquid, slabeva is proportional to the square of the distance from the zone of occurrence of the bubble, the specific energy consumption for the destruction of the cell structure in the first analog will always be higher than the proposed method, due to the lower efficiency of energy use of shock waves with a phase transition of the extractant. Effect of enzymes on the structure-forming substances of biological raw materials reduces both dynamic and fatigue strength of cell membranes, which accelerates their destruction under the action of shock waves.

The above processes are not only accelerate the excretion of the target product from the processed raw material, but also increase the uniformity of the impact of enzymes on raw materials, which allows not only to reduce the cycle time of extraction, but also to reduce the probability of deep enzymatic lysis by raw materials. This results in a reduction of the content of related substances in the extract and improve the quality of the target product.

Example 1.

In the production of feed protein hydrolysate heat treated waste processing fish are Fermentas complex of proteolytic enzymes at a neutral pH value and temperature 38°With standard technology for 4 hours and the proposed method for 3 hours at 10 times the pressure relief in the process of enzymatic lysis by. The yield of dry protein hydrolysate according to the proposed method is 4% higher than conventional technology,by reducing the irreversible loss of protein in the deep enzymatic lysis by.

Example 2.

In the production of citrus pectin pomace are Fermentas enzyme preparation isolated from the biomass of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai VKM F-2911 at pH 6.2 and a temperature of 26°With standard technology for 52 hours and the proposed method for 8 hours at 5 times the pressure relief in the process of enzymatic lysis by. The output of pectin on the proposed method is 7% higher than the standard, the content of pectin in the extract of the proposed method is 65%, calculated on dry matter, in the standard way 65%, an average molecular weight of the pectin was on the proposed method 2·105on standard technologies - 1,8·105.

Example 3.

In the production of chitosan and pressed proektirovaniya hexane biomass Mortierella alpina are Fermentas complex of proteolytic enzymes at a neutral pH and a temperature of 40°With standard technology for 4 hours and the proposed method for 40 minutes at 3 times the pressure relief. The same chitosan, the degree of purity of the proposed method was 78%, according to the traditional technology - 65%.

Thus, the proposed method allows to reduce the length of the production cycle due to the intensification of the destruction of the cellular structure of biological raw materials etc the synergistic action of shock waves and enzymes and to improve the quality of the target product by reducing the content of related substances or reduce its deep enzymatic lysis by.

Method for the production of extracts from biological raw materials, providing for its extraction liquid extractant in the presence of enzymes and separation of phases, wherein in the extraction process, the pressure in the extraction mixture is periodically reset to the value that provides the lash of the extractant, and increase to its original value.



 

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FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves using air-dried vegetable raw. Hollow horse-mint (Monarda) raw treated by steam is extracted with vegetable oil in the ratio raw : extract = 1:10 at heating for 5 h on water bath at temperature 60-70oC followed by filtration. Method provides the possibility for year-round manufacturing the hollow horse-mint (Monarda) oily extract eliciting with the high antibacterial and expressed anti-fungal activity.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

1 tbl, 1 ex

The invention relates to the field of extraction

The invention relates to an apparatus and method for reducing residual levels of solvents, in particular remaining after extraction" biomass

The invention relates to the installation and removal of residual solvent, in particular after the "extraction" of biomass

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The invention relates to food industry, in particular to methods of extraction of useful substances from plant material, and can be used in medicine, pharmaceutical and chemical industries

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves using air-dried vegetable raw. Hollow horse-mint (Monarda) raw treated by steam is extracted with vegetable oil in the ratio raw : extract = 1:10 at heating for 5 h on water bath at temperature 60-70oC followed by filtration. Method provides the possibility for year-round manufacturing the hollow horse-mint (Monarda) oily extract eliciting with the high antibacterial and expressed anti-fungal activity.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: solvent extraction.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises extracting with the use of a liquid extractant in the presence of ferments and separating the phases. The pressure in the extraction mixture is caused to drop repeatedly up to a value at which the extractant boils up and then the pressure is heightened again.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of extracts.

3 ex

FIELD: method for production of agents for biological plant protection.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes sequential extraction of biomass of Mortierella nigrescens micromycete with non-polar solvent, water, alkali, water, acid, water, alkali, and water and combining the fist extract with solid residue. As non-polar extractant liquefied gas is used, and at least in the first extraction step pressure in extraction mixture is periodically decompressed to value, providing extractant boiling, and built up again to initial pressure.

EFFECT: decreased energy consumption.

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SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes sequential extraction of biomass of Mortierella dichlotoma micromycete with non-polar solvent, water, alkali, water, acid, water, alkali, and water and combining the fist extract with solid residue. As non-polar extractant liquefied gas is used, and at least in the first extraction step pressure in extraction mixture is periodically decompressed up to value, providing extractant boiling, and built up again to initial pressure.

EFFECT: decreased energy consumption.

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EFFECT: decreased energy consumption.

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EFFECT: decreased energy consumption.

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