Method for preventing omphalitis in calves

FIELD: veterinary science, obstetrics.

SUBSTANCE: one should cut off patient's umbilical cord with special disinfected instrument at the distance of about 10-15 cm against abdominal wall followed by pressing out the blood out of umbilical funiculus to treat its end with alcoholic solution at keeping all veterinary-sanitary principles during calving and purity in calving department, moreover, additionally, during the first 2-4 h of life one should introduce 0.5%-novocaine solution at the dosage of 1 ml/kg body weight with dissolved 300000 U streptomycin into area being 2-3 cm against the end of cross-sectional process of the 3d or the 4th lumbar vertebra towards left knee.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of prophylaxis.

3 ex, 4 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of veterinary medicine, relates to a method of prevention of omphalitis in calves.

The omphalitis (Omphalitis) - inflammation of the umbilical cord. The disease manifests itself in a locally-inflammatory or diffusely metastatic form. Accompanied by the disruption of many metabolic processes in animals, causes abscesses in the liver, peritonitis, inflammation of the joints, and sepsis.

The omphalitis is widely distributed in farms of different ownership. Domestic and foreign researchers noted a high percentage of morbidity of calves with omphalitis: from 20 to 60%. 1, 2.

The known method of prevention of omphalitis in calves, is in compliance with the veterinary and sanitary rules in the maternity ward in the provision of obstetric care. Newborn calves take on fresh dry straw litter, covered with clean burlap or polyethylene film, break off or cut the umbilical cord disinfected scissors at a distance of 10-15 cm from the abdominal wall. From the stump of the umbilical cord squeeze out the remnants of blood and its the end of the handle 5 to 10 percent alcoholic solution of iodine, a one percent solution of potassium permanganate, 3-5% solution of phenol or other similar tool /3, 4, 5/.

However, this method is not efficient as possible in utero, infitsirovanie the calves, the toxicity and toxicity with hypotrophy. However, according to studies, compliance with sanitary and veterinary rules does not give prophylactic effect /6/.

Another disadvantage of this method is that it is not always possible in a timely manner to apply it as often calving occur at night.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the prevention of omphalitis in calves.

The technical result is achieved by using, along with the veterinary-sanitary rules, visceral procaine blockade in composition:

novocaine - 0,5%solution at a dose of 1 ml/kg of body weight,

streptomycin - 300000 units.

Experimental studies have established that 5 hours after visceral (intraperitoneal) injection of 0.5%solution of novocaine at a dose of 1 ml/kg of body weight in the blood of animals increases the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes, causing a flurry of activity factors of nonspecific humoral immunity - bacterial and lisarinna activity of serum. Maximum activity was observed at 6 hours after injection. The factors of nonspecific remain at a high level within 24-72 hours. In addition, visceral introduction of novocaine increases the percentage of gamma-globulin.

The method is as follows.

Calves who, in the first 2-4 hours of life, along with the use of conventional veterinary-sanitary rules, apply visceral procaine blockade. In the middle of the upper third of the right hungry holes clip out the coat and lubricate the skin with tincture of iodine. Into a sterile syringe and Janet trying to warm (38-40° (C) 0.5%solution of novocaine at the rate of 1 ml per 1 kg of animal body weight and dissolved therein 300000 units of streptomycin. 2-3 cm from the end of the transverse process of the 3rd or 4th lumbar vertebra toward your left knee puncture needle abdominal wall, attach the syringe and slowly inject the solution into the abdominal cavity. During correct introduction of the point of penetration of the needle into the cavity feels like a failure, the inclination of the needle in the direction does not cause pain, and the solution flows freely from a syringe. After injection of the solution of the abdominal wall slightly tight around the puncture site and extract the needle and the puncture site smeared with tincture of iodine.

Prevention of omphalitis using the proposed method was carried out at JSC “Rural Zori” (Ramon district of Voronezh region) in 1998 to 250 calves; SEC “Lisky” (Liskinsky district, Voronezh region) in 2002, 365 calves; FSI RFP “Kirov” (Novousmansky the district of Voronezh region) in 2003, 146 calves. The tests showed the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

And the Alize data in the scientific and patent literature revealed no method of prevention of omphalitis to calves using visceral procaine blockade, that meets the criterion of “novelty.”

The invention can be applied for prevention of omphalitis in calves in large livestock complexes, and small farms.

The essence of the method is illustrated by examples.

Example 1. The rationale for the doses.

In agriculture, long troubled by disease omphalitis, picked up the newborn calves, which were divided into three equal groups of 18 animals each. Calves in all groups used the visceral procaine blockade. The calves of the first group of procaine was injected at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg of body weight, the second group at the dose of 1 ml/kg body weight and the third dose of 1.5 ml/kg body weight.

The animals at 15 days were clinical observation, defined body temperature, heart rate and respiratory movements were considered appetite, sucking reflex, the condition of the mucous membranes, truger skin. We registered the time of occurrence of diarrhoea, color, and odor of feces. Conducted palpation of the navel, is determined by its diameter at the beginning and the peak of the disease. Take into account the incidence, course and outcome of disease. The results of the experiment are presented in table 1.

Table 1

The rationale for the dose of novocaine.
IndicatorsGroup t is St
123
The number of calves heads181818
Sick with omphalitis, goals312
The rate of cancer16,75,611,1
Prophylactic efficacy, %83,394,488,9
The time of occurrence of omphalitis, the day5,5±17±06±1,2

As can be seen from table 1, the optimal dose of novocaine for prevention of omphalitis in calves is 1 ml/kg of body weight. By reducing or increasing the dose of novocaine prophylactic efficacy visceral procaine blockade decreases.

Example 2. Rationale for concentration.

In agriculture, long troubled by disease omphalitis, picked up the newborn calves, which were divided into three groups of 18 animals each. Calves in all groups 2-4 hour life applied visceral procaine blockade dose of 1 ml/kg of body weight. Calves first group were injected with 0.25%solution of novocaine, the second is 0.5%, the third - 1%. The results were taken into account by the method described in example 1. The results of the experiment are shown in table 2.

Table 2

Justification for the concentration of novocaine.
IndicatorsGroups of calves
123
The number of calves heads181818
Sick with omphalitis, goals413
The rate of cancer22,25,616,7
Prophylactic efficacy77,894,483,3
The time of occurrence of omphalitis, the day4,8±1,27±05,1±1,3

The results of the experience show that the optimal concentration of novocaine is 0.5%. Change of concentration in the direction of increasing or decreasing the prophylactic effectiveness reduced.

Example 3. The rationale of efficiency.

In agriculture, long troubled by disease omphalitis, formed 2 groups of calves. In the first (experimental) group consisted of 146 calves, the second (control) - 88 calves. Newborn calves of both groups took on a fresh dry straw litter, covered with a clean burlap, cut the umbilical cord disinfected scissors at a distance of 10-15 is m from the abdominal wall. From the stump of the umbilical cord was crushed remains of blood and its end was treated with 10%alcoholic solution of iodine. Calves first group was additionally applied visceral procaine blockade by the claimed method.

For the calves were monitored according to the method described in example 1. The results of the experiment are shown in table 3.

Table 3

The effectiveness of the prevention of omphalitis with the use of known and proposed methods.
IndicatorsGroups of calves
12
The number of animal heads14688
Sick with omphalitis, goals755
The rate of cancer4,862,5
Prophylactic efficacy, %for 95.237,5
The time of occurrence of omphalitis, the day6,3±2,22,6±0,9
The diameter of the umbilical cord early in the disease, cm1,9±0,42,0±0,3
The diameter of the umbilical cord in the midst of illness2,5±0,33,9±0,2
Palo heads (%)03(5,5)

the AK can be seen from example 3, prophylactic efficacy of the proposed method is 95.2 percent, and known to 37.5%. When applying the proposed method ill 4.8% of the calves, the time of occurrence of omphalitis was recorded at 6.3±2,2 day, and when using the known method ill 62.5% of calves 2.6±0.2 days.

The omphalitis in calves of the experimental group was manifested in locally-inflammatory form, at 5.5% of the calves of the control group omphalitis was manifested in diffuse-metastatic form, 94,5% in locally-inflammatory.

On the ninth day in calves of both groups took the blood to determine the parameters of acid-base status. The results are presented in table 4.

Table 4

Indicators of acid-base status in calves 10 days of age when using the inventive and well-known method of prevention of omphalitis.
Groups of calvesPH, edRNO2, millimeters of mercuryStandard bicarbonate (SB), mm/lExcess (BE) mm/lCarbonic acid (H2CO3mm/lThe ratio SB/ H2CO3Buffer base (BB), mm/l
17,31±0,036,5±4,0427,2±1,41+4,53±1,14/td> 1,94±0,1214.4V±1,3846,53±1,4
27,25±0,0272,06±3,524,4±1,15+2,54±1,152,17±0,111,9±0,7244,54±1,2

All calves of both groups acid-base status was characterized as respiratory-metabolic acidosis with partial compensation in calves of the control group and compensation in calves from the experimental group. That is, the acid-base state, homeostasis, or the constancy of the internal environment of the body, which is the absolute prerequisite for a normal life, was within the optimal values in calves from the experimental group, and the calves of the control group were at the lower limit of the norm.

The results of studies carried out in conditions of households, long troubled by the incidence of omphalitis, confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Application of the proposed method ensures the enhancement of nonspecific resistance of the body and allows to significantly improve the efficiency of prevention of omphalitis in calves.

Sources of information taken into account

1. Riihimaki U. Prevention of disease of young cattle/ Lane. finsk. A.N. Stepanova; edited Wpicasa. - M: AG is optomistic, 1986. - 120 S.

2. A.S. Kashin, A.P. Grechkin. Anthropogenic environmental disease of calves (prevention and treatment)// veterinary medicine, 2003, №2. - P.32-41.

3. Mityushin CENTURIES Dyspepsia newborn calves. 2nd ed., Rev. and supplementary): Rosagropromizdat, 1988. - Pp.92.

4. Workshop on obstetrics, gynecology and artificial insemination of farm animals/ Vsserv, Gvilava, I.I. Rodin, Viamichelin. - M.: Agropromizdat, 1988. - 335 S.

5. Veterinary obstetrics, gynecology and bioengineering reproduction/ edited Viamichelin and M. Mirolyubov. - 7th edition, revised and supplementary - M.: Kolos, 2000. - 495 S.

6. Fortieth B.C. To the question of the prenatal toxicity calves// Clinical-biochemical research and treatment of non-infectious diseases of farm animals. Sat. the scientific. works. - Omsk: Publishing house of the Omsk agricultural Institute, 1981, p.16-18.

Method of prevention of omphalitis in calves, including cutting the umbilical cord disinfected instrument at a distance of 10-15 cm from the abdominal wall, squeezing blood from the umbilical cord and the processing of the end of the alcoholic solution with compliance with veterinary-sanitary rules of the hotel and cleanliness in the maternity ward, characterized in that it further in the first 2-4 hours of animal life in the area right hungry holes injected 0.5% solution of novocaine at a dose of 1 ml/kg body weight with dissolved 300000 units is streptomycin.



 

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