Method for controlling of quarantine weeds by the example of dodder parasite

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves spraying with natural brine of natural bischofite mineral at the rate of 25-35 l/hectare before weed flowering phase. Method provides 100% killing of quarantine weeds.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in controlling of quarantine weeds.

1 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the field of plant protection and quarantine objects in technologies of cultivation of fodder, vegetable and technical crops under irrigation and rainfed agriculture.

All agricultural workers that are associated with crop production, should remember what their obliges the state system of quarantine measures, to know the ways of dealing with quarantine weeds and the total eradication of their homes.

Especially persistent weeds, limited common on the territory of the Russian Federation, but is able to spread rapidly and clog fields in new areas, referred to as a quarantine.

Previously known widely used manual method of control measures (Igubal. Control measures and sarasini. - M.: Kolos, 1967. - 88 C.), especially on cultivated crops, such as tobacco, and other.

To judge the correctness of such recommendations of their usefulness, it is important to remember the following: damage dodder is greater, the younger the plant - host to the moment of defeat it. The young plants root isn't developed yet, coming from him in the aboveground part of the nutrients go to his growth and development. Taking them from such plants, the parasite causes a delay in its growth and even death.

To Rob the measures in the early stages of its development, when it is not what was kutala all plant, it is not difficult. If a single plant is already affected by it, they need to weed out, to make off-site and destroy.

If you miss with this work, the growth of infected plants the distance between them and neighbouring plants are not yet affected, will decrease and will create the possibility of switching to them dodder. Gradually the parasite more Opletal plants, the number of infected plants is increasing dramatically. Long before the flowering of Pavelic such arrays are often continuous carpet of plexus dodder, and weeding of infected plants is meaningless. Care for those affected by the cultures in essence is not justified and stops. The yield is drastically reduced, the stock of dodder seeds in arable horizon increases.

The disadvantages of this method include the following: control measures has a positive effect only when it is carried out not by the time of flowering, and in the initial period of the emergence of the parasite on the surface, when they are affected only individual plants; the high cost of manual labor; the need for re-work, as it is difficult to achieve high-quality purification of crops, and scraps dodder instantly settled down on the plants.

Known biological method of dealing with povilkami when using the fungus Alternaria. Spraying Pavelic in the fields Chu about itoi station bast crops diluted culture of this fungus completely destroys the measures (Ollydgb. Fungal parasite dodder, its cultivation and use, 1961).

The disadvantages of this method include: the closed space, the presence of an autoclave, refrigerator, thermostat and specially trained people. The fungus only kills the measures, when on its surface can be sustained (not steaming) water droplets. In dry conditions, spores germinate and lying on the surface sipaviciene stems, absolutely not hurt. Therefore, in the arid conditions of spraying may not give a positive result.

Applicable for control measures also experience double spraying a solution of the juice of Ailanthus (A.glandulosus Desf.) tobacco plants, alfalfa, quinoa, affected by the measures. Dodder on them were killed, while the plants were kept full of vitality.

The disadvantages of this technique include the following: the effectiveness of the use of infusions and decoctions from Ailanthus depends on the type of Ailanthus, age and stage of its development, organs Ailanthus, of which receive the drug, etc.

The closest, effective and economically viable in the current climate is a chemical method of control measures.

In potato crops against dodder and other annual weeds in pre-emergence period of use of the drug by linuron dose of 4-6 kg/ha; in sunflower crops under predose the ing the cultivation paid treflan (2-3 l/ha) or prometryn (1.5-2.5 kg/ha); for sugar and fodder beets in the pre-sowing period contribute pyramid or eptam at a dose of 6 l/ha, and tillim - 4-6 kg/ha (Averianov. Weeds, parasites and their control. - M.: 1977. - 71 S.).

In uncultivated lands against dodder and other weeds, including plant hosts, use the following herbicides: amine salt of 2,4-D (2.5 to 3 kg/ha), esters of 2,4-D (1.0-1.5 kg/ha). For each drug per 1 ha add 10 kg of ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate. This enhances the toxic effect of herbicides and completely kills all the weeds, in addition to cereal, together with the parasite.

Along roadsides, in fields and field margins for the destruction of dodder and infected plants efficient diesel oil at a dose of 300 l/ha, waste mineral oil or kerosene - 400-500 l/ha, reglan 2-4 kg/ha

Chemical means of control measures in forage alfalfa effective mixture of reglan with ammonium nitrate (0.7 to 1.0 kg/ha +40 kg/ha) in poluchenii period on the alfalfa stubble. Seed plots of alfalfa promising herbicide Kerb Mix B at a dose of 4-5 kg/ha, and glifos and roundup at a flow rate of water 400 l/ha (Booklet Volgograd quarantine inspection).

The disadvantages of chemical methods to control is the use of expensive herbicides, machine operators have access to work with the means of protection of plants is, additional anthropogenic (herbicide) load on the biosphere, the possibility of thinning of the sward of perennial grasses, reducing the effectiveness of soil herbicides in the control measures in the conditions of insufficient moisture.

A method of processing of the maize crop in the stage of milky-wax ripeness 25-40% aqueous solution of bischofite in order to accelerate the ripening of grain.

However, the method is not applicable for the destruction of quarantine weeds, including parasite - dodder.

The technical result - the development of a method that provides 100% destruction of quarantine weeds.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of controlling quarantine weeds on the example of a parasite - measures, including treatment with a chemical agent, as the chemicals used natural bischofite brine, and treatment is carried out before flowering weed based 25-35 l/ha in barren lands roadsides, in fields and field margins conduct continuous processing, and agricultural crops on sipaviciene the curtain.

Bischofite is a natural mineral that is mined by underground dissolving the solid salt. On the surface it drains harmegnies brine, the density of which, according to standard indicators standard on bischofite, must conform to 1.32 to 1.34 g/DM3.

In practice, this value is often not correct (for example, 1,25-1,30 g/DM3). In this case, there is a natural bischofite solution called brine.

The treated brine bischofite perennial plants do not fall out of the grass and subsequently grow well and recovering.

This made a lot of bischofite in the crops will serve as mineral dressing macro - and microelements, in bischofite.

Table

The processing efficiency of quarantine weed alleged remedy presented in the table.
The flow of brine, l/haProcessing efficiency dodder brine natural bischofite,%
1582
25100
35100
45100

As shown by these tables, the proposed method can achieve the technical result - 100% death of the weed.

The proposed method is simple and allows the use of readily available, environmentally friendly and cost-effective means.

Method of controlling quarantine weeds on the example of a parasite measures, including its treatment of chemical agent, characterized in that as the chemicals I use the brine natural bischofite, and the treatment is carried out before flowering weed based 25-35 l/ha



 

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