Low-temperature vortex shielded furnace for combustion of solid fuel

FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: furnace comprises front, back , and side shields on the corresponding furnace walls. In its top part, the back shield forms a narrow section which divides the furnace into the bottom and top chambers. Within the bottom chamber, the front wall of the furnace is provided with a slopping fuel supplying device which points downward. The bottom chamber receives nozzles for air blowing. The bottom part of the back shield goes into a hearth shield which has an elevation from the front to the back shield. In the bottom section of the hearth shield between pipes there are interrupted clearances. The ash bin underlies the hearth shield in the zone of the clearances. The nozzles for air blowing are arranged in longitudinal rows in series between the pipes of the front hearth, and back shields and are directed along the hearth and back shields off the frontal shield toward the furnace exit. The nozzles of each longitudinal row are arranged in a single vertical plane. The sides of the furnace in the zone of the boundary between the bottom and top chambers are provided with additional blowing nozzles for the complete combustion.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

3 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to a boiler building and can be used when generating boilers, furnaces burn fuel with large windage, in particular the husks of sunflower seeds, buckwheat, rice (husk), which contains a number of seeds kernels and other vegetable waste.

Known furnace for burning herbs containing the grate with a lower blast under the grill for lifting and burning grass, and the front air for afterburning combustion products and the organization of their upward movement with the further rotation in the horizontal flue [1] is similar. The disadvantages of this analogue can be attributed to the lack of shielding, which limits its operation at low loads in the zashlakovyvaniya grates.

Known closest to the invention by the technical essence and the achieved effect of low-temperature vortex shielded furnace with the front, rear and side screens on the respective walls of the furnace, and the rear screen in the upper part forms the pinches, separating the furnace at the lower and upper chambers, located on the front wall of the furnace within the lower chamber and facing tilted down fuel injection device, and installed in the lower chamber of the air blast nozzle prototype [2]. The disadvantage of this furnace bookmark is included, that furnace, consisting of screen pipes, not gas-tight and has suction cups that adversely affect the formation of the combustion process, requires the installation of windmills, it is not suitable for burning relatively large and homogeneous in its fractional composition of the fuel particles (husk)with large windage in boiler furnaces with low productivity (up to 25 t/h), which in a way impossible to burn the husks to the required values of chemical and mechanical underburning.

Achieved by the invention is the provision of opportunities for burning fuel having a large windage without pretreatment (grinding, crushing) with change in load from 100% to 30% with burnup cores, seeds, elimination of drift surfaces ash when emissions of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere within the normative values.

This result is ensured by the fact that in the low-temperature vortex shielded furnace containing the front, rear and side screens on the respective walls of the furnace, and the rear screen in the upper part forms the pinches, separating the furnace at the lower and upper chambers, located on the front wall of the furnace within the lower chamber and facing tilted down fuel injection device, and installed in the lower chamber of the air blast nozzle, according to the SNO invention the furnace wall is made gas-tight, the rear screen in its lower part continued with the formation of the bottom screen, with the rise from the front to the rear screen, in the lower part of the bottom of the screen between the pipes provided by intermittent gleams under the bottom of the screen in the area of openings placed the ashtray, and the air blast nozzle mounted longitudinal rows in series between the tubes of the front, bottom and rear screens and directed along the bottom and rear screens away from the front of the screen to exit the chamber, and the nozzles of each longitudinal row are arranged in a single vertical plane.

On the side walls of the furnace in the zone boundary between the lower and upper chambers can be fitted with an extra blast nozzles final dissolver aimed horizontally or downwards at an angle to the horizon, increasing in the direction from the rear to the front wall of the furnace.

On the side walls of the lower chambers can be installed vortex ignition of the burner with the direction of twist, which coincides with the direction of the primary air-fuel stream.

Figure 1 as an example, shows a top view of the furnace according to the invention for burning husks; figure 2 - a section a-a figure 1; figure 3 is a section along b-B of figure 1 in the “aligned” option the location of the additional blowing nozzle; figure 4 is a section along B-B in figure 1 embodiment, the location updat the additional blowing nozzle offset; figure 5 is a view In figure 1 (scan) coaxial placement of additional nozzles; 6 - section G-g of figure 5

Low-temperature vortex furnace for burning husk contains front screen 1, the rear screen 2 and side 3 screens on the respective walls of the furnace, and the rear screen 2 in the upper part forms-like 4 (figure 1), separating the furnace at the bottom and top, respectively 5 and 6 cameras. On the front wall of the furnace within the lower chamber 5 is converted tilted down fuel injection device (feeder husk) 7 (1, 2). The furnace wall is made of gas-tight welded together finned tubes 8 (6). Rear screen 2 in its lower part continued with the formation of the bottom screen 9 (Fig 1), with a rise from front 1 2 rear screen. In the lower part of the bottom screen 9 between the tubes is provided by intermittent gleams 10 (figure 5 and 6), in the area which, under the bottom of the screen 9 is placed the ashtray 11 (figure 1). Nozzles 12, 13, 14 blast air installed longitudinal rows in series between the pipes, respectively, the front of the screen 1, the bottom of the screen 9 and the rear of the screen 2 and is directed along the bottom and rear screens away from the front of the screen to exit the chamber, and the nozzles of each longitudinal row are arranged in a single vertical plane. On the side walls of the furnace in the zone boundary between the bottom 5 and ver is it 6 cameras installed additional blowing nozzle 15 final dissolver, which can be directed horizontally or downwards, at an angle α=5-75° to a horizontal plane, increasing in the direction from the rear to the front wall of the furnace. On the side walls of the lower chamber 5 is equipped with a vortex ignition of the burner 16 with the direction of twist, which coincides with the direction of the primary air-fuel stream (figure 1). Each group blast nozzles 12-15 United air duct 17 defined therein a gate valve 18.

The furnace according to the invention operates as follows.

Through vortex ignition burner 16 by means of auxiliary fuel (gas, oil) produce the fuel, and the twist of the ignition vortex burners are produced in the direction coinciding with the direction of the main blast through the nozzle 12, 13, 14. When attaining a certain temperature gases in the lower chamber 5 of the main combustion is gradually fed air through nozzles 12, 13, 14, followed gradually increasing flow of biomass through the feeder 7 and the simultaneous flow of air through the nozzle 15.

Run the furnace as a whole of all-welded gas-tight membrane screens 1, 2, 3, 9 eliminates the suctions air, having a negative impact on the formation of the combustion process. The possibility of filing husk for burning through the feeder 7 without prior preparation prevents neobhodimosti grinding mill. As the husk has a high windage, the size of the camera 5 on the depth and velocity of air in the nozzles 12, 13, 14 and the distance from the bottom of the screen 9 to the nozzle 12 are calculated such that a burning husk moved together with the gases in suspension and burned before entering the chamber 6. The presence of gates 18 at the entrance to the group of nozzles 12, 13, 14, 15 allows you to adjust the combustion process in the adjustment, when the processing load is reduced in order to reduce the air flow through the nozzle 14, and then the nozzle 13, which ensures stable and complete combustion of the husk. The location of the nozzles 12, 13, 14 coaxially supports and stabilizes the swirling motion of the gases, which also contributes to a more complete burning of the husk. As the speed of air flow in the area of the junction of the front of the screen 1 with the bottom of the screen 9 different (along the axis of the nozzle air velocity maximum, and between the nozzles minimum), with a uniform spreading feeder 7 husks width of the oven, it undergoes uneven impact of the blast stream, which leads to the loss of heavy particles, as a rule, seeds with engines under. These particles then fall through the slots 10 cut in the bottom fins of the screen 9, in the ash chamber 11 with the subsequent removal of their blade. Husk containing the kernel of the seeds, with higher density and different composition of combustible materials, moving with minority is her speed, than the rest of the husk, and under the influence of gravitational and centrifugal forces on the rotating separated in the ash chamber 11 through slots 10 in the bottom of the screen 9, or burn to coke, or completely. The final afterburning of unburned particles of husk and coke is performed by feeding air through the nozzle 15 to the direction of blowing horizontally or downwards at an angle αconsistently increasing along the flow of gases in each pair of opposite nozzles to maintain the vortex with the inflow of hot gases, and the return of unburned particles in the combustion zone and the combustion chamber. The location of the nozzles 15 at an angle α to the horizontal plane with a sufficient range of air jets provides the removal of ash deposits on the side screens 3 and bottom screen 9. Connecting nozzles 15 corresponding to an air duct 17 is made so that you can adjust the combustion process when the adjustment angle α. As the burning husk is distant from the site of the filing of the husk with step air flow sequentially through the nozzle 12, 13, 14 and 15, the combustion process is stretched along the length of the torch and in time that defines the relatively low combustion temperature and consequently eliminates the melting and sintering of ash, and also reduces the formation of oxides of nitrogen.

Sources of information

1. YAP is nski patent No. 3058534, 7 F 23 G 7/10, 2000.

2. RF patent №2132016, 6 F 23 C 5/24, 1997.

1. Low-temperature vortex shielded furnace containing the front, rear and side screens on the respective walls of the furnace, and the rear screen in the upper part forms the pinches, separating the furnace at the lower and upper chambers, located on the front wall of the furnace within the lower chamber and facing tilted down fuel injection device, and installed in the lower chamber of the air blast nozzle, characterized in that the combustion of solid fuels with large windage, the furnace wall is made gas-tight, the rear screen in its lower part continued with the formation of the bottom screen, with the rise from the front to the rear screen, the lower part of the bottom of the screen between the pipes provided by intermittent gleams under the bottom of the screen in the area of openings placed the ashtray, and the air blast nozzle mounted longitudinal rows in series between the tubes of the front, bottom and rear screens and directed along the bottom and rear screens away from the front of the screen to exit the chamber, and the nozzles of each longitudinal row are arranged in a single vertical plane, and the side walls of the furnace in the zone boundary between the lower and upper chambers installed additional blowing nozzle of the final dissolver.

2. isotemperatures vortex shielded furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the additional blowing nozzle is directed horizontally.

3. Low-temperature vortex shielded furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the additional blowing nozzle directed downwards at an angle to the horizontal plane, increasing in the direction from the rear to the front wall of the furnace.

4. Low-temperature vortex shielded furnace according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that on the side walls of the lower chamber installed vortex ignition of the burner with the direction of twist, which coincides with the direction of the primary air-fuel stream.



 

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