Nitridenous fertilizer with nematocide and fungicide properties

FIELD: agriculture, in particular plant production.

SUBSTANCE: method of present invention includes utilization of urea hydroperoxide as nitrogenous fertilizer with nematocide and fungicide properties. Fertilizer of present invention also is useful in plant protection against diseases and blasts, such as potato-root eelworm and gall-root eelworm.

EFFECT: increased soil microbiological activity and fertility.

8 tbl, 8 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of crop production, specifically to the use of known compounds peroksigidrat urea (PGM) (peroxocarbonate) CO(NH2)2·H2About2as agrochemical - concentrated azodicarbonamide fertilizers, increase microbial activity and soil fertility, possessing plant growth, nematicidal and antifungal properties.

Mainly as fertilizer use one of the components PGM - urea or complex compounds containing nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, as well as macro - and trace elements (1, 2 - C, 306).

Another component of PGM is hydrogen peroxide, which is widely used because of low cost and environmental friendliness, because the products of its decomposition are water and oxygen.

It has bactericidal, fungicidal, virulicidnam and spores, which are used in the food industry to improve properties of moldy grain, disinfection of nuts, dried fruit and other (3), as well as to obtain on the basis of disinfectants and compositions (4).

There are a large number of chemicals used in agriculture for plant protection (2 - p.113-178). However, most pesticides used in limited quantities due to their negative impacts the implications on the environment, so, for example, to date in the List (2 - p.113-114) no nematicides to fight with the Golden potato cyst nematode in personal backyard farms (LPH).

Azotoluene fertilizer that has both properties of nitrogen fertilizer and nematicidal and fungicidal properties, is not known.

It is known connection peroksigidrat urea (GMP) CO(NH2)2·H2About2that is used as an active substance in the manufacture of a medicinal product hidroponia (5), as well as a main component in the preparation of otbelivanie-disinfectant, disinfectant and other funds.

The drug is a complex chemical compound carbamide (urea) peroxide, technical product contains not less than 64,3% urea, 35,0% hydrogen peroxide and, therefore, 29% of nitrogen and 15.2-18,0% active oxygen.

The purpose of this invention to provide agrochemical, has both properties as a nitrogen fertilizer, and means for protecting plants from pathogens, but also against potato cyst and root-knot nematodes.

This is achieved by applying peroksigidrat urea as atteslander fertilizer with nematicidal and antifungal properties.

Peroksigidrat urea which may be used for the root and/or foliar feeding of plants and used in technological processes of potato cultivation, vegetables (cabbage, cucumber, tomatoes, radish and others), cereals and legumes (barley, wheat, maize, rapeseed, clover, flax, soy, beans, and other), fruit and berry crops, and ornamental and potted plants in horticulture, floriculture, forest and farmlands, including in the processing of seeds, seedlings, cuttings, seedlings, above plants in preparation of planting material.

Known drugs that improve the physical, biological and agronomic indicators of the soil, altering soil pH when applying lime and hypsophobia materials (6), substances of nitrification (7), calcium-oxygen-containing compound - parcellite (8). However, most of them impractical to use in alkaline soils.

The offered product can be used on any, and terms of pH, soil types.

Below is the test data of peroksigidrat urea (9).

The impact of FGM on the biological activity and soil fertility were carried out in temperature-controlled conditions of the laboratory of artificial climate.

Samples of sod-podzolic soil (Moscow region, Odintsovsky district, experienced field vniif, pHsod5,6, humus 2,5%) were processed PGM rate of 2000 kg/ha

Example 1. Soil samples in the amount of 2 kg in triplicate were placed in plastic bags and maintained in accordance with their 2 months in a thermostat at a temperature of 20° C and humidity 60% of the PV. Every 7 days the soil in packages made with distilled water to the desired moisture content (60% of PV), thoroughly mixed, and again was placed in a thermostat at a temperature of 20° C. After 2 months in soil samples, treated and not treated PGM, defined the General level of microbiological activity in soil respiration associated with the absorption of oxygen by the method of Makarov BN. (10) and its nitrogen-fixing activity by the method of Kasparov SV (11). The biological activity of a sample of sod-podzolic soil, treated PGM at a dose of 2000 kg/ha, significantly higher than the control sample of this soil (table. 1)

The reason for the increase in the total biological activity of the treated PGM sod-podzolic soil, obviously, is how the change in the reaction of the soil solution in the neutral side, and the influence of oxygen released from the drug, which favorably affect the activity of soil microflora and, primarily, on the bacterial flora and dynamicity.

Example 2. Processed PGM soil samples were placed in waxed paper cups with a capacity of 600 g of soil and produced sowing the test plants. Experiment was repeated 5 times for each plant species, respectively, in the test and control versions. As the test plants used oats, corn and cucumbers. You shall asiania test plant was carried out in controlled conditions - the humidity in the camera 70%, the duration of the day, 16 hours, night 8 h light day 20 thousand Lux., daytime temperature of 25° With night - 16° C; soil moisture was maintained at 60% of PV by daily watering by weight of each of the vegetation of the vessel with tap water. After 28 days of above-ground mass of the test plants were cut and weighed. About the level of fertility in the prototype soil treated PGM, judged by weight of above-ground organs of test plants in comparison with control variant (without GMP).

The results of changing fertility sod-podzolic soils in the processing of PGM are presented in table 2.

As evidenced by the data, processing of sod-podzolic soil PGM at a dose of 2000 kg/ha positively affects the growth of the studied test plants and increase their biomass by 20-38% in comparison with untreated PGM control.

Nematicidal PGM activity in relation to the Golden potato nematode and influence on the growth and yield of potatoes was determined in laboratory-growing and small-plot field experiments.

Example 3. At 1.0 kg of infested potato cyst nematode soil samples (10 cysts) were placed in pots with a volume of 1.5 l, and then they made a PGM in doses of 50, 100, 200 g/m2. The contents of the vessel were mixed, watered and in 3 days they had planted one club is Yu susceptible potato varieties Romano and nematological grade Santa.

Within 60 days the plants were kept at a temperature of 20-28°and with a periodicity of 7 days watered to maintain 60% of the moisture from the supply air.

Control was infested with nematodes (10 cysts) soil sample with potato varieties Romano.

Experiment was repeated three times.

The results are given in table 3.

Example 4. Within 4 months (may-September 2002) on the plot area of 50 m2the natural focus of potato nematodes source contamination 15 cysts in 1000 cm3(D. Aparima, Ramensky district, Moscow region) was applied PGM in the conditions shown in table 4.

Urea and PGM were distributed evenly over the soil surface and closed up with a shovel to a depth of 10-15 cm Then planted hematotoxicity potato, IKEA. PGM also contributed to the soil in an aqueous solution of 50 and 100 g/m2on shoots of potatoes.

Experiment was repeated three times.

Control was soil without processing the GMP standard - urea in a dose of 50 g/m2. During vegetation at the site was performed complex technical measures recommended for this zone.

The results are given in table 4.

Test results (examples 3, 4), it follows that PGM in all doses, reduces the number of cysts on the roots of plants and in the soil. When making the drug at a dose of 200 g/m2in combination with nematodos icivil variety Santa (PL. 3) completely suppressed the development of infestation in the soil. The drug in doses of 100 and 200 g/m2with susceptible cultivar Romano reduces the formation of new cysts up to 50% compared to control.

The lack of fetotoksicheskoe steps PGM and the increase in the mass of terrestrial plants and yield of potato. Nematicidal PGM activity against root-knot nematodes were installed in the conditions of growing experience in the greenhouse within 90 days.

Example 5. Samples of the contaminated soil with an invasive load 310 eggs and larvae per 100 cm3were placed in pots with a volume of 3.5 kg

Experiment was repeated five times.

The test object was the southern root-knot nematode and cucumber varieties of Reliable breeding NIYAH.

The biological activity of PGM in the consumption rate of 100 g/m2in relation to root-knot nematodes was 44%.

The test results presented in table 5.

The study of antifungal activity of PGM were performed on pure cultures in vitro and on cucumbers affected powdery mildew (Erysiphe cuchoraccarum).

Example 6. PGM were made in the agar of CANECA before pouring into Petri dishes. On the seventh day of the fungal growth was measured by the diameter of their colonies. Repeated three times.

The results are shown in table 6.

Example 7. The impact of FGM on cucumbers affected by mildew, on the background of the beginning of the disease Provo is or in the greenhouse ALO “nazarievo” (Moscow region, Odintsovo R-n).

The drug was tested on an area of 150 m2for each option. Processing of data was performed by spraying plants with freshly prepared working solution until complete wetting of the leaves. The results were determined by the presence of coating the surface of the sheet colonies of the fungus, as well as measurements of colonies on leaves (10 leaves each variant) before and 7 days after spraying with a solution of PGM.

The results are given in table 7.

PGM has fungicidal activity. Concentration of 0.1% relatively weak in vitro.

The effectiveness of PGM when foliar feeding of plants was tested for decorative katanoi cabbage, Echinacea and bedroom colors, etc.

Example 8

Sowing seeds of cabbage conducted 16.04.02 in an unheated greenhouse, the soil was covered with a film, seedlings were sown in the soil 24.05.02. Area account plots - 2 m2. Experiment was repeated three times.

In the experiment used a 0.25% aqueous solution of PGM. Control - water. Processing cabbage was performed three times, watering from a watering can 2 l/m2: 25.06.02, 15.07.02 and 10.08.02.

Agriculture traditional; spent weeding, tilling, hoeing and watering. Cleaning cabbage conducted 25.09.02.

The results are presented in table 8.

Sources of information

1. Great encyclopedic dictionary. “Chemistry”, M., 1998, s.

2. The list of pesticides the pesticides, permitted for use on the territory of the Russian Federation. Supplement to the journal “Protection and quarantine of plants”, No. 6, 2002, s, 306.

3. Chemical encyclopedic dictionary. CH. edit Ilonen. M: Owls. the encyclopedia. 1983 press, p.104.

4. Van, Vpolicy et al. Peroxosulfates in the chamber. SSC research Institute for biological instrumentation. Chernogolovka, 2000, p.45-56.

5. Medmaravis. Medicinal product. M, “Medicine”, part II, p.390.

6. A.A., Karpenko. Application of lime fertilizers. M, Rosselchozizdat, 1972

7. Ngubengcuka. Abstract. dessert. for the Dr. Sci. “Microbiological status of sod-podzolic soil using mineral fertilizers and lime”. M., 1980

8. EN 2159266, CL 09 To 17/06, 20.11.2000,

9. JSC “Sintez” (, Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novgorod region). Monoperoxyphthalate urea. THE 2136-111-25556678-2001.

JSC “Khimprom (, Novocheboksarsk). Peroksigidrat urea technical. THE 6-08-64691277-186-97.

10. Bungalow. Agrochemical methods of soil testing. M. Science. 1975 S-339.

11. SwissProt al. Vestnik Mosk. Univ. Ser. soil science, 1987, No. 2, p.36.

Table 1
The biological activity of sod-podzolic soil, treated PGM at a dose of 2000 kg/ha
A variant of the experience/td> rnalThe soil respiration (oxygen uptake soil, mg/100 g soil)Nitrogen-fixing activity, mg/kg/h
1. Soil treated PGM at a dose of 2000 kg/ha6,2
2. The control soil sample not processed PGM5,6

Table 2
The impact of FGM on the fertility of sod-podzolic soil (FACE, vniif, 2001)
Version of experienceThe mass of the test plants, % of control
 oatscorncucumbers
1. Soil treated PGM at a dose of 2000 kg/ha
2. The control soil sample not processed PGM100100100

Table 3
The impact of FGM on the lives of sposobnosti potato cyst nematodes and plant development
Options experienceThe average number of invasions in 100 cm3soil, piecesThe average number of newly formed cysts, PCsBiometrics growth and development of plants
 cystseggs and larvae the average number of stems per Bush, piecesthe average height of stems, cmthe mass of the aerial part, g
  sourceafter 60 days    
Grade Romano (susceptible)
Control (b/preparation)10340,91122,030,030,7
PGM, 50 g/m210340,6912,040,540,8
PGM, 100 g/m210340,8495,031,644,8
PGM, 200 g/m210340,7533,026,046,8
The variety Santa (stable)
PGM, 100 g/m21034024,541,666,5
PGM, 200 g/m210340,604,0of 40.969,6

Table 4
The effect of doses and methods of application of GMP and urea on the infestation of potato nematodes and development of potato plants (variety of IKEA)
Options experienceThe timing and methods of application of drugsContamination of soil (live eggs and larvae in 100 cm3), PCsBiological efficacy, %Biometrics growth and development of plants
  springin the autumn in stems, piecesplant height, cmyield, t/ha
Control (without treatment) 189090352,22,246,014,8
Urea 50 g/m2120053655,33,465,318,3
PGM 50 g/m2when planting110755155,8the 3.865,019,1
PGM 78 g/m2when planting90326261,0a 3.969,020,3
PGM 100 g/m2when planting192622388,4the 3.871,622,7
PGM 156 g/m2when planting192621590,4a 3.974,024,3
PGM aqueous solution of 50 g/m2on shoots171566461,3a 3.969,020,3
PGM aqueous solution of 100 g/m2on shoots8176392,34,176,022,6

Table 5
Biological efficiency of PGM in the fight with the southern root-knot nematode on cucumbers
Version of experienceDose, g/m2The mass of plants, gInfection, galls/plantBiological efficiency, %
Control (W/handle)-139,4357,6-
PGM100155, 2mm199,044,3
Vidat (standard)5162,0110,869,0

Table 6
The growth of phytopathogenic fungi on nutrient medium with different concentrations of PGM
Phytopathogenic fungiThe diameter of colonies on medium containing different concentrations of PGM, cm
 Control (without drug)0,1 %0,5%1,0%
Fusarium oxysporum5,55,52,10
Botrytis cinerea6,24,31,00
Bipolris sorokiniana 3,12,80,80,5
Table 7
The effectiveness of suppression of powdery mildew of cucumber PGM
The concentration of the aqueous solutionDistribution of colonies of the fungus on the leaf surface, %
 Before processingAfter 7 daysThe condition of the leaf
Control(water)4,222 
0,1%4,38Unchanged
0,5%3,511Weak burns
1,04,19Weak chlorosis and burns
Table 8
Effect of foliar feeding PGM cabbage decorative katanoi
OptionPlant height cm The diameter of leaf rosette, cmStem diameter, cmMass outlet, kg
Control (without treatment)38161,51,26
Solution of the drug, 0,2%74362,51,89

The use of peroksigidrat urea as a nitrogen-oxygen fertilizers with nematocide and antifungal properties.



 

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