Aeroines concentration detector
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: detector can be used in concentration meters as positive and negative aeroiones. Aeroion concentration detector has bias voltage source and receiving probe. Detector additionally has two resistors connected in series, auxiliary electrode and electrometer for measuring output voltage that is proportional to measured concentration of aeroiones. Receiving probe has to be volumetric electrode made of metal grid inside which the auxiliary electrode is located. The latter is isolated from volumetric electrode.
EFFECT: improved functional abilities.
The invention relates to measuring devices and can be used in measuring the concentration of both negative and positive ions, as well as in systems automatically maintain the intensity of artificial ionization of the air.
The opportunity to use the device in vivo can be used for the purposes of geophysical exploration and engineering Geology.
Currently known for a qualitative measure of the concentration of ions . It includes a fan for blowing air through the suction chamber. The contacting of small elements with a relatively large amount of the blown air leads to rapid contamination, especially in conditions of high humidity. Therefore, to conserve and maintain the measurement accuracy at an acceptable level requires systematic cleaning and drying apparatus. Working with outdoors almost bezrezultatno. The latter may fail at the first measurement.
More reliable in this regard are the measures with the receiving probe . At the same time, this device is taken as a prototype, is also not designed to work outdoors. The main reason for this is the presence of conduction between the probe and the earth by air humidity. The resulting leakage current may be much greater than the measured ion current, making the measurements unreliable.
The main technical problem on which the invention is directed, is the creation of a probe concentration of ions with compensation error due to the humidity.
This technical result is achieved in that the sensor concentration of ions containing the source bias voltage and the receiving probe, additionally introduced two series-connected resistors, the auxiliary electrode, the electrometer to measure the output voltage, proportional to the measured concentration of the ions, and the receiving probe consists of a solid electrode made of metal mesh, inside of which is insulated from the support electrode connected with the first of two series-connected resistors, the second of which is grounded, and the source bias voltage has one pole connected to the receiving probe, and the second to the middle connection point of the resistors.
Sensor schematic concentration of ions is shown in the drawing, where indicated:
1 - receiving probe;
2 - auxiliary electrode;
3 - source bias voltage;
4; 5 - resistors;
6 - electrometer;
Rutut2 - equivalent resistance of the leakage caused by the humidity of the air between the receiving probe and the auxiliary electrode and between the receiving probe and the earth.
The principle of the device is as follows: when applying a bias voltage to the receiving probe oppositely charged air ions from the surrounding space closer to him and, in contact with its surface, giving the charge. The latter is compensated by the electric current passing from the source of bias voltage 3 chain: a receiving probe 1, the air, the earth, the resistor 5. Component of the voltage across the resistor 5, the resulting current is a useful signal proportional to the specific concentration of ions. For this circuit the current flows due to the presence of a leak resistance Rut2. The leakage current between the receiving probe 1 and the auxiliary electrode 2 passes through the Rut1 and the resistor R4. It is easy to see that the currents passing through the resistors R4 and R5, are directed towards each other, therefore, the voltage drops at the resistors caused by leakage currents, can be mutually compensated, if the input voltage of the electrometer 6 is the total voltage across the resistors R4 and R5. Full compensation is achieved by adjusting, which is cheese in a closed room with the absolute absence of ions. is this the case, by varying the value of resistor R4, to achieve a zero reading of the electrometer. The effect of the adjustment will be more sustainable if the equality leakage currents, i.e. when Rut1=Rut2. The approximate equality of these values achieve the selection arrangement and geometrical dimensions of the receiving probe 1 and the auxiliary electrode 2.
Changing the polarity of the power source, it is possible to measure the specific concentration of both negative and positive ions. The magnitude of the voltage bias source is in the order of 1.5 kV.
The proposed device is tested experimentally. Experimental layout the receiving probe was performed in the form of triangular prisms, mounted on three legs of insulating material. The side faces are aluminum frame and strained wire mesh and have dimensions of 50×50 see Auxiliary electrode has the shape of a triangular prism with a solid metal sides with dimensions 35×35 see the Resistance of the resistors was 22 Megohms. As an electrometer was used electrometer model 614 company CARD with the value of the input resistance 5×1013Om. Instrument setup was carried out in dense fog conditions by changing the working area of the auxiliary electrode. In a result to regulate the and the value of the output voltage, due to the leakage current decreased from 14 to 0.06 Century Then adjusted the device was tested in a dry place under conditions of artificial ionization of the air. As a control for measuring concentration of ions were used device MAC-01 and as a source of ions - ionizer “Alit-01”. Experimental testing has shown that the error due to humidity in the proposed sensor weakened many times while maintaining the sensitivity on the useful signal at an acceptable level. It is established that for this version of the sensor, the concentration of the ions is determined by the expression:
N is the number of thousands of ions in 1 cm3the investigated volume of air;
And the electrometer readings in volts.
1. The counter ions MAC-01. Manual.
2. Measuring the concentration of negative ions. Patent RU 2077713. (Prototype)
The sensor concentration of ions containing the source bias voltage and the receiving probe, characterized in that the sensor further comprises two series-connected resistors, the auxiliary electrode, the electrometer to measure the output voltage, proportional to the measured concentration of the ions, and the receiving probe consists of a solid is electrod, made of metal mesh, inside of which is insulated from the support electrode connected with the first of two series-connected resistors, the second of which is grounded, and the source bias voltage has one pole connected to the receiving probe, and the second to the middle connection point of the resistors.
FIELD: nondestructive testing.
SUBSTANCE: defectoscope comprises magnetic system and Hall-effect transducer. The magnetic system and Hall-effect transducer are mounted in a pressure-tight housing. The transducers are aligned and spaced by (0.3-0.5)T, where T is the thickness of the wall of the pipe to be tested. The top side of each transducer is a tangent to the plane of the faces of the poles of the magnetic system. The planes of the transducers are parallel to the magnetic force lines in the space between the poles.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: transducer can be used when testing two-phase flows as vapor or drops availability transducer. Transducer have internal and external electrodes separated by dielectric made in form of electro-insulating tube and two seal units for mounting external and internal electrodes inside and outside medium to be measured. Seal unit disposed outside medium to be measured is made in form of cone-shaped bushing which has base to overlap electro-insulating tube. The tube is crimped with sealing bushing along its cone-shaped surface. Both bushings are put onto internal electrode and sealed by means of coupling nut and shank provided with thread.
EFFECT: improved reliability and maintainability of transducer.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises potentiometric measuring in the system with a belt of ion exchange diaphragm, which separates the solutions of electrolyte with equilibrium concentration when the opposite end of the belt of the diaphragm is in contact with the concentrated electrolyte solution, by measuring the potential difference between the standard measuring electrodes, which are in a contact with the diluted and concentrated equilibrium solutions of electrolyte.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring signal at the catalytically active sensor of a gas analyzer connected in the measuring bridge circuit and determining the concentration of methane and/or hydrogen from the value of the output voltage. In the calibration regime, when source voltage provides heating of the sensor up to the temperature of thermocatalytic reaction of methane oxidation, the sensors are affected alternatively by testing hydrogen-air and methane-air gas mixtures, and the calibration coefficients are calculated for hydrogen and methane. In the measuring regime, the sensor is heated by voltage Uh up to the temperature of thermocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen, and Um voltage is then supplied. Before removing the voltages, the Uhmes and Ummes are measured. When the ratio Ummes/Uhmes exceeds the value of gas separation coefficient E, known in advance, the methane concentration is determined from the formula Cmmes = Ummes/Km. When the ratio Ummes/Uhmes is less or equal to the E coefficient, the hydrogen concentration is determined from the formula Chmes = Uhmes/Kh.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption and enhanced accuracy of measuring.
SUBSTANCE: device has non-magnetic body, electronic block, longitudinal and transverse probes with inductive coils, each of which has generator and receiver windings, while transverse probe has no less than three inductive coils, positioned along perimeter of central ferromagnetic core.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method involves incubating antigen in blood serum, the antigen being immobilized on graphite electrode surface. Then the antigen is incubated with metal-labeled protein solution and placed into three-electrode cell where antibodies are determined from metal oxidation reaction data.
EFFECT: high reliability of analysis results; simplified method.
FIELD: aids for gas inspection.
SUBSTANCE: device is based upon principles of operation of ternary electrolytic cells and can be used for measuring gas concentration at industrial areas and gas concentration in liquids. Gas analyzer has ternary electrolytic cell provided with measuring electrode and reference electrode, communication line made in form of coaxial two-enveloped cable and operational amplifier provided with measuring device at its output. Potential output of reference electrode is surrounded with guard electrode made in form of coaxial electro-conducting envelope placed inside external electro-conducting envelope, which is connected with measuring electrode. Central conductor of cable is connected with reference electrode and non-inverting input of operational amplifier. Internal envelope of cable is connected with guard electrode and inverting input of operational amplifier that is coupled with negative feedback. Measuring electrode is connected with zero point of measuring circuit through external screen cable envelope.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of electromotive force of sensor.
FIELD: scanning probe microscopy.
SUBSTANCE: scanning probe microscope has sample holder, first platform, onto which case is mounted, and piezoscanner. Elastic membrane is placed between case and piezoscanner. There is unit for preliminary bringing sample and probe together, as well as housing and probe fixer. The second platform is introduced into the scanner, onto which unit for preliminary bringing sample and probe together. Base and sample holder is put together with cup by means of first hole and the second hole. Second hole is connected with inert gas source. Cup is made of chemically-proof material. Case is made to be air-proof. Locker of the probe is fastened to piezoscanner. Housing is mounted onto cup for interaction with airtight case. Aerostatic plain bearing is formed between housing and airtight case. Sample holder, cup, housing, airtight case, elastic membrane and probe locker form all together closed cavity of electrochemical cell.
EFFECT: simplified exploitation; widened operational abilities.
11 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: analytical methods in fuel industry.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in using detector represented by a set of five piezo-sorption mass sensors modified with fixed phases having different sensitivity and selectivity while responses of sensors are recorded in turns. Identification of product is accomplished using "visual imprints" technique.
EFFECT: achieved rapidity in gasoline identification.
15 dwg, 1 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: non-destructive testing.
SUBSTANCE: calibrated voltages of maximum value corresponding to the maximum variation of one of the physical parameters are applied to the outputs of the coils of the matrix converter. The calibrated voltage is modulated simultaneously by the sum of calibrated voltages of the permissible values. The voltages are applied continuously until the corresponding converter output failure. The time period from the beginning of the voltage apply to the failure is recognized as total service life of the matrix converter to be tested.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.
FIELD: thermal and nuclear power stations; meter calibration in extremely pure water of condensate type and power unit feedwater.
SUBSTANCE: for pH-meter calibration ammonia whose concentration varies by 1.5 - 2 times is dosed in working medium. Electric conductivity and temperature of working-medium H-cationized sample are measured. Measurement results are processed in computer with aid of set of equations characterizing ionic equilibrium in source sample and H-cationized samples. Calculated pH value is compared with measurement results.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability of meter calibration in extremely pure waters.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has housing provided with three cylinders made of a dielectric material. The housing receives the cylinder with a piston.
EFFECT: improved design.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science; evaluating water-physics properties of soils.
SUBSTANCE: porous probe communicating with water-filled tank is driven into soil, cathode is inserted in probe and anode, in soil. Voltage is applied to electrodes from dc power supply and soil moisture potential preventing water transfer from tank to soil is determined by measuring current between them.
EFFECT: reduced single measurement time due to eliminating escape of significant amount of water from measuring instrument.
1 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: servicing steel underground pipe lines; diagnosis of corrosion on pipe lines.
SUBSTANCE: pipe line under test is divided into sections and pit is made at boundaries; then electrical resistance is measured in section and at edge zones of these sections (in pits) by four-electrode scheme. Measured at edge zones are also thickness of pipe wall and its outer diameter. Specific resistance of pipe metal is calculated by these measurements. Electrical resistance of sections is calculated on basis of specific resistance and measured and specified magnitude are compared. Deviation of measured magnitude from specified ones is indicative of corrosion damage on these sections. Current and potential electrodes are located at distance no less than two diameters of pipe for enhancing measurement accuracy.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes compensating variations of voltage sink-source of indicating ion-selective field-effect transistor caused by the deviation of potential of ion-selective diaphragm, measuring temperature of auxiliary electrode, and determining the ion activity from the mathematical model of the physicochemical processes inside the measuring cell. The device has auxiliary electrode and indicating ion-selective field-effect transistor temperature sensor of ion-selective diaphragm, which are submerged into the solution to be investigated, two operation amplifiers, resistor, three current sources, voltage source, commutator, second amplifier, analog-digital converter, control unit, indicator, and additional temperature sensor of the auxiliary electrode.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measuring.
6 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: biology, experimental medicine.
SUBSTANCE: the method deals with filling hermetically sealed, optically transparent by height active capacity of a chamber with suspension of abiotic microobjects prepared upon distilled or bidistilled water and supplying opposite-charge tension of the same power onto two plane-parallel electrodes followed by registering the amplitude of fluctuation in vision field of light microscope's ocular.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of measurement.
1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: methods for flaw detection of pipe-lines, applicable for inspection of pipe-lines in sections predisposed to corrosion cracking under voltage.
SUBSTANCE: after removal of the insulating coating from the pipe surface and before shooting of stress-corrosion defects of the sections of their surface with visible deposits of corrosion products containing siderite are determined loose corrosion products are removed from these sections. Shooting of stress-corrosion defects is carried out by an edgy-current, or magnetic-field, or magnetic eddy-current flaw detector by detection and separation of zones, in which the values of readings of the used flaw detector exceed the mean values of the given flaw detector in the defectless section of the pipe by more than 2.2 times. The point with the maximum value of readings of the used flaw detector is determined for each separate zone, and the section including this point is scraped bright to metal. The depth of the stress-corrosion defect is determined by a repeated registration of the maximum value of readings of the used flaw detector. The values of readings of the used flaw detector noted before scraping are determined in the points of appearance of stress-corrosion cracks, the lesser of them is selected, which is used as a criterion value for restriction of the zone of the pipe surface, the values of readings of the used flaw detector inside which exceed the found criterion value. The length and width of the stress-corrosion defect are determined by projecting of the restricted zone of the pipe surface onto the longitudinal and circular generating lines of the pipe with a subsequent measurement of the dimensions of the obtained projections.
EFFECT: reduced area of the inspected surface of the pipe-lines and scraped defective sections.
FIELD: non-destructive control.
SUBSTANCE: device has plate with aperture and bushing in it of same material. Engagement between plate and bushing forms a surface defect. Aperture in plate may be through or dead-end. Aperture in bushing may be made at angle or in parallel to sample surface.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: non-destructive control technologies.
SUBSTANCE: object is magnetized and relief of magnetic dispersion field by rotation of object table base with object placed on it, between poles of U-shaped magnet, scanning of magnetic field relief is performed by rotation of object table base with samples on it, between poles of magnetization means and two string sets of magnetic-sensitive elements. Conversion of magnetic dispersion field to electric signal is performed and information is read by compensation method due to fact, that axes of sensitivity of magnetic-sensitive elements of upper set and lower set are directed oppositely to each other. Device has magnetization means, magnetic-sensitive converter, reading means, information processing means and defects visualization means, object table with base. Examined object is placed on table base. Table base is mounted with possible rotation between poles of magnetization means and two identical parallel-placed string sets of magnetic-sensitive elements. Each sensitive element of upper set matches sensitive element of lower set, and sensitivity axes thereof are directed oppositely to each other.
EFFECT: higher trustworthiness and reliability of defects identification.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has long line whose end is connected with a sensor which is in a contact with the mixture. The sensor is connected to the circuit of generator which is connected with frequency meter. The sensor is made of a capacitor which is connected to the line through the main inductive coils and to the generator through the two additional coils. The line can be made of coaxial line or shielded two-wire line provided with the capacitive sensor made of cylindrical capacitor or shielded flat capacitor, respectively. The surface of at least one of the wires of the sensor which is in a contact with the mixture can be covered with a dielectric shell.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measuring.
3 cl, 4 dwg