Power probe made on the base of quartz crystal vibrator

FIELD: device providing receiving of information on condition of object's surface.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for inspecting surfaces of objects at tunnel and atomic-power modes of operation in scanning probe microscope. Power probe for scanning probe microscope has quartz crystal vibrator provided with needle fixed at surface of one arm of quartz vibrator due to chemical bond between needle and surface. There are variants of the device where thread-shaped crystals are used as needles and nanotubes. Thread-shaped crystals can be made of carbon, metal, semiconductor and isolator. Needles can be also fixed at external surface of arm of quartz vibrator as well as its edge and side surfaces. Needles can be arranges as in parallel to axis of symmetry of quartz vibrator and in perpendicular to its axis. According to one more variant, needle can be fixed at random angle to axis of plane of one arm of quartz vibrator. In some cases surface of arm of quartz vibrator can used for fixing several needles of different lengths.

EFFECT: improved sensitivity of probe; widened operational capabilities.

12 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to nanotechnology hardware, namely, devices that provide information about the sample surface and the surface modification of samples in tunneling and atomic-force modes in scanning probe microscope (SPM).

Known force probe for a scanning probe microscope, containing elastic beam fixed to the base at one end, and a needle mounted on the free end of the elastic beams [1].

The disadvantages of this device are the following features:

- low sensitivity power probe under conditions of high (atmospheric) pressure;

- a limited set of materials from which is made the power probe. This is mainly silicon, which uses well-developed technology. The use of other materials is reduced to applying them in the form of thin films on silicon needle. However, firstly, the film increase the radius of the tip of the needle, and, secondly, the durability of such films is low. Thus, this drawback severely limits the functionality of the device.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect is a force probe, described in [2]. This power probe consists of a quartz resonator with a needle attached at the free end of one of p is once they have reached the quartz resonator. This device is selected as a prototype of the proposed solution.

The first disadvantage of this device is related to the fact that the bonding in the presence of a covering layer on the needle and the shoulder of the crystal leads to a significant increase in the mass of the shoulder and, consequently, to a decrease in the quality factor (Q), i.e. the loss of sensitivity of the power probe, which is proportional to the value 1/and decrease measurement accuracy.

The second drawback stems from the fact that when the gluing of the needle to the free end of one arm of the quartz resonator poorly recorded its position in space, because surface tension forces during drying of the adhesive in an uncontrolled manner Orient the needle. This may also lead to lowering of measurement accuracy.

The third disadvantage is that the known configuration has limited uses associated with existing fabrication technologies needles, such as chemical etching and mechanical sharpening.

The technical result of the present invention is to increase its sensitivity, as well as in expanding its functionality.

This is achieved by the fact that in the known power probe-based quartz resonator for a scanning probe microscope, containing quartz is esonator with needle, pinned to the plane of one arm of the quartz resonator, at least one needle attached through chemical interaction forces between the tip and the plane.

There are cases in which needles are used filamentary crystals of carbon nanotubes and whiskers of metal, semiconductor and insulator. In addition, the possible consolidation of the needles on the outer surface of the shoulder of the crystal, as well as front and side of his plane. The needle can be positioned parallel to the axis of symmetry of the crystal and perpendicular to its axis.

There is also an option, in which the needle is fixed at an arbitrary angle to the plane of one arm of the quartz resonator. In some cases, it is advisable to mount the plane of one arm of the quartz resonator few needles of different lengths.

Figure 1 shows the power probe-based quartz resonator with a needle, attached to the outer plane of his shoulder perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the crystal.

Figure 2 shows the power probe-based quartz resonator with a needle fixed on the lateral plane of his shoulder perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the crystal.

Figure 3 shows the power probe-based quartz resonator with a needle mounted on the end PLO is the bone of his shoulder perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the crystal.

Figure 4 shows the power probe-based quartz resonator with a needle fixed to the face planes of his shoulder parallel to the axis of symmetry of the crystal.

Figure 5 shows a power probe on the basis of the quartz resonator with a needle, attached to the outer plane of his shoulder parallel to the axis of symmetry of the crystal.

Figure 6 shows the power probe-based quartz resonator with a set of needles mounted on one of his shoulders.

The power transmitter includes a crystal resonator 1 (1) type tuning fork comprising a first shoulder 2 and second arm 3 with metal plates (not shown)connected to pins 4, which are used to measure pietrapiana arising from mechanical deformation of the shoulders of the quartz resonator, and may also be elements of its mounting in the SPM. On one of the shoulders of the quartz resonator is fixed to the needle 5, which is used, for example, carbon filamentary crystal. Carbon filamentary crystal is grown directly on the shoulder of the resonator 1 with the use of electron-stimulated decomposition reaction of hydrocarbons. A method of manufacturing a carbon filamentary crystal is described in detail in [3]. In addition, the power transmitter may include a base 6, which improves the reliability of the fastening pin 4 on the shoulders 2 and 3, and in addition, can be used to consolidate the power of the probe of the SPM.

As the needles can also be used nanotubes, whiskers of metal, semiconductor or insulator (see, for example,, [4, 5, 6]).

The fastening of the needle 7 (figure 2) on the side plane of the shoulder 2, it is expedient to do with the amount of overlap And ensuring reasonable secure the strength. For whiskers, this value can be set to several microns, and for nanotubes is less than one micron.

Pinning needles 8 (figure 3) on the end plane of the shoulder 2 is expedient to carry out symmetrically with respect to the face planes that will simplify the process of its formation, for example, when electrostimulation growth will simplify the process of aiming the electron beam on the area of initial growth. The needle 9 (figure 4), given the above, it is advisable to place on the end plane of the shoulder 2 in the center of his section.

The length of the needle 10 (figure 5), as the length of the needle 9 (figure 4), should be optimized taking into account the fact that the oscillation of such probes occurs in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the needle. In this case, the ratio of the diameter of the needle and its length should be about 1/10 to reduce the influence of inertia of the bent needle on the measurement accuracy.

Figure 6 illustrates the device power probe 1 with multiple needles 11, 12, 13 (in this Kucherena), fixed on the outer plane of one of the shoulders 2 of the quartz resonator 1. Needles 11, 12, 13 are of different length, which is formed by the conditions of growth of whiskers. At a constant growth rate, the length of the filamentary crystal is directly proportional to the time of the technological process of its growth. Therefore, for the manufacture of a longer needle may require longer process, filamentous growth of a crystal.

The proposed device operates as follows. Power probe-based quartz resonator is fixed, for example, for base 6 (Fig 1) in the measuring probe of a scanning probe microscope needle 5 in the direction of the sample and hold measurement of the interaction force between the tip of the needle 5 and the sample surface (see, for example, [7]). The procedure of measuring the field distribution of forces on the sample surface based on the measurement of local forces of interaction between the needle tip and the sample surface during scanning needle to the sample surface. It should also be noted that all described the planes of the needle can be located not only in parallel or perpendicular to them, but at an arbitrary angle (not shown). This is necessary in order to make the study of surfaces of complex shape. Read more about Jeremiah forces (magnetic, electrical, chemical) interaction between the needle tip and the sample surface, see[7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15].

Needle fixed at an angle of 90° to the symmetry axis of the crystal, designed for use in measurement mode when using a normal to the surface oscillations. Needle, mounted parallel to the symmetry axis of the crystal, designed for use in measurement mode when using lateral to the surface of the waves.

Technical and economic efficiency of the device is as follows. The use of needles mounted on one of the shoulders of the quartz resonator due to chemical interaction forces between the tip and the shoulder, substantially decreases the weight of the mount of the needle. Minimizing the mass of the attachment of the needle to the shoulder of the crystal allows an almost marginal q of the crystal, since the sensitivity of the force probe on the basis of the crystal is proportional to the value 1/. Experiments show that the quality of the quartz resonator with minimized mass fixation needles are about ten times more than the quartz resonator with mechanically bonded by needle. Thus, the proposed device has a case what is sensitive is several times larger than the device described in the prototype.

Use as a needle carbon whiskers allows you to obtain the radius of the needle tip in the range of 8-15 nm, which increases the resolution of the device.

Nanotubes have a well-defined radius equal to 10 nm, which is important when carrying out high-precision measurements. In addition, carbon nanotubes have high emission properties that can expand their range of applications in nanotechnology.

Filiform metal crystals have a high thermal and electrical conductivity, which expands the possibility of their use in nanotechnology.

Filiform semiconductor crystals can vary the amount of electrical conductivity depending on external conditions, which allows one probe to perform tunneling and atomic force measurements.

Whiskers of insulators, as a rule, high hardness, which improves accuracy and extends the functionality of the power probe on the basis of the crystal.

Due to the technological features of the procedure of manufacturing the quartz resonator physico-mechanical properties of the various planes of the shoulder of the quartz resonator is different from the point of view of the conditions for technological growth processes on these planes. The most well-prepared are the side is locaste, which is metallized. Therefore, the conditions of growth of whiskers and nanotubes, it is preferable and the adhesion energy on it more than on other planes. Based on these arguments, the value of the adhesion energy is distributed for the needles perpendicular to the axis of the quartz resonator according to figure 2, 1, 3 in descending order of energy of adhesion, respectively. I.e. the best conditions for growth and mounting whiskers and nanotubes implemented in the situation shown in figure 2, which increases the reliability of mounting of the needle and, consequently, to improve the accuracy and resolution of the scanning probe microscope.

However, when growing filamentous crystal 7 on the side plane of the shoulder 2 (2) it is located asymmetrically relative to the shoulder section of the quartz resonator, which in the case of commensurability of mass of the needle and shoulder can cause intense enough torsional oscillations, reducing the resolving power of the microscope. In this case it is preferable to mount the needle in the center of the end plane of one of the shoulders 2 of the crystal (figure 3) or in the center of the outer plane of one of the shoulders 2 of the crystal (figure 1). This avoids spurious torsional vibrations. The same considerations apply to the needles, mounted parallel to the axis of the quartz is about the resonator. So in this case, to avoid spurious torsional vibrations preferred mounting options, as indicated in figure 4 and 5, which improves accuracy and increases the resolution of the scanning probe microscope.

In the measuring process using the power probe-based quartz resonator, an important issue is the position of the needle relative to the test object. In this regard, the options under consideration for the location of the needle on the shoulder of the crystal at different angles relative to the main axis significantly extend the functionality of the device in the study of surfaces with complex topographic relief.

In case of fixing on one of the shoulders of the quartz resonator few needles of different lengths (Ref. 11, 12, 13 figure 6), they are used consistently, as the failure of another needle, which increases the reliability and durability of the power probe-based quartz resonator, and also extends the functionality of the power probe.

Literature.

1. Patent of Russia No. 2 153 731 C1, 2000

2. W.H.J.Rensen and N.F. van Hulst, A.G.T.Ruiter and P.E.West, Atomic steps with huning - fork - based noncontact atomic force microscopy., Applied Physics Letters, Volume 75, No. 11, 13 September 1999.

3. International publication WO 97/37064.

4. Aiyathurai. Mixed crystals. Publishing house "Science", 1983 is.

5. Takahito Ono, Hidetoshi Miyashita and Masayoshi Esashi. Electric-field-enhancend growth of carbon nanotubes for scanning probe microscopy. Nanotechnology 13 (2002) 62-64.

6. N.Grobert, M.Terrones, et.al. Appl.Phys. A 70. 175-183 (2000).

7. The decision to grant the application No. 2001129351 from 18.02.2003.

8. Patent EP 0791802 A1, G 01 B 7/34, 1996

9. Franz J.Giessibi, Atomic resolution on Si(111)-(7×7) by noncontact atomic force microscopy with a force sensor based on a quartz tuning fork., Applied Physics Letters, Volume 76, No. 11, 13 March 2000.

10. A.Michels, F.Meinen, T.Murdfield, et. all., 1 MHz quartz length extension resonator as a probe for scanning near - field acoustic microscopy, Thin Solid Films 264, 1995, 172-175.

11. Philip C.D. Hobbs, David W.Abraham and H.K.Wickramasinghe, Magnetic force microscopy with 25 nm resolution., Appl. Phys. Lett. 55 (22), 27 November 1989.

12. S.F.Alvarado, S.E.Lambert, et. al., Separation of magnetic and topographic effects in force microscopy, J. Appl. Phys. 67 (12), 15 June 1990.

13. Andova microscopy for biology and medicine. Vasyukov and other Sensory systems, vol.12, No. 1, 1998, s-121.

14. Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy in electrochemistry surface. Aigaiou, Uspekhi khimii 64 (8), 1995, s-833.

15. Franz J.Giessibl, High-speed force sensor for force microscopy and profilometry utilizing a quartz tuning fork, Applied Physics Letters, Volume 73, No. 26, 28 December 1998.

1. Power probe-based quartz resonator for a scanning probe microscope, containing quartz resonator with a needle fixed on the plane of one arm of the quartz resonator, characterized in that the needle is fixed due to the strength of the chemical bond between the needle and the plane.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that as the needle is sportsouth filamentous carbon crystal.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that as the needle use the nanotube.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that as the needles used metallic filamentary crystal.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that as the needles used filamentary crystal of semiconductor.

6. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that as the needles used filamentary crystal from the prison.

7. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the needle can be secured to the outer surface of the shoulder of the crystal perpendicular to its symmetry axis.

8. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the needle can be secured to one of the side planes of the shoulder of the crystal perpendicular to its symmetry axis.

9. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the needle can be mounted on the end plane of the shoulder of the crystal perpendicular to its symmetry axis.

10. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the needle can be secured to the outer surface of the shoulder of the crystal parallel to its symmetry axis.

11. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the needle can be mounted on the end plane of the shoulder of the crystal parallel to its symmetry axis.

12. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the needle can be fixed at an arbitrary angle to the flat is STI one of the shoulders of the crystal.

13. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that in the plane of one arm of the quartz resonator is additionally secured several needles of different lengths.



 

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