Electron-beam irradiation method and device (alternatives)

FIELD: electronic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device make use of triangular-wave generator that produces triangular-waveform current signal conveyed to scanning coil for electron beam displacement in first scanning direction Y and rectangular-wave generator that produces rectangular-waveform current pulse arriving at deflection coil for displacing electron beam in second scanning direction X perpendicular to first scanning direction Y. Triangular-waveform current signal produced by triangular-wave generator is modulated to eliminate hysteresis effect in scanning coil. In addition, leading edge of rectangular-waveform current signal is timed at definite offset relative to peaks of triangular-waveform current signal so as to distribute return points on electron beam route in second scanning direction.

EFFECT: affording uniform scanning and eliminating hysteresis problems and heat concentration on diaphragm.

10 cl, 18 dwg

 

The technical field

The present invention relates to a device for electron-beam irradiation used, for example, for treatment of exhaust gases, etc. produced by a thermal power plant, or to the device electron beam irradiation for high current irradiation used to improve the quality of the materials, for example, structuring resins. The present invention particularly relates to a method and apparatus for electron beam irradiation, providing a scanning movement of the electron beam emitted to the atmosphere through the foil aperture for the emission of electrons.

Prior art

Currently, it is believed that the SOx, NOxand other components of the flue gas produced by thermal power plants and similar enterprises, contribute to such global problems as global warming and acid rain, pollution of the atmosphere. Well-known methods desulphurise and denitration provide for the removal of these toxic components SOx, NOxetc. through irradiation of flue gas by electron beam.

1 shows a diagram of the known device the electron beam irradiation used for treatment of flue gas containing a source 10 of a power supply that generates a high voltage constant by which arnosti, the device 11 of the electron beam irradiation, the irradiating flue gas by electron beam, and channel 19, which passes through the flue gas. Channel 19 is located along the window 15 which is covered with foil and serves as the outlet for electron beam emitted from the device 11 electron-beam irradiation. The foil is made in the form of a thin plate made of titanium or similar material. Electron beam that has passed through the window 15, irradiates a molecule of oxygen (O2) and water vapor (H2O)contained in the flue gas. These molecules into radicals IT, and BUT2with high oxidative activity. These radicals oxidize toxic components SOx, NOxetc. with the formation of intermediate products of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Intermediate products react with pre-entered into the stream of gaseous ammonia to form ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, which can be extracted and used as fertilizer. Thus, with the help of this system the processing of exhaust gas can be removed from the flue gas of harmful components, such as SOxand NOxand to extract useful substances such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

The device 11 of the electron beam irradiation contains thermoelectronic generator 12, such as filament, the accelerator tube in which karenia electrons, issued thermoelectronic generator 12, the coil 16 deviations (electromagnet)that, when applying for her current signal of rectangular shape, creates a magnetic field deflecting the electron beam in the transverse direction, and the coil 17 of the scanning electromagnet), which creates a magnetic field acting on the controlled electron beam, causing it to move in the direction of the longitudinal scan. An electron beam generator, an accelerating electrode and a magnetic pole deflection/scanning placed in vacuum tubes 18a and 18b and maintained in a high vacuum of approximately 10-6PA. Feeding electric current to the coil 16 of the deviation and the coil 17 scans, which create a magnetic field, the beam of highly energetic electrons Inuktitut in a certain range of angles in a specific area of the channel 19, the beam is deflected and moves in the direction of the scan.

As described above, such a device electron beam irradiation should emit an electron beam, accelerated in vacuum conditions. In order to achieve high efficiency transmission electron emission of the electron beam, use foil, made in the form of membranes made of pure titanium or titanium alloy to a thickness of several tens of microns, for example 0 μm. The foil is mounted on the end of the vacuum bulb 18a by means of a mounting flange. The box 15 has a large size, such as 3×0.6 meters. To the outer surface of the foil applied pressure of about 1000 kPa, i.e. atmospheric pressure, whereas the internal pressure in the vacuum flask is 10-6PA.

Below is disclosed deflection and scanning of the electron beam.

The generator 22 of the triangular wave generates a current signal of triangular shape (figa) on the coil 17 scanning to move the electron beam in the scanning direction Y (Fig 3). The generator 21 square wave produces a signal current of a rectangular shape (fig.2b), synchronized with the signal current is triangular in shape, the coil 16 of the deviation to move the electron beam in the scanning direction X (Fig 3), perpendicular to the direction Y. When the coils 16 and 17 receives signals current, electron beam, accelerated accelerating tube 13, entering the region of the deflection/scanning traverses a rectangular route. The electron beam passes through the foil 15 of the diaphragm and substance irradiates a target.

The electron beam passes the plot Y1 (3)when the signal current is of rectangular shape between the points in time T1 and T2 has a constant value of +Q, while the current from the generator triangular wave varies from +R to-R. Electron beam is a part of the X1 route is the one when the current signal of triangular shape reaches the peak value P (time T2), the signal current of rectangular form instantly changes its value from +Q to-q. Similarly, the electron beam passes the plot Y2, when the current signal of triangular shape varies from-R to +R between the time points T2 and T3. The electron beam is a part of the X1 route at the time T3 when the signal current is of rectangular form instantly changes its value from-Q to +q.

Figure 4 shows a chart of magnetic hysteresis coil 17 scan. When the coil 17 of the scanning moves the electron beam in the scanning direction, the ratio between the current I and the magnetic flux density In the coil 17 scan shows the hysteresis properties at the point of return in both directions Y, or, with respect to the current in the coil scanning at the point of fracture, when the upward triangular half-wave current is replaced by a descending, or Vice versa. At these points the change in flux density In behind the change of current I, which slows down the scanning movement of the electron beam. Therefore, whenever the peak value (+R or-R) signal current I is triangular in shape fall within the scope of the saturation flux density, the flux density In does not change, although the magnitude of the current I is changed, resulting in a change in the speed of the electron beam in n the Board scanning. Accordingly, the electron beam irradiation becomes non-uniform.

Returning to the hysteresis of I and V, it should be noted that the flux density In no rises or falls in proportion to the rise or fall of current I, but on the contrary, in a short time remains relatively constant. Thus, during this period, the electron beam is stopped. Therefore, the dose in end points of each plot Y route, marked in figure 3 by shading increases, leading to an inhomogeneous distribution.

On figa chart shows the dose distribution of electron irradiation in the Y direction during this time. The chart shows the total dose received during the passage of the electron beam sections Y1 and Y2, which indicates the presence of additional unbalanced load on the foil in irradiating the aperture. This stress leads to abnormal rise in temperature in certain areas of the surface of the foil, which further reduces the lifetime of the foil diaphragm. In addition, the substance is a target on the other side of the foil diaphragm misses homogeneous electron beam.

It was therefore proposed a way to achieve homogeneity of the dose of electron irradiation, which takes into account the hysteresis delay flux density on a downward triangular wave. This method provides about the torching, which includes the stage of the Delta function (overlay shock pulse) near the peak of the triangular wave.

However, the use of a triangular wave with an overlay of the shock pulse to align the dose of electron irradiation is not sufficient to eliminate the heterogeneity of the dose of electron irradiation near both end points of the plot the Y route. The real measurement of the dose distribution of electron irradiation by scanning the electron beam in the directions Y1 and Y2 give the inclined distribution (figv and 5C).

On figa and 6B presents another known method of deflection and scanning of the electron beam. The generator 22 of the triangular wave generates a current signal of triangular shape (figa) to the coil 17 of the scan, causing the electron beam to scan in the longitudinal direction (Y direction) (Fig.7). Simultaneously, the generator 21 square wave produces a signal current trapezoidal shape (pigv) on the coil 16 deflection, causing the electron beam to scan in the transverse direction (the X direction). The current signal of triangular shape (figa) and the signal current trapezoidal shape (pigv) synchronized so that the peaks of the triangular wave coincide with the centers of the a and a’ ascending and descending sections of trapezoidal wave. Accordingly, under the action of coil 16 deflection and coil 17 when animowane electron beam traverses an elongated hexagonal route (Fig.7).

In this case, the electron beam is accelerated in a vacuum flask and deflected to scan the foil diaphragm and to irradiate through the aperture substance-target in the air. However, with the passage of the accelerated electron beam through the foil there is a loss of energy, resulting in heating of the foil. If the beam is concentrated on one area of the foil, then heat allocated to this area can cause tearing of the foil. Therefore, when doing a deflection and scanning of the electron beam it is desirable to maintain a uniform density of heat. Return point a and a’ in an elongated hexagonal route scan correspond to all areas of the scanning in the Y direction at the midpoints of the ascending and descending sections of trapezoidal wave current (pigv). As a result, the points a and a’marked 7 hatching, the electron beam is moved in the X direction, but turns back to the scanning direction Y. Therefore, the movement of the electron beam in these areas stops, creating conditions for the concentration of heat on the foil, which leads to the possibility of a rupture foil.

A brief statement of the substance of the invention

The present invention is a method and device for electron-beam irradiation, allowing uniform scanning and to avoid what roblem hysteresis in the coil scan of the reciprocating scan of the electron beam in the longitudinal direction.

Another objective of the present invention is a method and device for electron-beam irradiation to avoid heat concentration on the diaphragm caused by the electron beam.

The problem is solved by a device for electron-beam irradiation, containing the coil scanning, the triangle wave generator that outputs a current signal of triangular form on the coil scanning to move the electron beam in the first scanning direction, a deflection coil, a square wave generator that outputs a current signal of a rectangular shape on the deflection coil to move the electron beam in the second scanning direction perpendicular to the first scanning direction, and the control unit, the modulating current signal of triangular form, issued by the triangle wave generator in order to eliminate the effects of hysteresis in the coil of the scan.

According to the invention the control unit modulates the signal current is triangular in shape and forms a steep slope on the ascending and descending parts of the wave. In addition, the current signal of triangular form contains a number of breaking points on the ascending and descending waves, which divide the ascending and descending sections of several connected straight line segments.

According to a friend who th aspect of the present invention, a method of electron-beam irradiation, namely, that generate a current signal of triangular shape with the help of the generator of the triangular wave signal voltage of the triangular form on the coil scanning to move the electron beam in the first scanning direction, generate a current signal of rectangular shape with square wave generator, a signal current of a rectangular shape on the deflection coil to move the electron beam in the second scanning direction perpendicular to the first scanning direction, and modulate the current signal of triangular form, issued by the triangle wave generator, using the control unit to eliminate the effects of hysteresis in the coil of the scan.

The current signal of triangular form modulate thus, in order to form steep slopes on the ascending and descending parts of the waves.

The present invention allows to compensate the hysteresis between the electric current and the flux density and, thus, to achieve uniformity of dose in the case of a current signal of triangular shape for scanning the electron beam in the longitudinal direction. Due to the properties of the hysteresis, the flux density does not change with a change in the current near the peak values of the current signal of triangular shape. Providing a more abrupt change in elektricheska the current at these points, you can avoid the hysteresis effect and to achieve almost linear change of flux density. This allows you to maintain a practically constant speed of the scanning movement of the electron beam. The method according to the invention allows to solve the problem of the known devices in which the electron beam is stopped, i.e. the scanning speed is reduced, due to hysteresis in the coil scanning. This makes it possible to achieve a homogeneous distribution of radiation in order to prevent imbalances that are received by the foil.

According to another aspect of the present invention, a method of electron-beam irradiation is that generate a current signal of triangular shape with the help of the generator of the triangular wave signal voltage of the triangular form on the coil scanning to move the electron beam in the first scanning direction, generate a current signal of rectangular shape with square wave generator, a signal current of a rectangular shape on the deflection coil to move the electron beam in the second scanning direction perpendicular to the first direction scan synchronize the front of a current signal of rectangular form with a certain time shift relative to the peak signal current of a triangular shape to distribute point in the gates on the route of the electron beam in the second scanning direction.

When this synchronization signal front power rectangular shape should change from period to period so that the position of the synchronizing square wave relative to the reference position of the front was periodically changed in the following order: coincident with the reference position behind the reference position, ahead of the reference position coincides with the reference position behind the reference position, etc. in Addition, the point of return on the route of the electron beam is shifted in a certain order within approximately half of the scanning range, provide a current signal of rectangular shape.

According to another aspect of the present invention, an apparatus for electron beam irradiation, containing the coil scanning, the triangle wave generator that outputs a current signal of triangular form on the coil scanning to move the electron beam in the first scanning direction, a deflection coil, a square wave generator that outputs a current signal of a rectangular shape on the deflection coil to move the electron beam in the second scanning direction perpendicular to the first scanning direction, and the controller, synchronizing the front of a current signal of rectangular form with a certain time shift relative to the peak signal current of the triangular Fort is s, to allocate the return point on the route of the electron beam in the second scanning direction in a specific order.

This design allows to distribute the positions of the return, which focuses the electron beam, thereby avoiding the concentration of heat on the foil. Thus, the lifetime of the foil is increased, and the loading device by means of cooling of the foil is not required. As a result, the device can be made more compact. In addition, it is possible to irradiate a uniform electron beam substance-target on the other side of the foil to generate a homogeneous reaction involving substances target.

Brief description of drawings

The invention is further explained in the following description with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

Figure 1 depicts the scheme of the known device the electron beam irradiation;

Figa and 2B are diagrams of signals of the current triangular and rectangular shapes, respectively, used in the known device the electron beam irradiation;

Figure 3 - the route of the electron beam in the plane, where shading denote the area of reducing the scanning speed,

4 is a diagram of a hysteresis for the coil scanning

Figa-5S - chart of the dose distribution along the scan provided by well-known device is the your electron beam irradiation,

Figa and 6B is a graph of current signals triangular and trapezoidal forms, respectively, used in the known device the electron beam irradiation;

Fig.7 - the route of the electron beam in the plane in the known device the electron beam irradiation;

Figa and 8B is a graph of current signals triangular and rectangular shapes, respectively, according to the first variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig.9 - the route of the electron beam in the plane according to the first variant embodiment of the invention;

Figure 10 - diagram of the dose distribution along the scanning according to the first variant embodiment of the invention;

Figa and 11B is a graph of current signals triangular and trapezoidal forms, respectively, according to the second variant of implementation of the present invention;

Fig route of the electron beam in the plane according to the second variant embodiment of the invention.

Preferred embodiments of the inventions

The device of the electron beam irradiation according to the first variant implementation described with reference to Fig-10. On figa shows the current signal of triangular form, issued by the triangle wave generator, and figv shows the current signal of a rectangular shape given by the square wave generator.

In the method, according to the image the structure, provided the use of a current signal of rectangular shape, identical to the current signal of the rectangular form shown in figv according to a known method. However, the current signal of triangular form modulate, giving it a steeper slope at the initial point of the ascending and descending sections, as shown in the diagram. For such a modulation signal includes a reference signal generator (control unit)with ROM, built-in generator 22 (1) of the triangular wave. To generate a specific reference signal, the data recorded in the ROM change. To amplify the reference signal to generate a certain way modulated triangular wave using the amplifier.

Synchronization signal front power rectangular shape with a peak current signal of triangular forms of exercise as well as in the known method. Therefore, the route of the electron beam in this embodiment is a rectangle, which is shown in Fig.9. In other words, when the signal current is of rectangular shape changes its value from-Q to +Q at time T1, the electron beam instantly is a part of the X1 route. Then, when the current signal of triangular shape changes its value from +R to-R between the moments T1 and T2, the current signal of rectangular shape retains its value +Q. In this time of electronic pooch who goes to plot Y1 route respectively. At time T2 the current signal of rectangular shape changes its value from +Q to-Q, and electron beam instantly is a part of the x2 route. Then, the current signal of triangular shape changes its value from-P to +P between time points T2 and T3, while the current signal of rectangular shape retains its value-Q. Accordingly, during this time the electron beam passes the plot Y2 route.

According to the described variant implementation, the current signal of triangular form modulate so that it sharply fell in the range from +R to 0, thereby increasing the scanning speed, and more gradually in the range from 0 to-R, reducing the scanning speed. In particular, the zoom function is on the descending and ascending parts of the points a and b of the fracture, connecting straight line segments. The steep segment of the ascending or descending part connects the peak of the R point And followed by a less steep line segment connecting points a and B. the Last line segment joining the point with the following peak P, is the most gentle. With this configuration, the electron beam passes the area most exposed to the effects of hysteresis, for a shorter time, allowing you to achieve a homogeneous dose distribution due to the compensation of these effects.

To specify the degree to which utiny waveform, points a and b of a break first set arbitrarily. The parameters of this form of write signal as a reference signal in ROM. The amplifier amplifies the signal to generate a modulated triangular wave, and then measure the dose distribution. If the distribution is non-uniform, in ROM write the new parameters of the waveform, and the process repeated.

According pig, points a and b of the fracture set in the range between +R and 0, break sloping plot in three pieces. The period of time during which the signal changes from +R to 0, denoted by TC, and the period of time during which the signal changes from 0 to-R, denoted by Td, and TC<Td. The distribution of exposure dose of electron beam scanning in accordance with a current signal of triangular form, (Fig) uniformly in the longitudinal direction Y1 and Y2 (figure 10).

According to the above implementation, the current signal of triangular shape modulated with the formation of connected straight line segments using the two points a and b of the fracture. However, it is obvious that you can set any number of breakpoints. In addition, these points can be connected not rectilinear and curvilinear segments.

In addition, the control unit, the modulating current signal of triangular form, can be converted signal is l, the current is triangular in shape, produced by the generator triangular wave, so that the flux generated by the coil scanning, obey the law almost triangular wave, and thus, the distribution of the electron beam was uniform all the way in the scanning direction Y.

According to the above implementation, the electron beam is deflected and scans, bypassing the rectangular route, and the distribution of the electron beam is uniform all the way in the direction of scanning. Accordingly, reduces damage to the foil, substance-target irradiated by a homogeneous beam.

Now, with reference to 11 and 12, describe the device, electron beam irradiation, corresponding to the second variant of implementation of the present invention. On figa shows the current signal of triangular shape, used for scanning in the Y direction, which is the generator 22 of the triangular wave outputs to the coil 17 of the scan. Used signal identical to the signal depicted in figa, in the known device. According figv, the present invention provides for changing the timing of fronts and troughs of the signal current keystone (rectangular) form supplied to the coil 16 of the variance. For this purpose, the generator 21 of the rectangular wave is supplied with the unit, managing synchronization fronts and SP is Dov signal current trapezoidal shape.

The current signal trapezoidal shaped so that the peaks of the current signal of triangular shape were synchronized with average points of fronts and troughs of the signal current trapezoidal shape. According to the present invention, the fronts and troughs of the signal current trapezoidal shape synchronize with small shifts in time relative to the peak current signal of triangular form.

For scanning in the X direction usually requires that the duration of the fronts and downs trapezoidal wave (pigv) was 50-100 μs. Sequentially varying synchronization of these fronts and downs of the current signal trapezoidal shape, it is possible to consistently distribute the point of change of direction on the elongated hexagonal route in the direction X (Fig). In other words, the peak current signal of triangular shape means that the electron beam has reached one of the end positions in the scanning direction Y. When the lag position synchronization front trapezoidal wave with a midpoint And, for example, the point on FIGU, the point of return of displaced upward in the direction X. Similarly, when the advance trigger position front, for example point C FIGU, the point of return is pushed down in the direction X. the same process can be done in relation to the synchronization of recessions signal current trapezii the existing form to shift the point of return And’ provisions’ or’.

In the example represented by figure 11, it is assumed that the length of the front or decline a current signal trapezoidal shape is 80 μs. In addition, the return item takes one of three values. The initial synchronization signal current trapezoidal shape is that the midpoints of the front or decline a current signal synchronized with the peaks of the signal current is triangular in shape. Accordingly, the current signal of triangular shape reaches a peak after 40 μs after the start of the front or decline a current signal trapezoidal shape. This synchronization point of return correspond to points a and a’, Fig. The second stage of the synchronization signal current trapezoidal shape is that the signal current triangular peak after 60 μs after the start of the front or decline a current signal trapezoidal shape. Return point this synchronization correspond to points b and b’, Fig. The third phase synchronization signal current trapezoidal shape is that the signal current triangular peak after 20 μs after the start of the front or decline a current signal trapezoidal shape. In this case, the return point correspond to points C and C’, Fig.

According to the above implementation, the full length of the front or Spa is as a current signal to the trapezoidal shape is 80 μs. Therefore, the reference position synchronization (midpoint) is separated from the beginning of the front or decline to 40 μs. To offset the return point upwards in the direction of the X peak current signal of triangular shape synchronize so that it came after 60 μs after the start of the slew current trapezoidal shape. To offset the return point downwards in the direction of the X peak current signal of triangular shape synchronize so that it came after 20 μs after the start of the slew current trapezoidal shape. Accordingly, the range of offset of the return point (Fig) is about half of the scanning range in the direction X. it is Obvious that the scanning range can be adjusted in accordance with the conditions of the heat sink.

According to the previous variant implementation point of return may take one of three positions, but this number can be varied, providing a number of points of return. More than provided points of return, the more uniform will be distributed electron beam.

The point of no-return scanning of the electron beam is moved from one period to the rectangular wave, to distribute the heat generated in the foil. This makes it possible to increase the lifetime of the foil and make the equipment used for cooling foil, more compact. In addition, this allows about ucati substance-target more uniform electron beam.

Industrial application

The present invention is suitable for use in the devices of electron-beam irradiation for the treatment of exhaust gas produced, for example, a thermal power plant, or in the devices of electron-beam irradiation for high current irradiation used to improve the quality of the materials, such as structured resin.

1. The device electron beam irradiation, containing the coil scanning generator triangular wave to generate a current signal of triangular form on the coil scanning to move the electron beam in the first scanning direction, a deflection coil, a square wave generator for generating a current signal of a rectangular shape on the deflection coil to move the electron beam in the second scanning direction perpendicular to the first scanning direction, characterized in that it contains a control unit, a modulating current signal of triangular form, issued by the triangle wave generator in order to eliminate the effect of hysteresis in the coil of the scan.

2. The device is an electron-beam exposure according to claim 1, characterized in that the control unit is designed to modulate a current signal of triangular shape and formation of steep slopes on the ascending and descending parts of the waves is.

3. The device is an electron-beam exposure according to claim 2, wherein said current signal of triangular form contains a number of breaking points on the ascending and descending waves, which divide the ascending and descending sections of several connected straight line segments.

4. The method of electron-beam irradiation, namely, that generate a current signal of triangular shape with the help of the generator of the triangular wave signal voltage of the triangular form on the coil scanning to move the electron beam in the first scanning direction, generate a current signal of rectangular shape with square wave generator, a signal current of a rectangular shape on the deflection coil to move the electron beam in the second scanning direction perpendicular to the first scanning direction, characterized in that modulate the current signal of triangular form, issued by the triangle wave generator, using the control unit, in order to eliminate the effect of hysteresis in the coil scan.

5. The method according to claim 4, wherein said current signal of triangular form modulate thus, in order to form steep slopes on the ascending and descending parts of the waves.

6. The method of electron-beam irradiation, namely, that generate with the persecuted current triangular form using generator triangular wave, serves as a current signal of triangular form on the coil scanning to move the electron beam in the first scanning direction, generate a current signal of rectangular shape with square wave generator, a signal current of a rectangular shape on the deflection coil to move the electron beam in the second scanning direction perpendicular to the first scanning direction, characterized in that synchronize the front of a current signal of rectangular form with a certain time shift relative to the peak signal current of a triangular shape, to allocate the return point on the route of the electron beam in the second scanning direction.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the synchronization signal front power rectangular shape change from period to period so that periodically change the position of the synchronizing square wave relative to the reference position of the front in the following order: coincides with the reference position, behind the reference position is ahead of the reference position coincides with the reference position, behind the reference position, etc.

8. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the point of the return route of the electron beam is shifted in a certain order within about half the range of the scan provided by the signal current pramogos the Noi form.

9. The device electron beam irradiation, containing the coil scanning, the triangle wave generator that outputs a current signal of triangular form on the coil scanning to move the electron beam in the first scanning direction, a deflection coil, a square wave generator that outputs a current signal of a rectangular shape on the deflection coil to move the electron beam in the second scanning direction perpendicular to the first scanning direction, characterized in that it contains the controller, synchronizing the front of a current signal of rectangular form with a certain time shift relative to the peak signal current of a triangular shape for the distribution of the return point on the route of the electron beam in the second scanning direction in a certain order.

10. The device electron beam irradiation, containing the coil scanning, the triangle wave generator that outputs a current signal of triangular form on the coil scanning to move the electron beam in the first scanning direction, a deflection coil, a square wave generator that outputs a current signal of a rectangular shape on the deflection coil to move the electron beam in the second scanning direction perpendicular to the first scanning direction, wherein the gain control unit, modulating current signal of triangular form, issued by the triangle wave generator, so that the flux generated by the coil scanning, obey the law almost triangular wave.

Post priorities:



 

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3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: charged particle beam generation for quantum electronics, cathode-luminescent analyses, plasma chemistry, and other fields.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for enhancing density of sub-nanosecond electron beam that can be used in studying interaction between charged particle flow and some material includes firing of volumetric high-voltage pulsed discharge in gas-filled gap between electrodes at reduced gas pressures P: Pmin ≤ P < 300 torr, where Pmin is minimal gas pressure at which beam current length is not over -0.25 ns and can be gradually varied within specified range between approximately 0.1 and 0.25 ns. Maximal current density and beam current value are approximately 2.2 kA/cm2 and 1 kA, respectively.

EFFECT: ability of varying gas pressure within specified limits.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of obtaining an electron beam involves applying supply voltage between a cathode with a cavity and an anode. A high-voltage discharge is initiated in a gas-discharge cell. A plasma forms in the cavity of the cathode, which provides for emission of electrons, accelerated by the strong field of the high-voltage discharge. The formed plasma has low density, for which purpose the surface of the cathode cavity is made from a dielectric. The generated electron beam can also be used as an auxiliary electron beam, which is directed over the surface of the open part of the cathode with a cavity. At the open part of the cathode on the side of the anode, a high-current electron beam is then formed. The device for generating an electron beam comprises an anode and a hollow cathode with an opening on the walls, which is located near the anode, all put into a gas-discharge cell. The wall of the hollow cathode with an opening is made from a dielectric sheet with an opening. The high-voltage power supply is connected to the anode and cathode.

EFFECT: provision for operation of sources under high pressure.

3 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronics and can be used in physical electronics, quantum electronics, plasma chemistry and diagnostic measurements. The method of making an electron beam involves igniting high-voltage discharge in a gas-discharge cell by applying power supply voltage between a cathode and an anode. Additional flow of ions is provided in the space between the cathode and the anode, which provides additional ionisation of gas with an auxiliary electron beam whose electrons are accelerated in the strong field of the high-voltage discharge. The auxiliary electron beam is generated on the perimetre of the cathode surface on the inner wall of an annular electrode. The device for generating an electron beam has a cathode and an anode placed in a gas-discharge cell, and a high-voltage power supply which is connected to the cathode and the anode. On the inner surface of the cathode there is an annular electrode on the inner wall of which an auxiliary electron beam is generated. In order to reduce discharge current, the flat part of the annular electrode on the anode side is covered by a dielectric plate with an opening whose diametre coincides with the inner diametre of the annular electrode.

EFFECT: wider operating pressure range of gas, as well as provision for high discharge stability with respect to sparking.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device and a method of changing properties of a three-dimensional formed component (2) using electrons, having an electron accelerator (3a; 3b) for generating accelerated electrons and two electron outlet windows (5a; 5b). Both electron outlet windows (5a; 5b) are opposite each other. Both electron outlet windows (5a; 5b) and a reflector (7a1; 7a2; 7b1; 7b2) bound the process chamber in which the surface or outer layer of the formed component (2) is bombarded with electrons. Energy density distribution in the process chamber is recorded from spatial measurement using a sensor system.

EFFECT: uniform modification of the entire surface or outer layer of a formed component, increased efficiency of the installation.

25 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: discharge is ignited between a flat cathode and an anode, which is made in the form of a thin needle with a small radius of rounding. The proposed invention makes it possible to produce a stable microdischarge with a quite simple and inexpensive method, which does not require vacuum plants and does not require external injection of electrons, since the discharge burns in atmosphere and is independent. The invention may be used to create plasma-chemical reactors and gas analysers, and also in plasma sputtering and alloying of materials in sections of micron size.

EFFECT: increased stabilisation of a smouldering microdischarge under atmospheric pressure.

7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the systems of obtaining of charged high energy particles and is intended for the use in the field of nuclear physics and atomics. The charged particle accelerator contains an evacuated chamber with the shape of the section of the ring pipe, inside which at the end faces a source of charged particles and a target are located. The source of charged particles is designed as axially located cylinders with the edges having the shape of razor. Outside of the evacuated chamber there is the system generating an alternating magnetic field in the form of electric loops, connected with a high-frequency alternator, with a possibility of obtaining of focusing and simultaneously accelerating alternating magnetic field depending on the radius ρ of the orbit of charged particles according to expression H~ρ, where H - magnetic intensity of the field with the frequency 105-107 Hz, α=0.45-0.55. The electric loops are arranged with a possibility of moving in longitudinal and transversal directions. The source of charged particles and the target are arranged with a possibility of move along the orbit of charged particles. The axially located cylinders are arranged with a possibility of move with reference to each other along the generatrix.

EFFECT: obtaining of greater density of intensity of flow of charged particles on the target, that expands the functionalities of the accelerator use in the field of nuclear physics, for example for technologies of obtaining of transuranium materials.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electronic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device make use of triangular-wave generator that produces triangular-waveform current signal conveyed to scanning coil for electron beam displacement in first scanning direction Y and rectangular-wave generator that produces rectangular-waveform current pulse arriving at deflection coil for displacing electron beam in second scanning direction X perpendicular to first scanning direction Y. Triangular-waveform current signal produced by triangular-wave generator is modulated to eliminate hysteresis effect in scanning coil. In addition, leading edge of rectangular-waveform current signal is timed at definite offset relative to peaks of triangular-waveform current signal so as to distribute return points on electron beam route in second scanning direction.

EFFECT: affording uniform scanning and eliminating hysteresis problems and heat concentration on diaphragm.

10 cl, 18 dwg

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