FIELD: heat engineering constructions.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as supports of different construction on permafrost. Proposed heated pile has reinforced concrete or metal shaft with inner or outer heated pipe in form of ribbed evaporator and condensers provided with metal strip ribbing arranged over ground surface with inclination to vertical part of shaft. Novelty is that heated pile is made T-shaped, and heated pipe in form of ribbed evaporator is made symmetrically double relative to axis of shaft with connection of some ends or its evaporators, other ends being connected with condensers. Evaporator ribbing is made in form of upward convex ring surfaces with central passes secured on inner surfaces of walls of heated pipe evaporators and uniformly distributed in height, and metal strip ribbing of condensers is element of horizontal part of T-shaped heated pile.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of heated pile, facilitated replacement of pile in case of failure.
2 cl, 4 dwg
The present invention relates to the construction of thermal plants and can be used as supports various structures built on permafrost.
Known pile (Official Bulletin of INVENTIONS No. 45, publ. December 7, 1992, NGOs ' Search', p.61, patent No. 1779705, CL E 02 D 5/30; E 02 D 5/48, priority 05.03.91), including narrowing down the barrel with the outer crosswise spaced longitudinal ribs, which are made Tauri cross-section and adjacent to the barrel ends of the walls, and the barrel is pyramidal, with the upper part of the trunk made in the form of polyhedral head, the faces of which are formed by extensions of shelf edges, and faces of the barrel.
This pile can increase her gain, i.e. has a high bearing capacity.
The disadvantage is that it cannot be used effectively in the conditions of permafrost, as in winter time does not provide the intense heat from the deep part of the soil on its surface and the surrounding air for freezing and lowering its temperature in a sufficiently large volume for use as a rigid support for heavy construction under the condition that excludes the thawing of the soil during the summer period. Thawing permafrost in the summer time, including due to heat buildings, latausha large mass heat capacity and which accumulates a large amount of heat in the summer, and also due to internal heat dissipation, for example, for heating buildings, it leads to subsidence, or inclination to destroy the building loads.
Known pile (Official Bulletin of inventions No. 45, publ. December 7, 1992, the NGO “Search”, Moscow, 1992, p.61, patent No. 1779708, CL E 02 D 5/38, priority 20.02.91), including the barrel with reinforced frame and protected by a sheath, made in the form of glass, the bottom of which is aligned with the bottom of the barrel, and the glass is made of concrete on the basis of the self-expanding cement, which is within the zone of seasonal freezing and thawing of soil contains a porous filler with a volume weight, less bulk mortar part.
The pile has a high frost barrel in the zone of seasonal freezing and thawing of the soil.
The disadvantage of it is that it does not provide sufficient thermal communication with the surrounding soil and can not effectively be used for its cooling, freezing in the winter. The reason for this is the material with low heat-conducting property of which it is made.
As a prototype of the selected thermal pile (book Sci. Heat pipes. Theory and practice. Translation from English Vasilieva. Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1981, p.38-40, 20-21), which includes a barrel with an internal or external heat pipe (TT. Thermal pile is designed to protect the permafrost. TT, working as a thermal diode, cools and freezes the ground in winter to the full depth of its installation, when the temperature is below the temperature TT, imbedded in the soil. Summer heat pipe will not work, because the existing capillary pressure is not sufficient for pumping the liquid coolant against the force of gravity in the upper part of the heat pipe, and thus, permafrost will thaw only from the surface. Due to conservation of mass of the soil around the TT in the ever-frozen state sedimentation and swelling of the soil is reduced and the sediment structure is practically excluded.
The disadvantage of the prototype is that in TT with known wicks (see p.20-21 author Sci) are not ensured to keep the working fluid on the inner vertical surface of the evaporator with her uniform distribution and evaporation over the entire height (about 10-15m), as the existing capillary pressure wicks is not sufficient for this. This leads to the accumulation and evaporation of the liquid coolant in the lower part of the evaporator, which reduces the area of intensive cooling of the soil over the entire height of the evaporator and thereby reduces the efficiency of thermal piles.
Another disadvantage of the prototype is limited to the area of the cooling of the soil around the evaporator TT in directions transverse of the planes of its cross-section. This is due to insufficient overall size of the diameter of the evaporator TT, and with reduced overall size of the capacitor, and hence bounded by the internal surface for condensation of vapor of the working fluid, which reduces the efficiency of the TT.
The disadvantage of the prototype is that in case of failure of the TPS, the problem arises to replace a faulty thermal piles healthy. The fact that the task of the artificial preservation of permafrost is for tundra regions where summers are formed impassable for equipment swamps and therefore installation and replacement thermal piles is carried out in the winter when the top layer of soil becomes sufficiently frozen to keep on the surface of the mobile drilling rig, crane, transport of thermal piles. But at the same time, defective thermal pile is frozen at least in the upper soil layer and simply tap her not to pull out of the ground. This adds complexity to the replacement of defective piles.
The aim of the proposed solutions increase efficiency and simplify replacement of a faulty thermal piles.
The goal has been achieved due to the fact that thermal pile is made T-shaped, and the heat pipe in the form of finned evaporator is made symmetrical dual-axis shaft connection with the discharge of one of its ends evaporators, the other ends are connected to the capacitors, and the fins of the evaporator is made in the form of a concave circular surface with a Central aisle, mounted on the inner surfaces of the walls of the heat pipe evaporators and uniformly distributed over its height, and the metal plate fin capacitor is an element of the horizontal part of the T-shaped thermal piles, to the surfaces of the capacitors welded fittings to connect the emergency system thawing thermal piles.
The essence of the proposed solution is that:
1. Increased cooling zone of soil around the finned evaporators 3 TT 2 both in the transverse and longitudinal directions. In the cross - by increasing the transverse dimensions of the size of the finned evaporators 3 TT 2, because they are made symmetrical double relative to the longitudinal axis of the barrel 1 with the connection 6 of their ends. Longitudinally due to the uniform distribution of the working fluid and evaporation over the entire height finned evaporators 3, which is provided due to the fact that on the inner walls 9 of finned evaporators 3 are uniformly distributed along the height of the concave annular surface 7 with the inner edges above their outer edges. Each of these concave annular surfaces 7 holds and provides p the constant evaporation of the working fluid around the inner surface 9 of the wall finned evaporators 3 along the circular perimeter with intensive cooling and surrounding soil. The set of all concave annular surfaces 7 provides the process of evaporation of the working fluid evenly over the entire height finned evaporators 3 TT 2 and thus the efficiency of thermal piles.
In addition, increased cooling zone of frozen soil around the finned evaporator 3 by increasing the heat dissipation into the surrounding air in the winter time from the capacitors 4 TT 2. This is achieved by increasing their dimensions and internal surfaces of the condensing vapor of the working fluid as it is made symmetrical double relative to the longitudinal axis of thermal piles.
2. Simplified replacement thermal pile by lifting its faucet from the pre-ottange soil around the trunk 1 thermal piles by circulation of hot water or steam in the inner cavity TT 2 special thermal installation, which is connected to the socket 10 for emergency thawing thermal piles made with the possibility of drilling holes in the walls of the capacitor 4 from the internal cavities of the socket 10.
Analysis of the known technical solutions in the area of study allows to draw a conclusion about the absence of signs, similar to the set of features of the claimed object.
The proposed solution heat with the AI shown in figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 shows thermal pile with concrete barrel, figure 2 - with metal barrel, figure 3 - cross section a-a in figure 1, figure 4 - cross section a-a in figure 2.
Thermal pile is made T-shaped and includes: reinforced concrete or metal barrel 1 with inner or outer heat pipe 2 in the form of finned evaporator 3 and the condenser 4, made with a metal plate fins 5 and above ground surface inclined to the vertical portion of the barrel 1. Heat pipe 2 in the form of finned evaporator 3 are symmetrically double relative to the axis of the barrel 1 with the connection 6 of one of the ends of the evaporators 3, the other ends are connected to the capacitors 4, wherein the fins of the evaporator 3 is made in the form of a concave annular surfaces 7 with the Central passages 8 fixed to the inner surfaces of the walls 9 of the evaporators 3 heat pipe 2 and uniformly distributed over its height, and the metal plate fins 5 of the capacitor element 4 is the horizontal part of the T-shaped thermal piles. To the surfaces of the capacitors 4 are welded fittings 10 to connect the emergency system thawing thermal piles.
Thermal piles are installed in the permafrost in the winter time by drilling it with a rig wells. Then the piles and put Zack is Aleut among themselves, then in the gaps wells fill in water, which freezes and rigidly connects the entire structure in the permafrost. Freezing water filled in the gaps wells in permafrost also helps to work TT 2, when the ambient temperature is below the temperature of permafrost. When it starts cooling of the soil around the evaporator 3 to a temperature almost equal to the ambient temperature.
Thermal pile works as follows. In winter, when the ambient air temperature in the tundra strip of Land is at the level (for example, minus 40° (C) lower than the temperature of the soil surrounding the pile, then he will be intensively cooled almost to the ambient temperature. The working fluid, such as ammonia evaporates in the concave annular surfaces 7 finned evaporators 3, the steam rises through the Central passages 8 in colder compared to finned evaporators 3 capacitors 4, in which condenses and flows down the walls again finned evaporators 3, uniformly filling the concave annular surface 7 along the entire height of the evaporator 3, and thus provides intense cooling of finned evaporators 3 and surrounding soil throughout their height.
The amount of filling of the working fluid is carried out such that the ri maximum heat transfer from finned evaporators 3 fluid was all concave annular surfaces 7.
As TT 2 is made symmetrical double relative to the longitudinal axis of the barrel 1, it is allowed about 2 times to increase the cooling efficiency of the soil around the finned evaporators 3.
In the summer, TT 2 does not work, as the temperature of the capacitors 4 higher than the temperature of the finned evaporators 3 and the steam is not condensed in them. This cuts the liquid-steam circulation of the working fluid in TT 2 and the heat from the finned evaporator 3 to the capacitors 4 stops, which ensures the preservation of permafrost at a depth of as rigid supports for piles in the summer, despite the fact that the top layer of soil is Ottana condition. The deeper the installed pile and the more intensively it cools the surrounding ground around him in the winter time, the stronger and more reliable it serves as a support in the summer.
In case of exit 2 of TT system, for example, when it leaks, provides for a simplified its replacement with minimal cost in terms of work. To this end surfaces of the capacitor 4 is welded fittings 10 to connect the emergency system defrosting heat piles with the ability to make holes in the walls of the capacitor 4 from the internal cavities of the socket 10, for example, by drilling. After running in the walls of the condensers 4 holes for fittings 10 connect danou or steam heating installation and are pumping hot water or steam through the cavity TT 2 before thawing piles along the entire length. About thawing can be judged by the temperature difference of water or steam at the inlet and outlet fittings 10. After thawing TT 2 it is lifted by the crane, and instead of the defective set the working pile.
The proposed design of thermal piles of T-shaped metal plate fins 5 of the capacitors 4, made at the same time elements of the horizontal part of the pile that has allowed not only to provide a sufficiently developed external surface for intensive cooling of the capacitor 4 in the winter, but also to ensure the strength of TPS 2, connected with thermal pile. If thermal pile of metal, TT 2 may simply be welded to the steel shaft 1 and the metal fins 5. In the case of very large loads itself of the heat pipe can serve as both a pile, for example, for sites running air meteorological probes or for automatic beacon. For more powerful structures, construction of buildings, roads, etc. suitable thermal piles to do zhelezobetonnye, while TT 2 is part of the metal reinforcement.
The fact that the fins of the evaporator 3 is made in the form of a concave circular surfaces with the inner edges above their outer edges, helps to ensure not only their functional purpose, but also to secure them to the inner walls of the evaporator 9 is 3 with a uniform elastic tension along their outer perimeters and thereby ease, reliability and sufficient density of the paired connection.
Currently, the company made a working model of TT for thermal piles and is preparing to test in conditions close to the conditions.
1. Thermal pile, including concrete or metal barrel with inner or outer heat pipe in the form of finned evaporator and condensers made with a metal plate fins and spaced above the ground surface inclined to the vertical part of the trunk, characterized in that thethermal pile is made T-shaped, and the heat pipe in the form of finned evaporator is made symmetrical double relative to the axis of the barrel with the connection of one end of her evaporators, the other ends are connected to the capacitors, and the fins of the evaporator is made in the form of a concave circular surface with a Central aisle, mounted on the inner surfaces of the walls of the heat pipe evaporators and uniformly distributed over its height, and the metal plate fin capacitor is an element of the horizontal part of the T-shaped thermal piles.
2. Thermal pile according to claim 1, characterized in that the surfaces of the capacitors welded fittings to connect the emergency system defrosting heat St is I.
FIELD: road construction.
SUBSTANCE: device has towed device with platform, connected to moving gear, tank for reinforcing liquid, force pipes with bars with apertures in lower portion. Bars are made of conical shape with screw blades, mounted on a platform made in form of slides, and radiuses of bars effect overlap. In back portion of platform a screw is mounted. Tank for reinforcing liquid is placed in front portion of platform and by gear pump is connected to distributing comb, each force pipe, which through locking armature is connected to appropriate bar. Bars in amount no less than three are kinematically connected to each other, and to shaft for drawing power from moving gear, to screw and to gear pump for feeding reinforcing liquid.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.