Method for increasing plants biomass and survival rate on soil contaminated with petroleum

FIELD: methods for phytomediation (phytorecultivation) of soil contaminated with petroleum.

SUBSTANCE: method involves planting perennial grasses into soil contaminated with petroleum, said perennial grasses being preliminarily grown for at least one growing period in non-contaminated soil and then replanted in soil contaminated with petroleum with their rootstocks and/or stolons and/or seedlings. Phytocultivation method may be used at earlier stages of soil contamination with petroleum to allow recultivation time to be reduced.

EFFECT: increased survival rate and yield of plants and reduced recultivation time.

2 cl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to methods of intensification of phytoremediation (viticulture) oil-contaminated soil.

Known phyto-reclamation method of remediation of contaminated soils, according to which in the soil making the peat in the amount of 500 m3/ha manure 50 t/ha with the joint use of mineral fertilizers (N60P40K20)and uncontaminated soil. After making components produce loosening the soil to a depth of 15 cm, depending on the dose contamination after 1 month or 1 year do the sowing of perennial grasses (Shilov I.I. Biological remediation of contaminated lands in the taiga zone // Restore contaminated soil ecosystems. M.: Nauka, 1988. S-168).

The disadvantage of this method is low germination, survival and biomass of cultivated plants, especially if contaminated soil (22 l/m2).

Known comprehensive way, including planting seeds of plants. Sowing the seeds of plants in this way is carried out on special plots that have gravel-based, clay-seventy screen, permeable to liquid bumpers, delineated drainage grooves. Oil-contaminated soil contribute to the plot, dried, make peat, mineral fertilizers, all this replowed and level. Then on the surface of poluchennymi cause activated sludge, which planted the seeds of plants, which are secured on top of the peat layer, after which the surface plots humidified culture of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms (Bronnikov EAST, Mr. P.V., Mr. P.V. Way of accelerated remediation of oil contaminated soil. RF patent N 2066944, 1996, 5 C.).

The disadvantage of this method lies in the high complexity (excavation of contaminated soil, transportation to site remediation, preparation of special areas) and high material costs (10 cm peat 1 m2(1000 m3on 1 ha) and 0.5 kg/m2fertilizers (nitrophoska) (5000 kg per 1 ha).

The objective of the invention is to improve the survival and yield of plants growing on contaminated soils, and simplifying the process.

This object is achieved by the features indicated in the 1st claim, in common with the prototype, such as the method of growing perennial grasses on oil-contaminated soil, including the planting of perennial grasses in oil-contaminated soil, and distinctive, essential features, such as perennial grasses pre-grown for at least one growing season in uncontaminated soil with subsequent planting in soil rhizomes and/or stolons, and/or sprouts.

Technical result achieved visitare ikenami distinctive signs, - increase of biomass and survival of plants.

In paragraph 2 of the formula specified perennial grasses, preferably used in the method, namely as perennial grasses used: clover hybrid (Trifolium hybridum L.), red clover (.pratense L.), hedgehog team (Dactylis glomerata L), Phleum ineratense L.); awnless brome (Bromopsis inermis (Leys.)Holub.), the quack grass (Elytrigia repens (L.)Nevski), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds), clover creeping (.repens L.).

The above distinguishing features of each separately and all together aimed at solving the problem and are significant. The use of the proposed combination of essential distinctive features in the prior art was not found, therefore the proposed solution meets the patentability criteria of “novelty”.

One set of new essential features with common, well-known provides a solution to the problem is not obvious to a person skilled in the art and demonstrates compliance of the claimed technical solution to the patentability criterion of “inventive step”.

The invention is illustrated by description of a specific but not limiting example of implementation.

Example 1. In contaminated oil soil at a dose of 24 l/is 2after 3 and 4 years after making oil were planted hybrid seeds of clover (Trifolium hybhdum L.), red clover (T.pratense L.), clover creeping (T.repens L.), awnless brome (Bromopsis inermis (Leys.)Holub.), Jerzy team (Dactylis glomerata L), quack grass (Flytrigia repens (L.)Nevski), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), Timothy grass meadow (Phleum pratense L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds). On the expiration of three months after planting were evaluated by germination, biomass and survival at the expiration of the term of the plants (table 1).

Example 2. The experiment was carried out analogously to example 1. The difference was in the landing annual seedlings of plants clover hybrid (Trifolium hybridum L.), red clover (T.pratense L), Jerzy team (Dactylis glomerata L.), Timothy grass meadow (Phleum pratense L.), awnless brome (Bromopsis inermis (Leys.)Holub.), the quack grass (Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds) were planted rhizomes; clover creeping (T.repens L.) - stolons (table 2). Uncontaminated soil from the roots and rhizomes of plants was washed with water (procedure, which is ignored in the practical use of the method).

As can be seen from tables 1, 2, where example 2 - the inventive method, when the sowing of seeds due to their low germination in oil-contaminated soil, as well as a small survival and productivity of plants, the total phytomass in the contaminated areas was extremely mA the and. The total biomass of plants awnless brome, Jerzy team, quack grass, Timothy grass, meadow fescue meadow was smaller biomass plants planted in uncontaminated soil (control experiment), dozens of times, and clover hybrid, red clover, clover, creeping, yarrow hundreds of times (table 1).

Plants, planted seedlings and rhizomes, find great resistance to oil contamination of soil (table 2). When landing this way of plants on contaminated three years ago the site total mass of plants clover hybrid, red clover, clover creeping was less than in the control experiment, an average of about 9-12 times, awnless brome and quack grass 3-4, yarrow 8, Jerzy team, Timothy grass, meadow fescue meadow about 5-6 times. When planting seedlings and rhizomes in oil-contaminated soil after 4 years of pollution total plant biomass Jerzy team, Timothy grass, meadow clover, hybrid and red clover was about 4-5 times less than in uncontaminated areas, clover creeping around 9, yarrow 7, awnless brome, meadow fescue and wheat grass creeping in 2-4 times. Thus, this method of planting is possible to obtain a large biomass of plants in contaminated soil than when the seed R is Steny seeds.

Table 1

Biomass, germination and survival of plants, planted seeds in the soil
Plant typeGermination, %The survival of plants, %Plant biomass, g/m2
Uncontaminated soil
Cloverof 60.570,7971,2
Clover hybrid60,466,51045,2
Clover creeping62,269,3905,2
The awnless brometo 75.286,81426,8
Elytrigia repens83,282,01441,6
Yarrow57,072,3791,6
Cocksfootto 85.281,61599,6
Timothy meadow90,373,31356,2
Meadow fescue89,079,01484,8
Oil-contaminated soil after 3 years of pollution
Clover20,72,21,8
Clover hybrid a 3.93,0
Clover creeping22,51,61,5
The awnless brome34,09,9of 31.8
Elytrigia repens36,810,640,8
Yarrow25,82,52,1
Cocksfoot22,48,625,2
Timothy meadowto 25.38,820,4
Meadow fescue20,918,5of 37.8

The end of table 1
Plant typeGermination, %The survival of plants, %Plant biomass, g/m2
Oil-contaminated soil after 4 years of pollution
Clover27,04,43,6
Clover hybridof 21.9the 4.74,5
Clover creeping32,74,05,1
The awnless brome38,416,248,6
Elytrigia repens39,615,9 66,9
Yarrow27,36,6of 5.4
Cocksfoot26,914,286,4
Timothy meadow26,214,854,9
Meadow fescue29,819,782,2

Table 2

Biomass and survival of plants, planted rhizomes and annual seedlings in the soil
Plant typeThe biomass of plants, g/m2Plant biomass at the end of the experiment, g/m2The survival of plants, %
Uncontaminated soil
Cloverequals 787.0760,590,5
Clover hybrid784,8769.4 M.90,0
Clover creeping783,5836,5 
The awnless brome796,81140,6 
Elytrigia repens784,91128,8 
Yarrow792.4 M.858,7 
Urchin sborn the I 781,5829,290,0
Timothy meadow804,1862,292,2
Meadow fescue788,91107,3 
Oil-contaminated soil after 3 years of pollution
Clover783,678,89,5
Clover hybrid791,979,311,2
Clover creeping799,467,7 
The awnless brome801,2316,4 
Elytrigia repens796,2454,2 
Yarrow782,4109,9 
Cocksfoot790,8181,323,3
Timothy meadow790,7174,321,1
Meadow fescue806,9183,2 

The end of table 2
Plant typeThe biomass of plants, g/m2Plant biomass at the end of the experiment, g/m2 The survival of plants, %
Oil-contaminated soil after 4 years of pollution
Clover799,5168,6of 21.2
Clover hybrid787,7164, 8mm25,0
Clover creeping801,989,8 
The awnless brome814,5485,9 
Elytrigia repens793,3320,4 
Yarrow806,1118,3 
Cocksfoot804,7221,027,6
Timothy meadow792,3196,124,4
Meadow fescue793,9289,6 

1. The method of growing perennial grasses on oil-contaminated soil, including the planting of perennial grasses in oil-contaminated soil, characterized in that perennial grasses pre-grown for at least one growing season in uncontaminated soil with subsequent planting in soil rhizomes and/or stolons, and/or sprouts.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as long the Rav used clover hybrid (Trifolium hybridum L.), red clover (.pratense L.), hedgehog team (Dactylis glomerata L.), Timothy-grass (Phleum pratense L.), awnless brome (Bromopsis mermis (Leys.) Holub.), the quack grass (Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds), clover creeping (.repens L.).



 

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13 cl, 7 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

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1 tbl, 4 ex

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1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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4 tbl

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1 ex

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EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.

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