Piloted simulator

FIELD: aeronautical engineering; training flight personnel in maneuvering, performance of combat mission and higher aerobatics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed piloted simulator includes aircraft cabin equipped with indicators showing parameters of motion and power plant, sensors of control members and visualization system of aircraft spatial motion, computer system with two aircraft spatial motion modules, two modules of power plant dynamics, planning module with initial flight condition and assigned maneuver unit and control lever regulation law unit, assigned flight trajectory visualization module, module for estimation of quality of flight performed by pilot and monitor. Planning of flight is prepared in accordance with instructions for flight operation of aircraft; planning includes flight mission for performing the maneuver. In planning, altitude, speed, heading of flight and time of performing the assigned maneuver are indicated. Piloted simulator makes it possible to create "image" of flight, thus facilitating performance of assigned maneuver by pilot under real conditions.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of control and safety of flight.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to aircraft and is intended for use in preparing in combatant units of the wing.

A device for monitoring the activities of the operator simulator aircraft, containing, in particular, the generator of the reference characteristics and tolerances, the outputs of which are connected to the inputs graphic display unit comparison, trainer, made in the form of block digital inputs, block simulation control arms and series-connected blocks of potentiometers, analog-to-digital Converter, unit calibration, the unit of calculation of parameters of the vehicle and block the formation of the dependencies of the current motion parameters and control the outputs of the shaping unit dependencies of the current motion parameters and control unit simulation system weapons control and block digital codes are connected to the inputs the graphic display unit comparison, the outputs of which are connected to the inputs graphic display (SU 1831958 A1, G 09 In 9/08, 10.05.1995).

A disadvantage of the known device is associated with getting incomplete information about the trajectory of the aircraft, which reduces the reliability of representations of spatial position when performing aerobatics.

The closest to the invention is a flight training the p pilot contains a cockpit that includes a reflecting optical device display, speaker system, pilot seat, instrument panel with flight and navigation instruments and indicators control mode of the engine and controls the control surfaces and engines of the simulated aircraft, computing, personal computers and information exchange system (EN 94025128 A1, G 09 In 9/08, 10.09.1996).

The disadvantage of this device is defined by the inability to create “the image of flight”, which affects the accuracy of the control and safety of flight.

Known flight stands:

"Flight simulator pilot" (publication number 94025128, publication date 1996.09.10).

The description of the patent "method of monitoring the activity operator at an aircraft simulator and device for its implementation". USSR author's certificate No. 1556393, CL G 09 B 9/08, 1989.

EN 2018972 C1 (INSTITUTE of AVIATION MEDICINE, 30.08.1994.

US 6234799 B1 (AMERICAN GNC CORPORATION), 22.05.2001.

US 4419079 A (AVIONS MARSEL DASSAULT-BREGUET AVIATION), 06.12.1983.

WO 85/00912 A1 (THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA), 28.02.1985.

US 3924342 A (REDIFON LIMITED), 09.12.1975.

DE 3929581 A1 (BODENSEEWEK GERATETECHNIK GMBH), 07.03.1991.

EN 2156501 C1 (KICK S.A. and others), 20.09.2000.

EN 2114460 C1 (Firsov A.V. and others), 27.06.1998.

The objective of the invention is to improve the efficiency of learning by facilitating the carrying out of ass the aqueous maneuver in the real world.

The problem is solved in that in-flight stand ground complex planning and preparation of pilot flight operations on aircraft-fighter, containing the cockpit with indicator devices of the motion parameters and propulsion, sensors, controls, and system visualization of spatial movement of the aircraft, as well as computing system that includes a first module of the spatial motion of the aircraft, the first module of the dynamics of the power plant and the monitor, and the input of the first module of the dynamics of the power plant and the first input of the first module of the spatial movement of aircraft associated with the sensor controls the output of the first module of the spatial motion of the aircraft - with indicator devices settings movement and visualization of spatial movement of the aircraft, and the output of the first module of the dynamics of the power plant with a second input of the first module of the spatial motion of the aircraft and the indicator devices of the power plant parameters, the computing system introduced module flight planning unit initial flight conditions and a given maneuver and block control levers, the second module of the spatial movement of the plane, the second module of the dynamics of the power plant, the visualization module ass is authorized flight path and module evaluation performance pilot flight when the input of the second module of the dynamics of the power plant and the first input of the second module of the spatial movement of aircraft associated with the block of the initial flight conditions and a given maneuver and block control levers, the output of the second module of the spatial motion of the aircraft - with indicator devices of the motion parameters and visualization of spatial movement of the aircraft, and the output of the second module of the dynamics of the power plant to the second input of the second module of the spatial motion of the aircraft and the indicator devices of the power plant parameters, the outputs of both modules of the spatial motion of the aircraft and both modules of the dynamics of the power plant is connected to the corresponding inputs of the visualization module of a given trajectory, the outputs of both modules the spatial motion of the aircraft are connected to the corresponding inputs of the module evaluation of the performance of the pilot flying, and outputs the visualization module of a given flight path and module evaluation the performance of the pilot flying is connected to the monitor.

The task promote private significant features of the invention.

Each of the modules of the spatial movement of an aircraft includes a Bank of aerodynamic coefficients, the block system of differential equations, nl is to the algorithms of automated control unit drives controls thus the outputs of the Bank of aerodynamic coefficients and block actuator controls connected respectively to first and second inputs of the block system of differential equations, the output unit of the system of differential equations is connected with the input of block algorithms for automated control, and the output of block algorithms for automated control connected to the first input unit drives authorities, joint entrance Bank aerodynamic coefficients and the second input unit of the actuator controls are the first input of the spatial movement of the plane, and the third input and output unit of the system of differential equations, respectively, the second input and output of this module.

Blocks of module flight planning and cockpit are associated with the modules of the spatial motion of the aircraft and dynamics modules of the power unit via the interface node.

The drawing shows a functional diagram of the proposed flight stand.

Flight stand contains cabin 1 aircraft with indicator devices 2 motion parameters, indicator devices 3 power plant parameters, sensors 4.1-4.n controls, and system 5 visualization of spatial movement of the aircraft, as well as computing system that includes a first module 6 and utoro is module 7 of the spatial motion of the aircraft, the first module 8 and the second module 9 dynamics of the power plant, the module 10 flight planning unit 11 initial flight conditions and a given maneuver and block 12 of the laws regulating control module 13 visualization of a given trajectory, the module 14 quality assessment of the implementation of the pilot flying and the monitor 15.

The first input module 8 dynamics of the power plant and the first input of the first module 6 spatial movement of aircraft associated with sensors 4.1-4.n controls the output of the first module 6 spatial movement of the plane - with indicator devices 2 motion parameters and system 5 visualization of spatial movement of the aircraft, and the output of the first module 8 dynamics of the power plant with a second input of the first module 6 spatial movement of the plane and with indicator devices 3 power plant parameters. The input of the second module 9 dynamics of the power plant and the first input of the second module 7 spatial movement of aircraft associated with the block 11 of the initial flight conditions and a given maneuver and block 12 of the laws regulating control levers, the output of the second module 7 spatial movement of the plane - with indicator devices 2 motion parameters and system 5 visualization of spatial movement of the aircraft, and the output of the second module 9 dynamics of the power plant - the second is the progress of the second module 7 spatial movement of the plane and with indicator devices 3 power plant parameters. The outputs of modules 6 and 7 of the spatial motion of the aircraft and modules 8 and 9 of the dynamics of the power plant is connected to the corresponding inputs of the module 13 visualization of a given trajectory, the outputs of modules 6 and 7 of the spatial motion of the aircraft are connected to the corresponding inputs of the module 14 quality assessment of the implementation by the pilot of the flight, and outputs of the module 13 visualization of a given flight path and module 14 quality assessment of the implementation by pilot flight attached to the monitor 15.

Each of the modules 6 and 7 of the spatial movement of an aircraft includes a Bank 16 of the aerodynamic coefficients, block 17 system of differential equations, block 18 algorithms of automated control unit 19 drives controls. The outputs of the Bank 16 of the aerodynamic coefficients and unit 19 drives the controls on the connected respectively to first and second inputs of block 17 of a system of differential equations. The output unit 17 of the system of differential equations is connected with the input unit 18 of algorithms for automated control. The output of block 18 of algorithms for automated control connected to the first input unit 19 drives controls. United Bank entrance 16 of the aerodynamic coefficients and the second input unit 19 drives the controls are the first input modules 6 and 7 spatial the CSO movement of the aircraft, and the third input and output unit 17 of the system of differential equations, respectively, the second input and output modules 6 and 7.

Blocks of module 10 flight planning and cockpit 1 associated with units 6 and 7 spatial movement of the plane and modules 8 and 9 of the dynamics of the power unit via the interface node 20.

Work on the flight stand is as follows.

Flight planning is drawn up in accordance with the instructions of the flight operation of the aircraft and includes a flight assignment for the execution of the maneuver. This complex is designed for training in combat units pilots to perform maneuvers during combat missions and maneuvers of aerobatics. When planning a flight shall include all necessary conditions: time dependences for the altitude H, the flight speed V (M), flight ψ and temporal dependencies for angular coordinates and overloads.

Consider the types of maneuvers that are performed in a flight stand and are included in the program module 10 planning the flight.

1. Virage (steady or unsteady speeds) with a given roll angle γ .

The estimated parameters for a given maneuver is defined by the formulas:

- radius

where: ny- overload in the longitudinal channel,

g=9,8 the/s 2,

VVIR- [m/s];

- the rate of turn.

where Vse- the speed of horizontal flight at a given altitude;

- pull engine on the turn

PVIR=Pseny,

where Rse- engine thrust for horizontal flight at Vseat a given altitude.

- power consumption for execution of turn.

Nin=Nseny,

where Nse- - the power required for horizontal flight at Vin=const at this height.

the time of the turn when the turn angle of the course Δ ψ

where: tVIR[sec], Δ ψ - [happy]

2. The swooping flight of the aircraft on a steep downward trajectory in and out of the dive.

Basic calculations of the values for this maneuver:

the radius of curvature of the trajectory at the entrance to the dive

where: θ - the angle of the path with the dive,

θ =ϑ -α ,

ϑ is the pitch angle,

α angle of attack;

the radius of curvature at the exit from the dive

where: V is the average speed of flight,

nFCP- the average value of the overload,

θ0- established the angle of the trajectory at the dive;

- loss of height

Δ H-Rcp(1-cosθcp ),

where Rcp- the average radius of curvature of the trajectory.

3. Slide - unsteady curvilinear movement of the aircraft in the vertical plane for a quick climb. Slide - the main type of maneuver in the vertical plane for the fighter.

Calculation of main parameters of this maneuver is similar to the calculation when performing a maneuver dive.

4. Loop-the-loop (MO) - unsteady motion of the aircraft in the vertical plane. MO is provided that the flight speed of more than 1.6-2.2 times the minimum speed of the aircraft during operation of the power plant and not less than 3 times when turned off power unit. When performing this maneuver attention is paid to the change of speed of flight, because as you climb when performing the maneuver, the speed drops, the top point of the loop it is minimum, and then begins to increase. The main parameters of the maneuver is defined by calculating the curvature at different points in the loop:

- loop start

- input in the loop

the radius of curvature at an angle of inclination of the trajectory θ =90°

where V0- speed θ =90° ;

the radius of curvature at the top point of the loop

where Vtop- the speed at the top of the loop is.

5. Chandelle - ascending spatial maneuver in which a turn angle in the horizontal plane is approximately 180° , the angle of trajectory is approximately equal to zero. Chandelle can be performed with various changes in the roll angle. When calculating this maneuver define:

- angular velocity in the horizontal plane

- angular velocity in the vertical plane

the radius of curvature of the trajectory in the vertical plane

- vertical speed

Vy=Vsinθ ;

- horizontal velocity

Vx=Vcosθ .

6. Maneuver in an inclined plane, the component with the horizontal plane of the dihedral angle ψv(flight without slip, the slip angle β =0).

Basic formulas:

longitudinal acceleration

jnp=g(nx-sinψvsinμ ),

where: μ - turn angle in the plane of maneuver

nx- overload in high-speed coordinate system;

- angular velocity of rotation of the trajectory in the plane maneuver (rad/s)

- vertical speed

Vy=Vsinψ sinμ ;

the roll angle at different points of the trajectory

The above is basically the calculation formulas are given for steady state maneuver and are the source data for calculation of the control law at time of levers the movement of the aircraft and the control law handle thrust Xore.

In module flight planning depending on the specific maneuver flight on the basis of the performed calculations are introduced laws regulating:

Xpϑ(t), Xpγ(t), Xn(t) and Xore(t).

These laws are subject to existing restrictions for plane strain, limiting the angle of attack, maximum and minimum flight speeds, the limit on the number M and a minimum height of flight when performing the maneuver.

These dependencies are introduced to perform the maneuver as "the perfect pilot", i.e. execution of the maneuver is carried out without the participation of the pilot, who is preparing for the flight.

To perform the maneuver "perfect pilot" output planning module 10 (the outputs of the blocks 11 and 12) is enabled on the input of the second module 7 spatial movement of the plane and to the input of the second module 9 dynamics of the power plant.

With the release of the second module 7 spatial movement of the aircraft signals fed to the input module 13 visualization given the trajectory of the aircraft, which forms the silhouette of the aircraft and its spatial trajectory on the screen of the monitor, and displays on the monitor screen 15 current coordinates movement of the aircraft or in the form of graphs or in digital form.

At the same time signals the s output of the second module of the spatial movement 7 is transmitted through the front-end node 20 on the display devices 2 motion parameters in the cabin 1 pilot.

The signal module 10 flight planning is also fed to the input of the second module 7 dynamics of the power plant, in which a signal is generated thrust of the engine depending on the given situation. Engine thrust is given taking into account the dynamics of the power plant depending on the mode of operation (acceleration, throttle response, low gas, maximum, small fast and furious, fast and furious, full afterburner and conditions of flight height and speed).

In General, the thrust of the engine is defined as

P=f(Xpyg, H, V)· W(p)

where W(P) takes into account the dynamics of the power plant and is represented in the form:

where: T1T2that ξ2- depend on flight conditions on H and V and mode of operation of the power plant,

τ - if the mode is fast and furious, on the other modes τ =0.

The output signal from the second module 9 dynamics of the power plant is fed to the input of the second module 7 spatial movement of the plane (in block 17 of the system of differential equations) to solve the differential equation for V Simultaneously with the output of the second module 9 dynamics of the power plant signals via the interface node 20 receives on the display devices 3 display the parameters of the power installation.

All the motion parameters of the aircraft and propulsion module 13 visualization of a given trajectory remember, PR is the possibility at each site time zoom and move the picture a time in any direction.

The pilot, who is trained can observe actions of a "perfect pilot" (steps according to the program module 10 flight planning) and the corresponding trajectory and movement of the aircraft about its center of gravity.

After the pilot decided to fly a plane, he includes a system and carries out the flight with performing a given manoeuvre. In this case, the signals from the sensors 4.1-4.n controls in the cab 1 of a pilot received via the interface node 20 on the first modules 6 and 8 spatial movement of the plane and the dynamics of the power plant, the output signals which are stored in the module 13 visualization of a given flight path like "the perfect pilot". In addition, the parameters of a spatial movement (navigation options) plane, piloted by pilot, proceed to the corresponding display devices 2, and the parameters of the power installation on the corresponding display devices 3.

Characteristics of the modules 6 and 7 of the spatial motion of the aircraft and modules 8 and 9 of the dynamics of power are similar. The presence of two identical modules is explained by the fact that sometimes it is expedient to combine the real and the ideal" pilots.

After executing the planned flight task, the pilot has the ability to combine on the screen Moni the ora - the trajectory of a "perfect pilot" and the trajectory of its flight, and display monitor 15 output signals of the module 14 quality assessment of the implementation by the pilot flying.

Analyzing the trajectory, the pilot has the opportunity to evaluate their actions, however, his analysis is accompanied by a quantitative assessment of the module 14 quality assessment of the implementation by the pilot of the flight, because the entire trajectory are given quantitative error value and the tolerance for error.

Special attention is given to changing flight course or altitude. If the evaluation of the quality management performed poorly, the pilot repeats the flight and re-evaluates the quality of the maneuver.

Feedback from pilots of this flight stand ground complex planning allows you to create an "image" of the flight that much easier for a pilot conducting a given maneuver in real conditions, to improve the control accuracy, and to ensure flight safety when performing complex maneuvers at low altitudes.

1. Flight stand ground complex planning and preparation of pilot flight operations on aircraft-fighter, containing the cockpit with indicator devices of the motion parameters and propulsion, sensors, controls, and system visualization of spatial what about the motion of the aircraft, as well as computing system that includes a first module of the spatial motion of the aircraft, the first module of the dynamics of the power plant and the monitor, and the input of the first module of the dynamics of the power plant and the first input of the first module of the spatial movement of aircraft associated with the sensor controls the output of the first module of the spatial motion of the aircraft - with indicator devices of the motion parameters and visualization of spatial movement of the aircraft, and the output of the first module of the dynamics of the power plant with a second input of the first module of the spatial motion of the aircraft and the indicator devices of the power plant parameters, characterized in that the computing system introduced module flight planning unit the initial flight conditions and a given maneuver and block control levers, the second module of the spatial movement of the plane, the second module of the dynamics of the power plant, the visualization module of a given flight path and module evaluation the performance of the pilot flying, and the input of the second module of the dynamics of the power plant and the first input of the second module of the spatial movement of aircraft associated with the block of the initial flight conditions and a given maneuver and block control levers, the output of the second m is the module of the spatial motion of the aircraft - with indicator devices of the motion parameters and visualization of spatial movement of the aircraft, and the output of the second module of the dynamics of the power plant to the second input of the second module of the spatial motion of the aircraft and the indicator devices of the power plant parameters, the outputs of both modules of the spatial motion of the aircraft and both modules of the dynamics of the power plant is connected to the corresponding inputs of the visualization module of a given trajectory, the outputs of both modules of the spatial motion of the aircraft are connected to the corresponding inputs of the module evaluation of the performance of the pilot flying, and outputs the visualization module of a given flight path and module evaluation the performance of the pilot flying is connected to the monitor.

2. Flight stand according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the modules of the spatial movement of an aircraft includes a Bank of aerodynamic coefficients, the block system of differential equations, block algorithms of automated control unit drives the controls, while the outputs of the Bank of aerodynamic coefficients and block actuator controls connected respectively to first and second inputs of the block system of differential equations, the output unit of the system of differential equations is connected with the input unit of the algorithms of automatic control; and the output of block algorithms for automated control connected to the first input unit drives authorities, joint entrance Bank aerodynamic coefficients and the second input unit of the actuator controls are the first input of the spatial movement of the plane, and the third input and output unit of the system of differential equations, respectively, the second input and output of this module.

3. Flight stand under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the blocks of module flight planning and cockpit are associated with the modules of the spatial motion of the aircraft and dynamics modules of the power unit via the interface node.



 

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