Device and method for determining total electrical skin impedance

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has acting upon skin between electrodes with DC potential of given magnitude for producing temporary breakdown. Skin impedance is measured between measuring electrode first negatively polarized relative to control electrode and the control electrode, and then, DC current resistance is measured once more by means of measuring electrode positively polarized relative to the control electrode. Ratio of the obtained values is used for determining internal organ health state, corresponding to skin area.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of diagnosis.

11 cl, 14 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The level of technology

This invention relates to a device and method for automatic evaluation of the impedance of the skin, performed in order to assess the overall health of the internal organs of a human or animal.

Existing methods use the values of the impedance of the skin for diagnosis authorities base their results are not ratiometric measurements of the primary impedance of the skin and obtaining inconsistent and unreliable results that depend on many variables, including the patient's emotional state, muscle tension, time of measurement, the area of contact, pressure measuring electrode and a variety of physiological differences between individuals.

After years of research, the inventor believes that the internal organs of a human body or an animal have corresponding areas on the skin, from which information on the relevant internal organs can be obtained by measuring the electrical properties of the skin. The inventor also believes that these are appropriate areas of the skin have other properties related to reflex physiotherapy (including acupuncture), such as the ability to treat/or reduce the pain caused by the relevant authorities.

The inventor also believes that Thu is possible to map these respective areas of the skin and apply this map to different persons.

The inventor has discovered that the ear is possible to map with high accuracy and that its most efficient use in the method according to this invention, since in most national cultures leather ear is always open and you can explore without removing any clothes.

In this description, unless the context clearly implies a different meaning, the term “impedance” is to be understood as including the concept of resistance.

The invention

The change of impedance can be measured in two ways.

Method 1: Estimation using direct current.

The difference between the full DC resistance measured at a certain frequency and at a certain area of the skin using a calibration electrode and a control electrode, and an impedance, measured on the same frequency and on the same plot using the measuring electrode and reference electrode, is used to determine the state of health of the internal organs, corresponding to the studied area of the skin. The calibration electrode and reference electrode are in contact with areas larger than the area of the skin contact of the measuring electrode.

Method 2: Estimates using AC

The term “the effect of temporary breakdown” refers crescom and a significant reduction in the electrical resistance of the skin after application of a significant difference of potentials between the electrodes.

The skin between the electrodes affects the potential of the constant current having a value selected so that to realize the effect of temporary breakdown. Resistance DC current is measured between the measuring electrode is negatively polarized relative to a reference electrode, and the resistance of the DC current of the same area of the skin is measured again, but with the help of the measuring electrode, the positively polarized with respect to the control electrode. The ratio of these two values is used to determine the state of health of the internal organs, corresponding to the studied area of the skin.

The device in General in accordance with this invention may contain the following functional blocks:

measuring and/or calibrating the electrode, reference electrode, the measuring unit, the control unit, the interface unit user unit presentation of the results and, as an option, the memory block data.

The block generator generates a voltage potential difference between the measuring electrode and the control electrode or the calibration electrode and a control electrode. The block generator voltage is connected to the control unit, which controls them. The measuring unit connected to the measuring electrode and reference electrode (figure 1).

The measure concentration is compulsory unit determines the impedance between the measuring electrode and the calibration electrode. Or block generator voltage can be connected via the measuring unit to the measuring electrode or the control electrode (figure 2). The ultimate goal of the measuring unit is the measurement of a parameter (such as voltage or current)that can be used to determine the impedance or resistance between the measuring electrode and reference electrode. The measuring unit is connected to the control unit.

A control unit connected to the user interface (if available), the memory block data (if available), presentation of results, the block generator voltage and the measuring unit. The control unit sets the voltage generated by the block generator voltage. The control unit uses the information received from the measuring unit, in order to detect the effect of a temporary breakdown and asymmetry resistance. The control unit can memorize and to find information in the unit storing data (if available). The control unit informs the user of the measurement results through the block representation of the results. The block representation of the results can generate a visual or audible indication to inform the user of the result, i.e. to report on the health status of internal organ received by the control unit.

The job description

is the result of a large amount of experiments, the inventor has found, the device in General in accordance with this invention may operate is described below with obtaining reliable results.

Method 1: Estimation using AC

The calibration electrode is mounted in contact with the desired area of the skin corresponding to the internal organ of the subject, whose health is to be determined. The control electrode is mounted in contact with any other part of the skin - usually on the hand object. The control unit uses the block generator voltage to generate an alternating current signal of a certain frequency and magnitude between the calibration and control electrodes. The control unit determines the impedance between the electrodes through the measuring unit. The control unit memorizes the value of the impedance in the memory block (which is called “calibration complete resistance”). The control unit displays through the block representation of the results signal that the calibration impedance is defined. The calibration electrode is removed and the measuring electrode is placed on the examined area of the skin. The control unit uses the block generator voltage for generating an alternating current signal of a similar frequency and magnitude between the calibration and control electrodes.

The control unit is ment defines the relationship between the calibration impedance and an impedance, measured by the measuring electrode, and converts this attitude in the status indication of the health of the internal organs. The control unit displays the result in the presentation of the results (e.g. on a percentage scale of severity of the disease).

The result it is advisable to display in percent, is calculated by the following equation:

% disease=(1-Imeasurement/Icontrol)×100; and

% disease=(1-Rcontrol/Rmeasurement)×100

The percentage varies in accordance with different States of health of this organ. Usually from 0 to 40% indicate a healthy condition; from 40 to 60% indicate the upper limits of the healthy state; 60 to 80% indicate the status of the following acute and 80 to 100% indicate an acute condition of the investigated organ.

Method 2: Estimation using DC

The control electrode is mounted in contact with any part of the skin. The measuring electrode is mounted in contact with a specific point of the skin corresponding to the inner body, the health of which is determined. The control unit uses the block generator voltage to generate a potential difference DC between the electrodes. The control unit determines the resistance between the electrodes by means of the measuring unit. The control unit regulates asnote potential DC voltage and resistance checks as long until the resistance drops below a certain threshold or abruptly begin rapid decline (the effect of temporary breakdown). The control unit checks the resistance until reaching a steady value. The control unit memorizes the value of the resistance memory block data (called “control and resistance”).

The control unit changes the polarization of the measuring electrodes on the reverse with respect to each other and uses the block generator voltage for application to the electrodes of the capacity of DC. The control unit determines the resistance between the electrodes by using the measuring unit (called “resistance measurement”).

The control unit defines the relationship between the “resistance measurement” and “control and resistance” and this ratio calculates the severity of the disease. For this calculation use the following equation:

% Disease=(1-Imeasurement/Icontrol)×100; or

% Disease=(1-Rmeasurement/Rcontrol)×100.

The control unit displays the result in the presentation of the results (e.g., on a percentage scale intensity of the disease).

Usually the result display in percent, with different percentage corresponds to a different health state of the body. Usually from 0 to 40% ukazyvayutsya condition; from 40 to 60% indicate the upper limits of the healthy state; 60 to 80% indicate the status of the following acute and 80 to 100% indicate an acute condition of the investigated organ.

For optimal induction effect of a temporary breakdown of the dimension of the control resistance to perform measurement electrode polarized negatively with respect to the control electrode, although it is believed that at higher potential difference between the electrodes the effect of temporary breakdown can also be observed in case of reverse polarity.

In the method using DC: if the internal organ is unhealthy, then using the measuring electrode, the positively polarized with respect to the control electrode will be measured impedance, higher than the measuring electrode is negatively polarized with respect to the control electrode, e.g., 300 ohms compared to 30 ohms. Similarly, when using the method with the use of AC measurement obtained by the measuring electrode will be reading impedance higher than the impedance measurements obtained using a calibration electrode.

It is also possible to use an alternating current signal when applying the method of direct current.

Although plots thin the skin, such as the auricle, both effective assessment method with application and continuous and alternating currents, all the same estimation method using direct current is preferred, but for body areas with thicker skin, such as the foot, more preferred is a method using alternating current, as for areas with thicker skin the effect of a temporary breakdown requires a higher voltage, which may cause the subject's sensation of pain.

The inventor believes that described above, the device uses a new technique of measurement and definitions of ratios and delivers a consistent and reproducible diagnostic results that do not depend on a variety of physiological differences among individuals, the emotional state of the patient, from the tension of the muscles and the measurement time. The results depend on the severity of the disease, and the effect of pressure has no value.

Examples

Example 1

In the first test subject of diagnosis was gastric ulcer with obtaining the following results:

Plots the projection of the ear (thin skin - measurement using DC):

control resistance = 10 kω;

⇒ the projection of the stomach: resistance measurement = 200 ohms;

ie 95% of the activity of the disease

⇒ castke projection healthy body: resistance measurement = 10-25 ohms,

ie 0-60% disease activity

The area of the heel projection (thick skin - measurement using AC):

Control resistance = 15 kω (at 250 Hz)

⇒ Plot gastric projection: resistance measurement = 300 kω,

ie 95% of the activity of the disease

⇒ Areas of projection healthy body: resistance measurement = 15-37,5 kω,

ie 0-60% of the activity of the disease.

Example 2

Gidroenergetichesky transformation (kidney infection)

Plots the projection of the ear (thin skin - measurement using DC):

Control resistance = 10 kω;

⇒ the projection of the kidney: resistance measurement = 100 kω;

ie 90% of the disease activity

⇒ Areas of projection healthy body: resistance measurement = 10-25 ohms,

ie 0-60% disease activity

The area of the heel projection (thick skin - measurement using AC):

Control resistance = 10 kω (at 250 Hz)

⇒ Plot renal projection: resistance measurement = 100 kω,

ie 90% of the disease activity

⇒ Areas of projection healthy body: resistance measurement = 10-25 ohms,

ie 0-60% of the activity of the disease.

Description of the drawings

Figure 1 illustrates in the form of a principal block diagram of the device is to assess changes in the impedance of the skin and health of the corresponding internal organ by measuring with the use of AC or DC in General in accordance with this invention.

Figure 2 in the form of a principal block diagram of an implementation option device for estimating changes in the total resistance of the skin and health of the corresponding internal organ by measuring with the use of AC or DC in General in accordance with this invention.

Figure 3 in the form of a principal block diagram of a device for measuring changes in the total resistance of the skin and health of the corresponding internal organ using measurement using DC or AC in accordance with this invention.

4 is in the form of schematic diagrams of the power supply according to figure 3.

5 is in the form of schematic diagrams of the control unit and the user interface block according to figure 3.

6 is in the form of a schematic block representation of the results according to figure 3.

7 - in the form of a schematic circuit block of the generator voltage and the measuring unit according to figure 3.

Fig - in the form of a schematic circuit block of the data memory according to figure 3.

Figure 9 is a simplified block diagram of the software used in the microcontroller in the control unit according to figure 5.

Figure 10 - the effect of temporary breakdown obtained using the device of this invention in the measuring mode using a direct current.

11 - dependence of soprotivlenija from the supplied voltage to certain points on the skin, appropriate healthy body (figa), and some points on the skin corresponding to a sick body (fig.11b)obtained by the method of this invention using measurement using DC.

Fig - the dependence of the total resistance of the skin from the supplied frequency obtained by the method of this invention using measurements using alternating current.

Fig view points of the skin on the ear of the person corresponding to the internal organs; and

Fig - view areas of the skin on the soles of the feet that correspond to specific internal organs.

In the figures, reference 1 indicates a device for determining state of health of the internal organ of a subject using the method of estimating the change in impedance in accordance with this invention.

The device 1 contains a block 5 of the generator voltage, which generates a potential difference between the measuring 11.1 or 11.2 calibration electrode and a control electrode 11.3. Unit 5 generator voltage is connected to the unit 2 control, which it manages. The measuring unit 6 is connected to the measuring electrode 11.1 or 11.2 calibration electrode and a control electrode 11.3.

In figure 2 the reference 1.2 indicates the variant of the device for determining state of health of the internal organs of the subject from paasusaba estimates of changes in impedance in accordance with this invention.

Unit 5 generator voltage generates a potential difference between the measuring 11.1 or 11.2 calibration electrode and a control electrode 11.3. Unit 5 generator voltage is connected to the unit 2 control, which it manages. The measuring unit 6 is connected to the measuring electrode 11.1 or calibration electrode 11.2 and a control electrode 11.3.

The measuring unit 6 determines the total resistance between the measuring electrode 11.1 or calibration electrode 11.2 and a control electrode 11.3. Either block 5 of the generator voltage can be connected via the measuring unit 6 to the measuring electrode 11.1, or calibration electrode 11.2, or to the control electrode 11.3. The ultimate goal of the measuring unit 6 is the dimension of the parameter (such as voltage or current), which depends on the impedance or resistance between the measuring electrode 11.1 or calibration electrode 11.2 and a control electrode 11.3. The measuring unit 6 is connected to the unit 2 control.

The control unit 2 is connected to the unit 8 user interface, block 3 memory data block 7 presentation of results, block 5 of the generator voltage and the measuring unit 6. The unit 2 control sets the voltage generated by the block 5 of the generator voltage. Unit 2 management uses information from smertelnogo block 6, to detect the effect of temporary breakdown and asymmetry resistance. The unit 2 control is designed with the ability to store and search information in block 3 of memory data. The unit 2 control informs the user of the measurement results through the block 7 presentation of results. Unit 7 present the results may form the user visual or audible indication of the result, i.e. the state of health of the internal organs received by the unit 2 control.

Referring to figure 3, shows a device 1 diagnostics on electrical skin resistance, mainly intended for diagnostics of a pathology of internal organs due to electrical stimulation and measurement of impedance remote from each other of the points of the skin.

In the device 1 diagnostics on electrical skin resistance unit 2 control displays commands to the operator on the LCD display 37 exclusively or in conjunction with a video monitor connected to the video display 13 or TV connected to the modulator 10 UHF. The list of diagnosed bodies display on a monitor or TV. The operator selects the internal organs to diagnose using the keyboard 9.

The unit 2 control selects the diagnostic method based on the location of the investigated points/areas of the skin. And eeda two ways diagnostics: measurement using AC or measurement using DC. Measurement using AC is more appropriate for areas with thicker skin, e.g. the sole of the foot. Measurement using DC is more appropriate for areas with thin skin, e.g. ear.

The unit 2 control displays the study area (e.g., foot or ear). The allocated area or point indicates where the operator must set the measuring electrode 11.1. The unit 2 control unit 5 generator voltage optical line in order to perform a scheduled scan.

For measurement using DC: Unit 5 generator voltage generates a small constant potential difference between the measuring electrode 11.1 and a control electrode 11.3, while the measuring electrode is negatively polarized with respect to the control electrode. The current is controlled by the unit 2 control by the measuring unit 6 and, when the current increases above a predetermined threshold, it is assumed that both of the probe in contact with the skin. The potential difference between the probes slowly increases, and the current going through the probe continuously measure. Skin resistance is calculated by dividing the value of the potential supplied to the probes, to the value of the measured current flowing through the probes. Upon detection of significant sharp PA the value of this resistance (see Fig.9 - algorithm) continuously adjust the potential difference between the probes, to save on pre-determined level of the measured current flowing through the probes. This phase continues until such time as the rate of change of the skin resistance drops below a predetermined level. The value of the potential difference at this time remember using the unit 2 control unit 3 memory data. The unit 2 control uses the block generator voltage for the application of the same potential difference between the probes with the opposite polarization (measuring electrode positively polarized relative to a reference electrode). The current is measured continuously. It is believed that this ratio (measured current)/(specified current) provides an indication of the degree of pathology in the body. If this ratio approaches zero, then the corresponding body is sick. If this ratio exceeds 0.6, it is considered that this body healthy. The more this ratio approaches zero, the higher will be the degree of the pathology (e.g., cancer of this organ.

Unit 2 management continuously monitors the current through the measuring unit 6 and displays the result of the inspection on the liquid crystal display 37 on a percentage scale of the disease up until the operator presses on the foot pedal 12, the control Unit stores the result in block 3, the data memory and includes a buzzer 36, pointing out that this review is completed.

Accordingly, the unit 2 control is performed with the opportunity to interact with the block 3 memory data block 5 of the generator voltage measuring unit 6 and unit 7 presentation of results. Thus, the unit 2 controls the actions of block 3 data memory unit 5 generator voltage measuring unit 6 and unit 7 presentation of results. As a result, the unit 2 control unit 3 memory data block 5 of the generator voltage, the measuring unit 6, unit 7 presentation of results of working together, forming a variety of tools designed to perform basic functions.

Preferably, the unit 2 control and measuring unit 6 operate together with education tools for continuous monitoring and measurement of at least the first parameter, which depends on the resistance between the electrodes when the electrode is installed in contact with the first area of the skin corresponding to a particular organ, and the control electrode is installed in contact with the second area of skin on the same body and when applied, using the generator, a certain potential difference DC between the electrodes, and the means for continuous monitoring and measurement of at least the first parameter in the designs with the ability to connect when using the measuring electrode and reference electrode.

Moreover, the unit 2 control unit 5 generator voltage operate together with education, means of regulating the current or potential difference to the occurrence of significant changes in the first parameter due to decrease in skin resistance when the potential difference of a temporary breakdown.

Also the unit 2 control unit 3 data memory function in conjunction with the formation of the recording media, by using a plug means for the continuous monitoring and measurement of the first parameter and configured to register the first measured value of the first parameter after the occurrence of significant changes in the first parameter due to decrease in skin resistance upon reaching the potential difference of a temporary breakdown.

In addition, the unit 2 control unit 5 generator voltage is also functioning together with the formation of means for changing the potential difference between the electrodes so that the polarity of the electrodes is changed to reverse after recording first measured value, and the means for changing the potential difference between the electrodes is made with the ability to connect when using the generator and/or to the measuring electrode and reference electrode.

And unit 2 is driven by the I, and block 3 data memory function in conjunction with the formation of the recording media, by using a plug to the measuring electrode and reference electrode, configured to register the second measured value of the second parameter, which depends on the resistance between the electrodes after the polarity of the electrodes on the reverse.

Also preferably, the unit 2 control forms the means for comparing the first and second measured values to obtain a third value that indicates the health of the body, which corresponds to the first area of the skin, and the means for comparing the first and second measured values is made with the ability to connect when using the recorder of the first measured value and recorder of the second measured value.

For measurement using AC: the Operator sets the control electrode 11.3 and calibration electrode 11.2 on the skin of the subject by a team from the liquid crystal display 37. Unit 5 generator voltage generates a small potential difference between the electrodes 11.2 and 11.3. The current is continuously monitored and, when the current exceeds a specified threshold, then the conclusion is that both probes are in contact with the skin. Now between the electrodes exert a sine re the military talk. The current is continuously monitored using the unit 2 control by the measuring unit 6 and the voltage adjust until the current set level. This process is called calibration.

The unit 2 control displays the image of the study area (usually the foot) on a video monitor or on a television screen using the block representation of the results. The unit 2 control displays the message on the LCD display 37, informing the operator that it is now necessary to use the measuring electrode 11.1 and control electrode 11.3. The selected area or point indicates the place where the operator must set the measuring electrode 11.1. The current is measured continuously.

It is believed that this ratio (measured current)/(specified current) provides an indication of the degree of pathology of this organ. If this ratio approaches zero, then the corresponding body is sick. If this ratio exceeds 0.6, it is considered that this body healthy. The more this ratio approaches zero, the greater is considered to be present in this organ pathology (e.g., cancer). Unit 2 management continuously monitors the current through the measuring unit 6 and displays the result of the inspection on the liquid crystal display 37 on a percentage scale of the disease as long as the operator does not then press the t on the foot pedal 12. The control unit stores the result in block 3, the data memory and includes a buzzer 36, indicating that this review is completed.

Block 2 contains a control microcontroller 16 (usually - model “8051”). The generator 28 provides the clock signal for the microcontroller 16. Standard configuration address switch (11) are used to form a 16-bit address bus (11.1, 16.3), which is connected to the NVR 56 capacity 32 and the ROM 57 capacity of 32 K. Bilateral information bus 16.1 transfers data to and from the microcontroller 16. Using the interface 17 of the keyboard (usually model NS”) microcontroller 16 performs interconnect keyboard 9.

The electrodes are galvanically isolated 55 relative to the primary circuit through the transformer 43 in block 5 of the generator voltage. The measuring unit 6 is optically isolated from the main circuit opto-coupling devices 51, 52, 53, 54. A sinusoidal voltage applied to the primary coil of the transformer 43,1, increase the secondary coil 43.2. Scheme 44 doubling the voltage doubles and rectifies the sinusoidal output voltage of the coil 43.2, resulting in the capacitor 38 is formed by a constant voltage. When turned off, the relay 40 AC voltage serves to relay 42. When relay 40 DC voltage with Conde is Satoru 38 serves to relay 42. Relay 42 is used for switching the polarity of the signal from the relay 40. This combination of relays 42 and 40 are used to switch the voltage between the probes in the AC or DC voltage, and it provides a change in the polarity of the probes on the reverse.

The primary coil 43.1 transformer 43 excite operational amplifier 41, which is used in the mode of the amplifier-inverter. Programmable generator 39 sinusoidal signals (usually - model “ML2036”) forms the input to the operational amplifier 41. Generator 39 sinusoidal signals are controlled by a microcontroller 16 lines 22.1, 22.3, 22.4. The frequency programming in digital form for this serial bus. The value of the output sinusoidal signal (from half to peak value) is equal to the voltage at the output 24.1 d / a Converter 24. The output voltage of the d / a Converter 24 is set by the bus 16.1 using the microcontroller 16.

The current measured by the measuring unit 6. With the closure of the circuit between the electrodes due to this impedance, as the human body, the current passes through the electrodes and the grounding of the measuring resistor 46. Appearing on the resistor voltage relative to ground is therefore proportional to the current flowing through the probes. The buffer 45 of the operational usilitel the beeps precision rectifier, formed by operational amplifiers 47 and 48. They secrete the absolute value of the signal, which is fed in serial analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 49. ADC 49 communicates with the microcontroller 16 via serial bus comprising lines 22.1, 22.2 and 22.3, optical communication line, provide an optoelectronic coupling device 52, 53, 54. Detector zero crossing 50 detects the polarity of the voltage across the measuring resistor 46 and passes this information is a binary code of ones and zeros in the microcontroller 16 for optoelectronic coupling device 51. When the application of alternating voltage to the electrodes the current is measured in each peak value of the voltage. The microcontroller 16 waits for the occurrence of the transition from zero to unity at the output of 22.5 optoelectronic coupling device 51. The microcontroller 16 is awaiting the emergence of a period of time equal to one quarter of the period of the output voltage, and then requests the conversion from analog-to-digital Converter 49.

The microcontroller displays the relevant data on the monitor using the video display 13. Dual port NVR 30 contains a variant of the screen in the form of a bit map display. The microcontroller 16 is arranged to read and write data in the dual port NVR 30 through pore the STW data line 16.1 through line management 16.6 and 16.7 and address bus, having designations and 16.3 11.1. Matrix 25 logical elements with operational programming uses counters and shift registers to sequentially read the data screen and to record in the encoder system PAL information in the form of red, green and blue (GLC) elements in the picture and also information reverse moves across the frame and string in GLC. Universal clock generator 33 generates the sync pulses of the video standard PAL. These pulses are synchronized with the main clock generator system using the system phase of the automatic frequency control 34. Sync picture elements output from the main generator 16.5 clock system using counters in the matrix 25 logical elements with operational programming. The clock generator image elements are used to read and convert the serialized data at the proper speed and in the proper method of dual-NVR 30, resulting in the bit streams sent to the CPS in the PAL encoder, you can encode in full sync video standard PAL and then be sent directly to the video input 31.1 standard video monitor.

The modulator 10 UHF converts full synchronization signal in the ultra-high frequency signal, which is directly the public to send to the antenna input 35.1 TV. Integrated modulator 35 UHF modulates full clock signal FELL from a video display in the frequency defined by external components.

Meals are served in the circuit of block 4 power. Transformer 14.1, the primary link which is connected to the network, and the secondary link is connected to a bridge rectifier diagram 14.2, converts 220 VAC 7.2 AC. The output signal of the rectifier serves a 5-volt regulator 14.3. Monolithic inverter 15.1 voltage, which is usually the inverter model MACH”, generates the power supply -5 V from the main 5V power.

The power supplied to unit 5 of the generator voltage and the measuring unit 6, galvanically isolated from main power. Converter 15.2 DC voltage (typically - model “NMA0505”) is used to supply voltage +5 V and -5 In an isolated circuit patient interface.

Figure 10 depicts a graph of voltage against time, when the effect of (x) a temporary breakdown. At the point of a temporary breakdown (x) is a sharp and significant decrease in resistance and a sharp and significant drop in voltage. The reference value is measured when the voltage is stabilized after the effects of temporal breakdown.

Figa and 11b illustrate how affects disease resistance a l the Bo body. In figa two curves represent resistance values at different voltages for a healthy body and fig.11b illustrates two curves of impedance values at different voltages for an unhealthy body. Lines 50 represent the control values of the resistance, and the lines 52 represent the measured resistance values. Fig.11b illustrates two curves resistance values at different voltages for an unhealthy body. If the body is healthy, control and measured resistance values are similar, but the increase in the diseases of the body measured value increases in equal degree, and the difference between reference and measured values increases.

Similarly Fig depicts the change of the measured impedance, when this body has the disease. Line 56 represents the reference values and resistance values at different frequencies. Line 58 illustrates the measured resistance values for a healthy body; line 60 illustrates the measured resistance values of the body with the disease. The more worsens the condition of this organ, the higher is the resistance of the measured values and, consequently, the greater the difference between the measured and reference values.

Addressing pig and 14, the measuring caliber or the data electrodes installed on the points, listed in order, for diagnosis of a specific organ. The point on which the electrode depends on the specified authority; the following Tables 1 and 2 indicate the bodies, which are numbered point.

Table 1
The number specified in FigPart of the body
1heart (P)
2thyroid gland
3light (top share)
4light
5the esophageal (cardiac orifice)
6stomach
7liver (left lobe) (P)
8liver (right lobe) (L)
9spleen (P)
10kidney
11pancreas (P)
12gall bladder
13duodenum (L)
14transverse colon
15descending colon (P)
16ascending colon (Appendix) (L)
17the small intestine
18the ureter
19bladder
20the prostate gland
21distal colon
22mammary gland
23ovary and appendages
24uterus
25varolii bridge
26eye mound
27the hypothalamus
28the pituitary gland
29the cerebral cortex (frontal lobe)
30midbrain
31the cerebral cortex (the rear portion)
32the cerebellum
33the medulla
34cervical spine
35thoracic spine
36lumbar spine
37shoulder
38elbow
39wrist
40metacarpal bone
41fingers
42hip
43knee
44ankle
45Tarsus
46toes
(L) left auricle

(P) right auricle

TABLE 2
Room in pigPart of the body
1the brain
2the pituitary gland
3thyroid gland
4the esophagus
5light
6heart
7PE is Yan
8circular muscle of heart
9stomach
10spleen
11gall bladder
12the adrenal gland
13pancreas
14duodenum
15the colon
16kidney
17the small intestine
18the ureter
19fallopian tube
20ovaries
21bladder
22Appendix

This invention is not limited only disclosed in the description of the structural details; skilled in the technical field will be clear that the above principles can be applied to provide other devices that implement them. In particular, the described device uses measurements of impedance and resistance calculated for the I health of this organ, but for specialists in the art it will be obvious that the quality of measurements and calculations, you can use other values that are either directly or indirectly proportional to the resistance or resistance.

1. Device for diagnosing the health of a human body or an animal, containing the electrical generator; measuring electrode and a control electrode connected when using the generator; a means for continuous monitoring and measurement of at least the first parameter, which depends on the resistance between the electrodes when the electrode is installed in contact with the first area of the skin corresponding to a particular organ, and the control electrode is installed in contact with the second area of skin on the same body, and when applied with a generator of a certain potential difference DC between the electrodes, and the means for continuous monitoring and measuring at least the first parameter is made with the ability to connect when using the measuring electrode and reference electrode; means for regulating the current or potential difference to the occurrence of significant changes in the first parameter by reducing the resistance of the skin when the difference potenzirovannogo breakdown; the writer, by using a plug means for the continuous monitoring and measurement of the first parameter and configured to register the first measured value of the first parameter after the occurrence of significant changes in the first parameter due to decrease in skin resistance upon reaching the potential difference of a temporary breakdown; means for changing the potential difference between the electrodes so that the polarity of the electrodes is changed to reverse after recording first measured value, and the means for changing the potential difference between the electrodes is made with the ability to connect when using the generator and/or to the measuring electrode and reference electrode; means for recording, by using a plug to the measuring electrode and reference electrode, configured to register the second measured value of the second parameter, which depends on the resistance between the electrodes after the polarity of the electrodes on the reverse; a means for comparing the first and second measured values to obtain a third value that indicates the health of the body, which corresponds to the first area of the skin, and the means for comparing the first and second measurements and the data values are made with the ability to connect when using the recorder of the first measured value and recorder of the second measured value.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the measuring electrode is polarized negatively with respect to the control electrode in the implementation of continuous monitoring, measurement and registration of the first parameter by using the continuous monitoring and measuring and recording media, respectively.

3. The device according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that it contains a renderer, designed to indicate the first area of skin on which to place the measuring electrode to obtain a diagnosis for a particular organ.

4. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the display device is designed to indicate areas of the skin on the foot or ear.

5. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the third value is represented as the ratio of the first and second measured values.

6. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that it further comprises a means of communication made with the possibility of a status message diagnosed health authority, the operator of the device as normal, mild or spicy depending on the third value.

7. The way to diagnose the health of a human body or an animal, containing the operations, which establish the measuring electrode on or near a zone of the skin, to the which corresponds to a given body, and establish a control electrode in contact with a different area of skin on the same body; continuously monitor and measure at least the first parameter, which depends on the resistance between the electrodes when the applied potential difference DC between the electrodes;

adjust the potential difference to the occurrence of significant changes in the first parameter due to decrease in skin resistance when the potential difference of a temporary breakdown, record the measurement value of the first parameter after the occurrence of significant changes in the first parameter due to decrease in skin resistance upon reaching the potential difference of a temporary breakdown; change the potential difference between the electrodes on the back after recording first measured value, register the second measured value of the second parameter, which depends on the resistance between the electrodes after the polarity of the electrodes on the reverse; compare the first and second values to obtain a third value that indicates the health of this organ to which the area of the skin.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the potential difference between the electrodes making such a way that the measuring electrode polarize negatively what about the relation to the control electrode in the implementation of continuous monitoring, measurement and registration of the first parameter.

9. The method according to any of claims 7 and 8, characterized in that the third value is expressed as the ratio of the first and second values.

10. The method according to any of claims 7 to 9, characterized in that the measuring electrode mounted on the outer side of the ear or on the soles of the feet, having an area of skin corresponding to the given entity.

11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that use vehicle display, indicates zone of the skin of the foot or ear where you want to place the electrode for diagnosis of a specific organ.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves doing multi-channel recording of electroencephalogram and carrying out functional tests. Recording and storing rheoencephalograms is carried out additionally with multi-channel recording of electroencephalogram synchronously and in real time mode in carotid and vertebral arteries. Electroencephalograms and rheoencephalograms are visualized in single window with single time axis. Functional brain state is evaluated from synchronous changes of electroencephalograms, rheoencephalograms and electrocardiograms in response to functional test. The device has electrode unit 1 for recording bioelectric brain activity signals, electrode unit 2 for recording electric cardiac activity signals, current and potential electrode unit 3 for recording rheosignals, leads commutator 4, current rheosignal oscillator 5, synchronous rheosignal detector 6, multi-channel bioelectric brain activity signals amplifier 7, electrophysiological signal amplifier 8, demultiplexer 9, multi-channel rheosignal amplifier 10, multi-channel analog-to-digital converter 11, micro-computer 12 having galvanically isolated input/output port and personal computer 13 of standard configuration.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of differential diagnosis-making.

11 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: one should measure electric impedance of patient's middle ear. Electrodes should be applied in three localizations: auditory canal, anterior end of lower nasal concha and frontal skin. Electric impedance should be measured at the frequencies of sinusoidal signal being equal to 10, 30, 250 and 1000 Hz, the data obtained should be compared by values of electric impedance in the given area (middle ear) in the group of healthy patients. This method provides the chance to obtain comparative data for diagnostics of middle ear diseases.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of evaluation.

2 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out urological examination for determining hydrodynamic resistance of ureter calculated from formula Z=8Lμ/(πR4), where Z is the hydrodynamic resistance of ureter, L is the ureter length, R is the ureter radius, μ is the urine viscosity. Angle α at which the ureter enters the urinary bladder is determined from formula cosα = 8l1μ/(ZπR4), where l1 is the perpendicular drawn from the upper edge of the ureter to the its exit projection line, μ is the urine viscosity, Z is the hydrodynamic resistance of ureter, R is the ureter radius. Vesicoureteral reflux recidivation is predicted when the angle of α+90° is less than 120°.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in reducing the number of recidivation cases.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

The invention relates to medical equipment, namely to diagnostic devices for measuring impedance in specified parts of the body, and can be used for non-invasive determination of volumes of body fluids

The invention relates to medicine, namely to a gastroenterologist, and can be used for both adults and school-aged children
The invention relates to the field of veterinary medicine

The invention relates to animal husbandry

The invention relates to medicine, in particular to normal and clinical physiology

The invention relates to medicine, more specifically to a diagnostic electrode devices for measuring electrical impedance of body tissues

The invention relates to medicine, orthopedics

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out urological examination for determining hydrodynamic resistance of ureter calculated from formula Z=8Lμ/(πR4), where Z is the hydrodynamic resistance of ureter, L is the ureter length, R is the ureter radius, μ is the urine viscosity. Angle α at which the ureter enters the urinary bladder is determined from formula cosα = 8l1μ/(ZπR4), where l1 is the perpendicular drawn from the upper edge of the ureter to the its exit projection line, μ is the urine viscosity, Z is the hydrodynamic resistance of ureter, R is the ureter radius. Vesicoureteral reflux recidivation is predicted when the angle of α+90° is less than 120°.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in reducing the number of recidivation cases.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: one should measure electric impedance of patient's middle ear. Electrodes should be applied in three localizations: auditory canal, anterior end of lower nasal concha and frontal skin. Electric impedance should be measured at the frequencies of sinusoidal signal being equal to 10, 30, 250 and 1000 Hz, the data obtained should be compared by values of electric impedance in the given area (middle ear) in the group of healthy patients. This method provides the chance to obtain comparative data for diagnostics of middle ear diseases.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of evaluation.

2 ex

FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves doing multi-channel recording of electroencephalogram and carrying out functional tests. Recording and storing rheoencephalograms is carried out additionally with multi-channel recording of electroencephalogram synchronously and in real time mode in carotid and vertebral arteries. Electroencephalograms and rheoencephalograms are visualized in single window with single time axis. Functional brain state is evaluated from synchronous changes of electroencephalograms, rheoencephalograms and electrocardiograms in response to functional test. The device has electrode unit 1 for recording bioelectric brain activity signals, electrode unit 2 for recording electric cardiac activity signals, current and potential electrode unit 3 for recording rheosignals, leads commutator 4, current rheosignal oscillator 5, synchronous rheosignal detector 6, multi-channel bioelectric brain activity signals amplifier 7, electrophysiological signal amplifier 8, demultiplexer 9, multi-channel rheosignal amplifier 10, multi-channel analog-to-digital converter 11, micro-computer 12 having galvanically isolated input/output port and personal computer 13 of standard configuration.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of differential diagnosis-making.

11 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has acting upon skin between electrodes with DC potential of given magnitude for producing temporary breakdown. Skin impedance is measured between measuring electrode first negatively polarized relative to control electrode and the control electrode, and then, DC current resistance is measured once more by means of measuring electrode positively polarized relative to the control electrode. Ratio of the obtained values is used for determining internal organ health state, corresponding to skin area.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of diagnosis.

11 cl, 14 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: poultry science.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with visual evaluation in chicken followed by testing them by the value of bioelectric potential. Chickens with bioelectric potential being significantly higher against average values are considered to be stress-resistant ones and those with bioelectric potential being significantly lower against average values in concrete population are concluded to be stress-sensitive ones. The method is very simple in its implementation and efficient for large-scale selection in poultry on stress-resistance.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: the method deals with measuring geometric body size and electric impedances of patient's hands, body and legs at their probing with low- and high-frequency current due to current and potential electrodes applied onto distal parts of limbs, and, thus, detecting extracellular, cellular and total volumes of liquid in patient's hands, body and legs. While implementing the method one should additionally apply current electrodes onto left-hand and right-hand parts of neck, and potential electrodes - onto distal femoral parts. Body impedance (Zb) should be measured due to successive measuring the impedance of its right-hand Zrb and left-hand Zlb parts at probing current coming between electrodes of similar sides of patient's neck and legs to detect Zb, as Zb = Ѕ x (Zrb + Zlb), impedance of legs Zl should be detected due to measuring femoral impedance Zf and that of shins Zs, as Zl = Zf + Zs. At detecting the volumes of liquid in body and legs one should apply measured values of Zb and Zl, moreover, as geometric body size one should apply the distance against the plane coming through the upper brachial surface up to the middle of radiocarpal articulation in case of patient's hand being along the body.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of detection.

5 dwg, 2 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves applying electrodes to injured extremity tissue under study. The electrodes are arranged in diametrically opposite points of horizontal plane transaction to extremity surface. Two electrodes are applied to the other extremity. The electrodes are arranged in diametrically opposite points of horizontal plane transaction to extremity surface. An initial point is selected relative to which pairs of electrodes are equidistantly arranged on the extremity. Active and reactive impedance components are measured at the places of electrodes positioning. Viability condition of the injured extremity tissue under study is diagnosed depending on ratio of reactive to active impedance component on injured and intact extremity and difference between reactive impedance component on injured and intact extremity. Device has transducer unit, computer and unit for processing signals having interface units, central subscriber station, autonomous transmission center, commutator which input is connected to transducer unit output and commutator output is connected to central subscriber station input, the first input is connected to autonomous transmission center output.

EFFECT: high accuracy in diagnosing biological object condition.

5 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: medicine, psychotherapy.

SUBSTANCE: the method deals with correcting neurological and psychopathological disorders with anxiety-phobic symptomatics due to individual trainings. The method includes evaluation of body reaction to stimulating signals, seances of individual training performed due to the impact of two quasiantipodal stimulating signals of similar physical modality applied in time of sporadic character, and as a signal one should present biological feedback for the altered value of physiological parameter adequately reflecting body reaction to the impact of stimulating signal. At the first stage of training it is necessary to achieve body adaptation to the impact of quasiantipodal stimulating signals, at the second stage it is necessary to obtain conditional reflex for one out of stimulating signals, for this purpose one should accompany this stimulating signal with discomfort impact, during the third stage, finally, due to volitional efforts one should suppress body reaction to stimulating signal. The devise suggested contains successively connected a transformer of physiological parameter into electric signal and a bioamplifier, an analysis and control block with a connected block to present the signals of biological feedback, a block for presenting discomfort impact, an indication block and that of forming and presenting quasiantipodal stimulating signals. The innovation enables to have skills to control one's emotions, decrease sensitivity threshold to environmental impacts and learn to how behave during stress situations.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of training.

15 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves recording multichannel electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram record and carrying out functional test and computer analysis of electrophysiological signals synchronously with multichannel record of electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram in real time mode. Superslow brain activity is recorded, carotid and spinal artery pools rheoelectroencephalogram is recorded and photopletysmogram of fingers and/or toes is built and subelectrode resistance of electrodes for recording bioelectrical cerebral activity is measured. Physiological values of bioelectrical cerebral activity are calculated and visualized in integrated cardiac cycle time scale as absolute and relative values of alpha-activity, pathological slow wave activity in delta and theta wave bandwidth. Cerebral metabolism activity dynamics level values are calculated and visualized at constant potential level. Heart beat rate is determined from electrocardiogram, pulsating blood-filling of cerebral blood vessels are determined from rheological indices data. Peripheral blood vessel resistance level, peripheral blood vessel tonus are determined as peripheral photoplethysmogram pulsation amplitude, large blood vessel tonus is determined from pulse wave propagation time data beginning from Q-tooth signal of electrocardiogram to the beginning of systolic wave of peripheral photoplethysmogram. Postcapillary venular blood vessels tonus is determined from constant photoplethysmogram component. Functional brain state is determined from dynamic changes of physiological values before during and after the functional test. Device for evaluating functional brain state has in series connected multichannel analog-to-digital converter, microcomputer having galvanically isolated input/output ports and PC of standard configuration and electrode unit for reading bioelectric cerebral activity signals connected to multichannel bioelectric cerebral activity signals amplifier. Current and potential electrode unit for recording rheosignals, multichannel rheosignals amplifier, current rheosignals generator and synchronous rheosignals detector are available. The device additionally has two-frequency high precision current generator, master input of which is connected to microcomputer. The first output group is connected to working electrodes and the second one is connected to reference electrodes of electrode unit for reading bioelectrical cerebral activity signals. Lead switch is available with its first input group being connected to potential electrodes of current and potential electrodes unit for recording rheosignals. The second group of inputs is connected to outputs of current rheosignals oscillator. The first group of outputs is connected to current electrodes of current and potential electrodes unit for recording rheosignals. The second group of outputs is connected to inputs of synchronous detector of rheosignals. Demultiplexer input is connected to output of synchronous detector of rheosignals and its outputs are connected to multichannel rheosignals amplifier inputs. Outputs of multichannel bioelectrical cerebral activity signals amplifier, multichannel rheosignals amplifier and electrophysiological signal amplifier are connected to corresponding inputs of multichannel analog-to-digital converter. Microcomputer outputs are connected to control input of lead switch, control input of multichannel demultiplexer, control input of multichannel analog-to-digital converter and synchronization inputs of current rheosignals oscillator and synchronous detector of rheosignals. To measure subelectrode resistance, a signal from narrow bandwidth current generator of frequency f1 exceeding the upper frequency fup of signals under recording is supplied. A signal from narrow bandwidth current generator of frequency f2≠ f1>fup is supplied to reference electrode. Voltages are selected and measured at output of each amplifier with frequencies of f1, f2 - Uf1 and Uf2 using narrow bandwidth filtering. Subelectrode resistance of each working electrode is determined from formula Zj=Ujf1 :(Jf1xKj), where Zj is the subelectrode resistance of j-th electrode, Ujf1 is the voltage at output from j-th amplifier with frequency of f1, Kj is the amplification coefficient of the j-th amplifier. Subelectrode resistance of reference electrode is determined from formula ZA=Ujf2 :(Jf2xKj), where ZA is the subelectrode resistance of reference electrode, Ujf2 is the voltage at output from j-th amplifier with frequency of f2, Jf2 is the voltage of narrow bandwidth current oscillator with frequency of f2.

EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.

15 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has divider, comparison unit, oscillator, acoustic radiator, controllable current source, stable constant voltage source, perspiration equivalent unit, key member, illumination source, conductivity transducer having two electrodes, the first commutator, delay unit, trigger, inverter, discharge unit, the second commutator and feeding voltage availability indicator unit. The first delay unit inputs and the first commutator inputs are connected to comparison unit output. The first commutator input is connected to the first oscillator input which delay unit, trigger and inverter are connected in series. Inverter output is connected to the second input of the first and the second commutator. The first input of the second commutator is connected to the other conductivity transducer electrode and its output is connected to device body via resistor.

EFFECT: reduced current intensity passing through patient skin; excluded negative influence upon skin during prolonged operation time on patient arm during hypoglycemia attack; low power consumption.

2 cl, 4 dwg

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