Metal silicates and method for production thereof

FIELD: inorganic chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composition containing water-soluble silicate complex of general formula (1-y)M2O*yM'O*xSiO2, wherein M is monovalent cation; M' - bivalent cation; x = 2-4; y = 0.005-0.4; y = 0.001-0.25. Method for production of said composition includes mixing of silicates with monovalent and bivalent cations.

EFFECT: composition useful in production of cellulose sheet.

23 cl, 17 ex, 18 tbl

 

1. The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to water-soluble complex silicates of metals, such as water-soluble complexes of silicates of metals, comprising at least one divalent metal. The present invention relates also to methods for water-soluble complex silicates of metals. Further, the present invention relates to methods of wastewater treatment using a water-soluble complex silicates of metals. In addition, the present invention relates to methods for producing cellulose products such as paper products, which comprises adding to the pulp a liquid substance, such as liquid paper weight, of at least one water-soluble complex silicates of metals. Similarly, the present invention relates to methods for producing cellulose products, which comprises adding to the pulp and liquid mass of at least one water-soluble metal silicate, such as silicate with a monovalent cation, in order in the pulp and liquid mass formed water-soluble complex silicates of metals. In addition, the present invention relates to cellulosic products such as paper products, including vodorastvorimami silicates of metals.

2. Background of invention and prior art to which it pertains

Cellulose products, such as cardboard, tissue paper, writing paper, etc. traditionally produce in the preparation of an aqueous liquid weight wood pulp fibers, which may include inorganic mineral fillers or pigments. This aqueous liquid mass is applied on the sliding mesh or fabric to facilitate molding of cellulose matrix. Next, the cellulose matrix, drain, dried and pressed to obtain the finished pulp product. However, during the stage of drainage along with water often deleted as necessary solid fiber, solid fines and other solid components. As for the hard stuff, it includes a very short fiber pulp, fibre fragments and medullary rays. Solid detail also includes pigments, fillers and other fibrous additives that can pass through the fabric during the casting sheet. Moreover, during drainage in the cellulose matrix is often delayed unwanted water. The loss of the desired solid particles and the delay unwanted water adversely affect the casting sheet and, consequently, produce cellulosic products of low quality. Further, the loss of the required solids is wasteful and Dor is th cost manufacturers of cellulose products.

As a result, in the paper industry there are ongoing efforts to develop methods of making paper, which allows us to improve the paper quality, increase productivity and reduce process costs. Before applying fibrous liquid mass on the mesh or fabric in the manufacturing process of paper in her often add chemicals to improve drainage/dewatering and retention. These chemicals called additives that promote drainage and/or retention. Attempt to enter a variety of supplements that assists in the process of making paper drainage and/or retention, such as silicates, colloidal silica, microgels and bentonites.

Supplements that promote drainage and/or retention in the paper manufacturing process, improve the retention of fine particulate compositions of the paper during the turbulent process of drainage and forming the paper web. Without adequate retention of finely dispersed solid particles or they are lost with the process waste water or accumulate to high content in the recirculation loop for circulating water, creating the possibility for the formation of sediments and reducing drainage in a papermaking machine. In addition, defects in the precise holding of finely dispersed solid particles increases the cost of the manufacturer of the paper due to loss supplements, designed for adsorption on the fiber in order to give the paper the relevant properties of opacity, strength and sizing.

For example, in US patent No. 5194120, issued in the name of Peats and other described adding a paper weight cationic polymer and an amorphous material based on silicates of metals to improve the retention of fines and drainage. Offer Peats and other amorphous silicates of metals are white granular powder, which, when fully dispersed in water, forming extremely small anionic colloidal particles. These materials are usually synthesized by the reaction of sodium silicate with a water soluble salt with acceptable metal ions, such as Mg2+, CA2+and/or Al3+, obtaining a precipitate which is then filtered off, washed and dried.

WO 97/17289 and family member US patent No. 5989714, issued in the name of Drummond, refer to the method of regulating the drainage and/or retention in forming a paper matrix using precipitation of silicates of metals. Precipitation of silicates of metals Drummond is produced by mixing a soluble metal salt with a soluble silicate.

Application JP And 63295794 filed Naka-Mura, relates to a method of making paper in a neutral or slightly alkaline conditions, which includes adding to the fibrous liquid mass cationic vodorostvorima what about the polymer and aqueous solution of sodium silicate.

In the application JP 1072793 filed Haimo, described a method of manufacturing paper direct add in the paper liquid mass aqueous solution of orthosilicate sodium. Offer Haimo solution orthosilicate prepared on a separate stage (for example, when processing of aluminum sulfate to regulate pH) before adding to liquid paper weight.

Patents US№4927498, 4954220, 5185206, 5470435, 5543014, 5626721 and 5707494, issued in the name of Rushmere, Rushmere, etc. are used in the manufacture of paper polysilicate microgels as additives that promote the retention and drainage. We offer many of these patents the microgels obtained by conducting the process in place in the reaction polysilicon acid with alkali metal with the formation of microgels, which are then added to pulp.

The US patent No. 5240561, issued in the name Kaliski, refers to the use of microgels in the process of making paper. Offer Kaliski the microgels prepared by two-stage method. The first stage includes obtaining transient, chemically reactive subcolloidal Hydrosol mixture of paper pulp with two separate solutions. The second stage consists in mixing an aqueous solution containing at least one crosslinking agent, a fibrous material produced in the first stage, to stitch formed on the hee is automatic reactive subcolloidal Hydrosol and synthesis (in place) microgenetic adhesives with complex functionality. The resulting adhesives localroot paper fibrous material with molded paper canvases.

Objects, US patent No. 4753710, issued in the name of Langley and others, and US patent No. 5513249, issued in the name Cauley, is the use of bentonite in the manufacture of paper.

Despite many attempts to create promote drainage and retention additives of various types, industry pulp production is still a need to create supplements that promote drainage and retention, which are cost effective and at the same time easy to use. In addition, there is still a need to develop methods of producing cellulose products, which helps to visibly improve the retention and drainage while simultaneously good molded pulp product, for example a sheet of paper. There is still the need to improve retention and drainage, in particular to improve the drainage of large-scale production of cellulose products, which otherwise, due to the slow drainage of water through the thick wet sheet performance decreases.

SUMMARY of the INVENTION

The object of the present invention is a water-soluble complexes is of iliceto metals, such as complex silicates of metals containing at least one divalent metal.

Another object of the present invention is to improve the regulation of the retention and drainage in the manufacture of cellulosic products such as paper, adding to the pulp a liquid substance, such as liquid paper weight, water-soluble complex silicates of metals or obtaining water-soluble complex silicates of metals in the pulp and liquid mass.

Another object of the present invention is to develop methods for the production of cellulose products, which comprises adding to the pulp a liquid substance, such as liquid paper weight, of at least one water-soluble complex silicates of metals.

A similar object of the present invention is to develop methods for the production of cellulose products, which comprises adding to the pulp a liquid substance, such as liquid paper weight, of at least one silicate with a monovalent cation order in the pulp and liquid mass formed water-soluble complex silicates of metals.

Yet another object of the present invention is the creation of cellulosic products such as paper products, including water-soluble the e complex silicates of metals.

Still another object of the present invention is to develop a method of wastewater treatment, comprising adding to the waste water or getting it water-soluble complex silicates of metals.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, its object is an aqueous composition comprising a water-soluble complex silicates of metals, which contains at least one divalent metal.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, its object is to develop a method to prepare aqueous compositions containing a water-soluble complex silicates of metals, including the Association of silicate with monovalent cation ions and divalent metals in the aquatic environment with the formation of water-soluble complex silicates of metals.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, its object is to develop a method of modifying cellulose liquid mass comprising adding to the pulp and liquid mass aqueous composition containing a water-soluble complex silicates of metals, which includes divalent metal.

However, in accordance with another aspect of the present invention, its object is to develop a method of making pulp and liquid mass comprising adding silicate with obnovlennth the second cation in the pulp and liquid mass, containing a sufficient number of ions of the divalent metal to combine with silicate with a monovalent cation for the formation of a water-soluble complex silicates of metals.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, its object is to develop a method of manufacturing a cellulose product, comprising adding to the pulp and liquid mass aqueous composition containing a water-soluble complex silicates of metals, which includes divalent metal, and the formation of cellulose liquid mass of the cellulose product.

However, in accordance with another aspect of the present invention, its object is to develop a method of manufacturing a cellulose product, comprising adding silicate with a monovalent cation in the pulp and liquid mass containing a sufficient number of ions of bivalent metals to combine with silicate with a monovalent cation for the formation of a water-soluble complex silicates of metals, and the formation of cellulose liquid mass of the cellulose product.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention feature is a cellulosic product comprising cellulose fiber and residue of at least one water-soluble complex silicates of metals. In a preferred embodiment, the residue content is designed in an amount of from about 50 to 10,000 ppm million in terms of SiO 2.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, its object is to develop a method of wastewater treatment, comprising adding to the waste water at least one water-soluble complex silicates of metals, where is this water-soluble complex silicates of metals include ferrous metal.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, its object is to develop a method of wastewater treatment, comprising adding to the wastewater silicate with a monovalent cation, where these waste waters contain a sufficient number of ions of bivalent metals to be combined with the silicate with a monovalent cation with the formation of water-soluble complex silicates of metals.

In one embodiment, the divalent metal comprises at least one of the representatives of a number of magnesium, calcium, zinc, copper, iron (II), manganese (II) and barium, preferably at least one of the number of magnesium and calcium.

Another option is the molar ratio of SiO2and oxide monovalent cation from water-soluble complex silicates of metals is from about 2 to 20, preferably from about 3 to 5. According to another variant is the molar ratio between the divalent metal and silicon in water-soluble complex metal silicates which ranges from about 0.001 to 0.25 in, preferably from about 0,01 to 0,2.

However, according to another variant, the concentration of SiO2in the aqueous composition is from about 0.01 to 5 wt.%, preferably from about 0.1 to 2 wt.%.

However, alternatively, the particle size of water-soluble complex silicates of metals is less than about 200 nm.

Another option is a water-soluble complex silicates of metals includes a water-soluble silicate, corresponding to the following formula:

(1-y)M2O· M O· xSiO2,

in which M represents a monovalent cation; M' denotes the ion of the divalent metal; x represents a number from about 2 to 4; y represents a number from about 0.005 to 0.4, and the value of y/x is from about 0.001 to 0.25 in.

In one embodiment, M denotes an atom of sodium, potassium, or lithium, or ammonium, preferably sodium. In another embodiment, M' denotes an atom of calcium or magnesium.

However, another option is a water-soluble complex silicates of metals includes a water-soluble silicate, corresponding to the following formula:

(1-y)Na2O• yM'O• xSiO2,

where M' denotes the ion of the divalent metal, representing a calcium or magnesium,

X denotes a number from about 2 to 4

y denotes a number from about 0.005 to 0.4,

the value of y/x is from about 0.001 to 0.25 in,

EIT is a group of x/(1-y) is from about 2 to 20,

as the concentration of SiO2in the aqueous composition is from about 0.01 to 5 wt.%. In a preferred embodiment, the value of y/x is from about 0.01 to 0.2, a value of x/(1-y) is from about 3 to 10, and the concentration of SiO2in the aqueous composition is from about 0.1 to 2 wt.%. In a more preferred embodiment, the value of y/x is from approximately 0.025 to 0.15, the value of x/(1-y) is from about 3 to 5, and the concentration of SiO2in the aqueous composition is from about 0.25 to 1.5 wt.%.

Alternatively silicate with a monovalent cation includes at least one of sodium silicate, potassium silicate, lithium silicate or ammonium silicate, preferably sodium silicate such as sodium silicate, which is the mass ratio of SiO2/Na2O is from about 2 to 4.

According to another variant ions of divalent metal ions include at least one of magnesium and calcium.

However, another option is a water-soluble complex silicates of metals is prepared by adding a silicate with a monovalent cation in an aqueous reagent composition comprising a sufficient amount of ions of bivalent metals for the formation of a water-soluble complex silicates of metals.

However, according to another variant, the water hardness reagent composition containing a sufficient number what about the ion of the divalent metal, is from about 1 to 600 ppm million Sa equivalent. So, for example, aqueous reagent composition may include at least one of these environments, as subgrid water, hard water and purified water, from which purified water is prepared by raising or lowering the stiffness.

Alternatively, the ion source of divalent metals represents at least one of the following compounds: l2, MgCl2, MgSO4Ca(NO3)2, Mg(NO3)2, CaSO4and ZnSO4.

According to another variant of the water-soluble complex silicates of metals prepared by adding ions of bivalent metals in aqueous reagent composition comprising a sufficient amount of silicate ions with monovalent cation for the formation of a water-soluble complex silicates of metals.

Alternatively, the concentration of SiO2in water reagents composition that includes a sufficient amount of a silicate with a monovalent cation is from about 0.01 to 30 wt.%.

In another embodiment, a water-soluble complex silicates of metals added to the pulp and liquid mass after the last stage wysokosciowe treatment and before discharge box.

In yet another variant in the pulp and liquid mass is injected at least one additive including one such means as the flocculant, CR is hmal and coagulant. So, for example, at least one additive can serve as a cationic polyacrylamide copolymer. This at least one additive can be entered in the pulp and liquid mass before the last stage wysokosciowe processing.

However, in another embodiment, a water-soluble complex silicates of metals includes a water-soluble silicate, corresponding to the formula:

(1-y)Na2O• yM'O• xSiO2,

where M' denotes the ion of the divalent metal, representing a calcium or magnesium,

x denotes a number from about 2 to 4

y denotes a number from about 0.005 to 0.4,

the value of y/x is from about 0.001 to 0.25 in,

the value of x/(1-y) is from about 2 to 20,

as the concentration of SiO2in the aqueous composition is from about 0.01 to 5 wt.%, in the pulp and liquid mass add at least one such tool, as a flocculant, starch and coagulant.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

In the present description details examples are only to illustrate the discussion of various embodiments of the present invention and are presented for the reason that they are considered to be the most effective and simple perception of the description of the principles and contemplative aspects of the present invention. In this regard, any BA who attempts to show structural details of the present invention in more detail, than is necessary for a fundamental understanding of the invention, no, description clearly demonstrates specialists in the art the possibility of practical implementation of some embodiments of the invention.

In this application, in all cases, unless otherwise stated, the results of interest definitions expressed in mass% based on 100 mass% of this sample. So, for example, 30% correspond to 30 miscast. for every 100 miscast. sample.

In all cases, unless otherwise specified, reference to a compound or component covers the connection itself or the component, as well as in combination with other compounds or components, such as mixtures of compounds.

Before further discussion to facilitate understanding of the present invention it is necessary to discuss the following concepts.

"Stiffness" is called the total content of ions of bivalent metals or their salts in water, such as calcium, magnesium, calcium carbonate and calcium chloride. Stiffness can be defined in the ppm CA equivalent. In this respect, 1 part./million Sa equivalent equal 2,78 frequent./million CaCl2equivalent, that is 2.50 frequent./million caso3equivalent and is equal to 0.61 ppm million Mg equivalent.

The concept of "water-soluble" and "stability" refers to the ability set xov silicates of metals of the present invention to remain in solution. When the formation of water soluble complexes of silicates of metals of the present invention, the process can be adjusted so that did not form any precipitate. However, in some circumstances, a small amount of precipitate may form. If the complex silicates of metals form a precipitate, they are more complexes are not, but are the precipitate of silicates of metals. When performing the present invention requires that the complex silicates of metals of the present invention remained in solution and did not form a precipitate. It should be noted that over time a number of water-soluble complex silicates of metals can precipitate, however, in the preferred embodiment, the precipitation does not occur or produces a minimal amount of sediment. While complex silicates of metals are water soluble, the solution should be almost colorless and transparent. In this regard, a water-soluble complex silicates of metals according to the present invention is invisible to the naked eye. Thus, in particular, considering that the turbidity depends on the concentration, in a preferred embodiment, the turbidity of the water composition water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention, the concentration of SiO2which is 0.3 wt%, in the absence of other materials that affect turbidity, usually equal to less than about 70 NTU, more preferably less than about 50 NTU, and most preferably less than about 20 NTU. Water-soluble complexes of silicates of metals of the present invention can not be separated from the aqueous phase using most technologies of physical or mechanical separation, such as centrifugation, sedimentation and filtering.

"Pulp liquid mass called the suspension is water based, including cellulose fibers, fines and additives.

The concept of "liquid paper weight" or "paper composition" refers to a suspension of water-based, which contains fiber and/or detail, such as wood and plant and/or cotton, and which may contain other additives for the manufacture of paper, such as fillers, such as clay and precipitated calcium carbonate.

The term "copolymer" refers to a polymer comprising units of two or more monomers of different types.

In General terms the object of the present invention are water-soluble silicate complexes of metals, such as complex silicates of metals, comprising at least one divalent metal. The object of the present invention is also developing ways to obtain water-soluble packing list : the owls of silicates of metals. Further object of the present invention is to develop methods of wastewater treatment using a water-soluble complex silicates of metals. In addition, an object of the present invention is to develop methods for the production of cellulosic products such as paper products, by adding at least one water-soluble complex silicates of metals in the pulp and liquid mass, such as liquid paper weight. Similarly an object of the present invention is to develop methods for the production of cellulose products are added to the pulp and liquid mass of at least one silicate with a monovalent cation order in the pulp and liquid mass formed water-soluble complex silicates of metals. By adding or education in the pulp and liquid mass of water-soluble complex silicates of metals implementation of the present invention allows to improve the regulation of the retention and drainage in the manufacture of cellulosic products. Moreover, the object of the present invention are cellulosic products such as paper products, including water-soluble complex silicates of metals.

Preferred water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention include ion of the divalent metal is and at least one type of monovalent cation is at least one type.

Examples of the divalent ions of metals that can be used in the composition of water-soluble complexes of silicates of metals of the present invention include, though not limited to, ions of alkaline-earth metals and transition metals. Thus, in particular, ions of divalent metals may include ions of magnesium, calcium, zinc, copper, iron(II), manganese(II) and/or barium. Preferred ions of divalent metal ions include magnesium, calcium and/or zinc. The preferred ions of divalent metal ions include magnesium and/or calcium.

Examples of monovalent cations, which can be used in the composition of water-soluble complexes of silicates of metals of the present invention include, though not limited to, alkali metal ions. Monovalent cations can serve as the cations of sodium, potassium, lithium and/or ammonium. Preferred monovalent cations are the cations of sodium and/or potassium. The preferred monovalent cation is a cation of sodium.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the complex metal silicate is a complex silicate of magnesium and/or complex calcium silicate obtained by adding sodium silicate to the aqueous composition comprising magnesium ions and/or calcium. PR is pactically water composition water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention includes SiO 2in the amount of from about 0.01 to 5 wt.% in terms of water mass composition, characterized by the value of the molar ratio of SiO2/oxide monovalent cation, such as Na2O, from about 2 to 20 and the value of the molar ratio [(divalent metal such as Mg+Ca)/Si] from about 0.001 to 0.25 in.

Not based on any theory, I believe that water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention include water-soluble complex silicates of metals, corresponding to the following formula:

(1-y)M2O• yM'O• xSiO2formula (1)

where M represents a monovalent cation, as mentioned above,

M' denotes the ion of the divalent metal, such as ions of the above divalent metals,

x in a preferred embodiment denotes a number from about 2 to 4

in a preferred embodiment denotes a number from about 0.005 to 0.4,

and the value of y/x in the preferred embodiment, is from about 0.001 to 0.25 in.

The ability of complex silicates of metals of the present invention to remain in solution, i.e. the stability of complex silicates of metals is essential to achieve the objectives of the present invention. So, for example, stability is important for the better regulation of the retention and drainage of the manufacturer when the cellulose products. In particular, precipitation of silicates of metals, which may be formed, show low or no activity in the regulation of retention and drainage. In some cases, complex silicates of metals form a weak aftertaste, but still demonstrate an acceptable activity in relation to retention and drainage, as the sediment becomes a small part of the complex silicates of metals, and most of the components remain water-soluble. As mentioned above, the preferred turbidity water composition water-soluble complex of the present invention, the concentration of SiO2which is 0.3 wt.%, may be less than about 70 NTU, more preferred turbidity equal to less than about 50 NTU, and most preferred turbidity equal to less than about 20 NTU.

The ability of complex silicates of metals of the present invention to remain in solution, i.e. stability, usually depends on several factors. Some of these factors include the molar ratio of SiO2/M2O, the molar ratio M'/Si, the concentration of SiO2the size of the microparticles of the complex, the hardness of the water composition in which the complexes are formed, the mixing is carried out during the formation of complex silicates of metals, pH of the aqueous composition, temperature, water composition and and solute in the aqueous composition. Of these factors, the most important are the molar ratio of SiO2/M2O and the molar ratio M'/Si. The ability of complex silicates of metals remain in solution depends on the interaction of these factors, as discussed in more detail below.

Before I discuss the variables that affect the stability of the water-soluble silicate complexes of the metals involved in the process of obtaining a water-soluble complex silicates of metals, below is a discussion of the factors of stability, which are specific for complexes themselves. Factors influencing the stability of complexes of silicates of metals that are specific for the complex silicates of metals of the present invention, include the molar ratio of SiO2/M2Oh, the molar ratio M'/Si and the size of the particles forming these complexes.

Preferred is a molar ratio of SiO2/M2O the water-soluble silicate complexes of metals of the present invention, i.e. x:(1-u) for compounds of formula (1)is in the range from about 2 to 20, more preferably from 3 to 10, and most preferably from about 3 to 5. When this value is too high, complex silicates of metals capable of forming a precipitate and lose activity. To the Yes this value is too low, formed a relatively small number of complex silicates of metals.

Preferred is a molar ratio M'/Si at a water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention, i.e:x to compounds of the formula (1)is in the range of from about 0,001 to 0.25, preferably from about 0.01 to 0.2 and more preferably from 0.025 to 0.15. When this value is too high, complex silicates of metals capable of forming a precipitate and lose activity. When this value is too low, there is formed a relatively small number of complex silicates of metals.

Assume that the preferred size of the microparticles of water-soluble complexes of silicates of metals of the present invention is less than about 200 nm at a more preferred range is from about 2 to 100 nm, and more preferably from about 5 to 80 nm, as determined by dynamic scattering of laser radiation at 25° in aqueous solution. Assume that if the particle size is too large, complex silicates of metals usually form a precipitate. If the particle size is too small, such a complex silicates of metals lack flocculation ability.

Before discussing those variables obtaining complexes of silicates m is the metal, which affect the stability of water-soluble complexes of the present invention, following in General presents a method of obtaining a water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention.

Water-soluble complexes of silicates of metals of the present invention can be obtained by adding at least one silicate with a monovalent cation in an aqueous composition containing ions of bivalent metals. When at least one silicate with monovalent cation is mixed with the aqueous composition containing ions of divalent metals during mixing of silicates with monovalent cations and water composition water-soluble silicate complexes of the metals are formed spontaneously. Water-soluble complexes of silicates of metals of the present invention can be also obtained by preparing aqueous compositions comprising at least one silicate with a monovalent cation and the simultaneous and/or successive addition of the ion source of divalent metals with the formation of water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention. Water-soluble complexes of silicates of metals of the present invention can be prepared in the form of a concentrate on on the side of the enterprise or can be prepared by, for example n the paper factory.

Silicates with monovalent cations, which is used to produce water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention may be in powder form or liquid. Examples of silicates with monovalent cations, which is used to produce water-soluble complex silicates of metals include the alkali metal silicates. Examples of silicates, which are particularly preferred for obtaining water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention include sodium silicate, potassium silicate, lithium silicate and/or ammonium silicate.

As noted above, examples of the divalent ions of metals that can be used to obtain water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention include, though not limited to, ions of alkaline-earth metals and transition metals. Thus, in particular, ions of divalent metals can serve ions of magnesium, calcium, zinc, copper, iron(II), manganese(II) and/or barium.

Examples of aqueous compositions containing ions of divalent metals include, though not limited to, subgrid water, hard water, purified water and pulp and liquid mass. The concept of "subgrid water", which is also known as "bunker water"refers to water collected from machines made what I cellulose product during the manufacture of the cellulosic product, for example to water collected from the paper machine during and after the manufacture of paper. "Hard water" is called water containing significant amounts of metal ions such as ions of Mg2+and/or CA2+. The term "purified water" refers to hard or soft water, which is pre-treated to increase or decrease its rigidity. If the water hardness is too high, as discussed below, a number of metal ions can be blocked or become deactivated when using any of the methods, such as adding a chelating agent such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edtc), hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetate acid (GATC), tartaric acid, citric acid, gluconic acid or polyacrylic acid. If the water hardness is too low, as discussed below, can be added ions of bivalent metals. So, for example, to increase the concentration of metal ions and, thus, increase the hardness of water can be added magnesium and/or calcium salt. To increase the concentration of metal ions in the aqueous composition can be added, in particular, CaCl2, MgCl2, MgSO4, Sa(NO3)2, Mg(NO3)2, CaSO4and/or ZnSO4preferably CaCl2, MgCl2and/or ZnSO4and more prepact the positive l 2and/or MgCl2.

Considering the above, in the process of obtaining water-soluble complexes there are several variables that affect the ability of complex silicates of metals remain in solution. These process variables include the concentration of SiO2in the aqueous composition, the hardness of the water composition, the mixing is carried out during the formation of water soluble complexes of silicates of metals, pH of the aqueous composition, temperature, water composition, and additional solute in the aqueous composition. Of these variables, the most important are the concentration of SiO2in the aqueous composition and the hardness of the water composition.

When the silicate with a monovalent cation combined with the ion of the divalent metal with formation water compositions comprising a water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention, the preferred concentration of SiO2in the resulting aqueous composition is from about 0.01 to 5 wt.%, more preferably from about 0.1 to 2 wt.%, and most preferably from about 0.25 to 1.5 wt.%, in recalculation on weight of the aqueous composition. When this value is too large, complex silicates of metals capable of forming a precipitate and lose activity. When this value is too the m low the composition is uneconomical because of the need for large amounts of solution.

When the aqueous composition containing silicate with a monovalent cation, introducing ions of divalent metals, the preferred concentration of SiO2in the aqueous composition is from about 0.01 to 30 wt.%, more preferably from about 0.1 to 15 wt.%, and most preferably from about 0.25 to 10 wt.%, in recalculation on weight of the aqueous composition. When this value is too high, complex silicates of metals capable of forming a precipitate and lose activity. When this value is too low, the composition is uneconomical because of the need for large amounts of solution.

When the aqueous composition containing ions of divalent metals, add the silicate with a monovalent cation, the rigidity of the preferred aqueous compositions of the present invention is from about 1 to 600 ppm million Sa equivalent, more preferably from about 10 to 200 ppm million Sa equivalent, and most preferably from about 20 to 100 ppm million Sa equivalent. If the hardness is too high, complex silicates of metals can precipitate. If the stiffness is too low, water-soluble complex silicates of metals may not be generated.

Mixing is carried out is during the formation of complex silicates of metals, also affects the ability of complex silicates of metals remain in solution. If mixing is not to carry out, in some circumstances, due to the occurrence of excessive concentrations of possible local deposition of water-soluble complex of the present invention. However, the influence of mixing is difficult to quantify. The quantitative indicator of mixing depends on such factors as the number and the viscosity of the fluid, the size of the vessel, the size and type of conventional shaft or propeller mixers, the mixer rotation speed, etc. So, for example, in the cooking process in the laboratory, when a 200-ml beaker 100 ml solution of complex silicates of metals mixed with 1-inch shaft on a magnetic stirrer MIRAKTM(model #L SO&3235-60, firm Bernstead Thermolyne Corporation, 2555, Kerper Blvd., Dubuc, Stalowa 52004), should be considered adequate stirring speed of 300 rpm or higher. Typically, the mixing should be carried out at the maximum possible speed for as long as possible. However, if the mixing speed is too high, it may be uneconomical due to loss of power or may cause vibration of the equipment or delamination of the solution.

Although, as I believe, pH of the aqueous composition is an important factor for the ability to the elexol silicates of metals remain in solution, the specific effect of pH is still not understood. However, the present invention is applicable, for example, as has been established in respect of subgrid water. The pH value of subgrid water generally ranges from about 6 to 10, more preferably from about 7 to 9, and most preferably from 7.5 to 8.5.

The preferred water temperature of the composition is from about 5 to 95° S, more preferably from about 10 to 80, and most preferably from about 20 to 60° C. Thus, for example, subgrid water of the paper machine, as a rule, is warm, the temperature typically ranges from about 10 to 65°C, more typically from about 30 to 60°and most typically from about 45 to 55°C. Thus, complexes silicates of metals can be formed at room temperature. Under reduced ratio M'/Si increasing temperature usually accelerates the formation of complex silicates of metals. With the increased ratio M'/Si temperature has little effect.

Another factor that is considered to affect the ability of complex silicates of metals remain in solution, is present in the aqueous composition of dissolved substances. In other words, assume that the stability of complex silicates of metals is affected, apparently, the presence of counterions.

About the project the present invention is also developing ways of making pulp and liquid mass, such as liquid paper pulp, and methods of making cellulosic products such as paper. Thus, in particular, in the pulp and liquid mass you can add the above-mentioned water-soluble complexes of silicates of divalent metals of the present invention. Moreover, methods of cooking pulp and liquid masses and products of the present invention can include adding in the pulp and liquid mass containing the above-mentioned ions of the divalent metal is at least one species, at least one of the above silicates with monovalent cations.

Pulp liquid mixture of the present invention may include fillers, such as those in the art are known, in particular clay, titanium dioxide, powdered calcium carbonate or precipitated calcium carbonate. The pH value and the temperature of the pulp liquid mass are important factors for the implementation of the present invention is not considered.

While the pH and temperature of the pulp and liquid masses correspond to the normal conditions, in particular pH value is in the range from about 4 to 10, and the temperature is from about 5 to 80°S, water-soluble complexes of silicates of metals of the present invention are believed to be effective.

When to obtain a water-soluble complex with the of Licata metals in situ in the pulp and liquid mass add silicate with a monovalent cation, the preferred hardness of the pulp and a liquid mixture of the present invention is from about 1 to 600 ppm million (ppm) CA equivalent, more preferably from about 10 to 200 ppm million Sa equivalent, and most preferably from about 20 to 100 ppm million Sa equivalent. If the hardness of the pulp and liquid mixture is from about 1 to 600 ppm million Sa equivalent, the silicate with the monovalent cation in the pulp and liquid mass can interact with ions of divalent metals with the formation of water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention.

In the preferred embodiment, to avoid impact on the resulting flakes excessive shear forces in accordance with the present invention silicate with a monovalent cation or a water-soluble complex silicates of metals added to the pulp and liquid mass at the point after the last stage wysokosciowe processing but before the pressure box.

In a preferred embodiment in accordance with the present invention is a water-soluble complex silicates of metals or silicate with a monovalent cation type with a flow rate of from about 0.1 to 20 lb/ton, more preferably from about 0.5 to 6 pounds/ton, and most preferably from about 1 to 4 pounds/ton, in terms of SiO2and weight with the Hoi pulp composition.

In addition, in combination with a water-soluble complex silicates of divalent metals of the present invention in the pulp and liquid mass is injected at least one additive. For example, this at least one additive may include virtually any additives that are used in the manufacture of paper. Examples of such additives include, though not limited to, flocculant, cationic starch, coagulant, a sizing agent, agent to provide strength in the wet state, the agent for imparting strength in the dry state and other additives that promote retention.

The order of introduction in the pulp and liquid mass of at least one additive and water soluble silicate, i.e. water-soluble complex silicates of metals and/or silicate with a monovalent cation, not decisive. However, in the preferred embodiment, a water-soluble silicate is added in the pulp and liquid mass after the introduction of at least one additive. For example, a water-soluble silicate can be entered in the pulp and liquid mass after the addition of flocculant. In a preferred embodiment, the flocculant is injected at the point before the last stage wysokosciowe impact, in particular on the place of sieves under pressure and cleaners, while the water-soluble silicate added after posledeistvie wysokosciowe processing, but before the pressure box.

When in the pulp and liquid mass according to the present invention is administered two or more additives, the preferred additives include flocculant and starch. The starch can be added to the pulp and liquid mass before or after the flocculant. In a preferred embodiment, the starch is added before the flocculant.

When combined with at least one flocculant and/or starch in the pulp and liquid mass is added a coagulant, the coagulant can be entered before or after the flocculant and/or starch.

In accordance with the present invention, the flocculant may be either synthetic or natural polymer which is cationic, anionic or practically non-ionic. The preferred flocculant is a cationic polymer.

Examples of cationic flocculants include, though not limited to, homopolymers and copolymers containing units of at least one cationic monomer selected from the following compounds:

dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate (DMAEM), dimethylaminoethylacrylate (DMEA), methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MATH), dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate (DMAEMA), metallicametallicametall (MAPTECH), dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA), acryloyldimethyltaurate(AET is), dematomyositis, (p-vinylbenzyl)trimethylammoniumchloride, 2-vinylpyridine, 4-vinylpyridine, vinylamine etc. So, for example, cationic flocculant may be a copolymer of cationic polyacrylamide.

The preferred molecular weight cationic flocculant is from at least about 500000 with a preferred range from about 2000000 to 15000000, more preferably from about 4,000,000 to 12000000, and most preferably from about 5000000 10000000.

The preferred degree of substitution of the cationic groups of the cationic flocculant is at least about 1 mole percent with a preferred range from about 5 to 50 mol %, and still more preferably from about 10 to 30 mole %.

The preferred density of the potential charge of the cationic flocculant is from 0.1 to 4 mEq./g, more preferably from about 0.5 to 3 mEq./g, and most preferably from about 1 to 2.5 mEq./he

In the process of manufacturing cellulose products of the present invention the preferred consumption of cationic flocculant is from about 0.1 to 4 pounds/ton, more preferably from about 0.2 to about 2 pounds/ton, and most preferably from about 0.25 to 1 lb/ton, calculated on the base material of the flocculant and the dry weight of the cellulite, tighten the importance of fiber.

Acceptable according to the present invention anionic flocculants can be homopolymers or copolymers, including links anionic monomers selected from the following compounds: acrylate, methacrylate, maleate, itaconate, sulfonate, phosphonate and the like, for example, anionic flocculant may be a copolymer of acrylamide with acrylate.

The preferred molecular weight anionic flocculants of the present invention is at least about 500000 with a preferred range from about to 5000000 20000000, and more preferably from about 8000000 up to 15000000.

The preferred degree of substitution of anionic groups of the anionic flocculant is at least about 1 mole percent with a preferred range from about 10 to 60 mol %, more preferably from about 15 to about 50 mole %.

The preferred density of the potential charge of the anionic flocculant is from about 1 to 20 mEq./g, more preferably from about 2 to 8 mEq./g, and most preferably from about 2.5 to 6 mEq./he

In the process of manufacturing cellulose products of the present invention the preferred flow anionic flocculant is from about 0.1 to 4 pounds/ton, more preferably from about 0.2 to 2 fu is tov/t, and most preferably from about 0.25 to 1 lb/ton, calculated on the base material of the flocculant and the weight of dry pulp fibers.

Examples almost nonionic flocculants of the present invention include, though not limited to, polyacrylamide, poly(ethylene oxide), polyvinyl alcohol and poly(vinylpyrrolidone), preferably polyacrylamide, poly(ethylene oxide) and polyvinyl alcohol, and more preferably polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene oxide).

The preferred molecular weight practically non-ionic flocculant is at least approximately 500000 with a preferred range from about 1000000 to 10000000, more preferably from about to 2000000 8000000.

In the process of manufacturing cellulose products of the present invention, the preferred flow rate is practically non-ionic flocculant is from about 0.2 to 4 pounds/ton, more preferably from about 0.5 to 2 pounds/ton, calculated on the base material of the flocculant and the weight of dry pulp fibers.

As mentioned above, in the pulp and liquid mass according to the present invention can also add cationic starch comprising amphoteric starch. In a preferred embodiment, in the process of making cellulose products as an additive to impart strength in the wet is the state or a dry state using cationic starch. The preferred degree of substitution of the cationic charge in the cationic starch of the present invention is at least about 0.01 to with a preferred range from about 0.01 to 1, more preferably from about 0.1 to 0.5. Cationic starch can be derivative from a variety of plants such as potato, corn, waxy maize, wheat and rice.

The preferred molecular weight of the starch is from about 1000000 to 5000000, more preferably from about to 1500000 4000000, and most preferably from about 2000000 to 3000000.

According to the present invention, the starch can be added to the pulp and the liquid mass at a point before or after the introduction of the flocculant, preferably before adding the water-soluble silicate of the present invention.

The preferred consumption of starch is from about 1 to 50 pounds/ton, more preferably from about 5 to 20 pounds/ton, calculated on the weight of dry pulp fibers.

Another Supplement that you can enter in the pulp and liquid mass according to the present invention, a coagulant. Examples of coagulants of the present invention include, though not limited to, inorganic coagulants, such as alum, or similar material, in particular aluminum chloride, polyaluminium is d (GROIN), polyaluminosilicate (PAS) and polyaluminosilicate (PASS), and organic coagulants, such as polyamine, poly(diallyldimethylammoniumchloride), polyethylenimine, polyvinyliden and the like, preferably inorganic coagulants, and more preferably alum or similar materials.

The preferred molecular weight organic coagulant is from about 1000 to 1000000, more preferably from about 2000 to the 750,000, more preferably from about 5,000 to 500,000.

The coagulant of the present invention can be introduced in the pulp and liquid mass at the point before or after the introduction of the flocculant, preferably before adding the water-soluble silicate. The preferred consumption of inorganic coagulant is from about 1 to 30 pounds/ton, more preferably from about 5 to 20 pounds/ton, calculated on the weight of dry pulp fibers. The preferred consumption of organic coagulant is from about 0.1 to 5 pounds/ton, more preferably from about 0.5 to 2 pounds/so

Pulp products can be manufactured from pulp and a liquid mixture of the present invention using any method. For example, after adding or obtain water-soluble complex silicates of metals and optional introduction to pulp and liquid mass at least the ne supplements this in the pulp and liquid mass you can put on the net, draining, drying and extruding with the finished pulp product.

The finished pulp product includes cellulose fiber and residue of at least one water-soluble complex silicates of metals. The preferred amount of this sediment in the cellulosic product is from about 50 to 10,000 ppm million, more preferably from about 250 to 3000 ppm million, and most preferably from about 500 to 2000 ppm million, in terms of SiO2.

The additives that promote the retention and drainage, as a rule, act as flocculants, which can also be used in wastewater treatment, believe that water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention, apparently, can also be used for wastewater treatment. For wastewater treatment in this waste water can be added, apparently, a water-soluble complex silicates of metals to cause the precipitation of the suspended particles.

The result of applying a water-soluble complex silicates of metals and methods of the present invention are several advantages. Thus, in particular, through the use of a water-soluble complex silicates of metals and methods of the present invention are achieved significant improvement in retention and drainage in although nom maintaining good molding pulp sheet material. The use of the complexes according to the present invention as an additive for facilitating drainage, has a beneficial effect on the process of making cellulose products, especially when it is necessary drainage of large amounts of fluid (in particular, at least about 76 lbs/3300 sq. ft.), when otherwise due to the slow drainage of water through a relatively thick wet sheet performance, apparently, is reduced.

Thus, a water-soluble complex silicates of metals and methods of the present invention can be applied to improve performance. For this reason, the dewatering or drainage of the fibrous liquid mass on the grid paper machine is often a stage hindering the achievement of higher performance.

The result of increased dehydration may also be more dry pulp sheet material by pressing and drying sections, resulting in a reduced consumption of water vapor. Stage drying in the manufacturing process of pulp products is also the stage that determines many of the properties of the finished sheet.

Similarly, when used as additives that promote the retention, use silicates of metals of the present invention, reduce the loss of n is of fillers and stuff, what, therefore, reduces production costs. In addition, the use of the complexes according to the present invention through the provision of appropriate drainage and retention also provides the possibility of forming an excellent paper.

Next, the process of obtaining a water-soluble complex silicates of metals of the present invention is simple, and it does not require any special method of receipt.

We can assume that, using the preceding description, the specialist in the art is able fully to apply the present invention without additional clarification. In the future, the essence of the present invention is illustrated by the following examples. These examples do not limit or narrow the scope of the invention.

In all cases, unless otherwise provided in these examples, quantities are expressed in weight percents, parts, etc.

EXAMPLES

The following examples 1 to 17 are devoted to water-soluble complex silicates of metals (CA and/or Mg)obtained by mixing liquid sodium silicate in different aqueous solutions containing ions of CA and/or Mg. The aqueous solution consisted of either a solution of CaCl2or a solution of MgCl2or hard water. Solutions of CA or Mg ions contained either CA or Mg, were prepared by diluting the concentration is checked solution l 2or MgCl2deionized water. Ca/Mg solution containing ions such as CA and Mg, were prepared by mixing hard water hardness which was 136 frequent./million Sa equivalent, with deionized water.

In all cases, unless otherwise stated, the experiments in the following examples were conducted continuous mixing of liquid sodium silicate with an aqueous solution for about 30 minutes This aqueous solution was either a solution of CaCl2or a solution of MgCl2or fresh hard water. Next, before testing the drainage and retention, the prepared solutions were left to stand for at least about 3 o'clock

Liquid sodium silicates used in the following examples, are listed in the following table 1. The manufacturer referred to in table 1 of the product And served as the company PQ Corporation (P.O. Box 840, valley forge, PCs PA 19482-0840), B-OxyChem company, Occidental Chemical Corporation (Occidental Tower, 5005 LBJ Freeway, Dallas, Texas, 75380-9050).

CA or Mg solutions containing ions of either CA or Mg, used in the following examples were prepared by diluting concentrated solutions l2or MgCl2deionized water.

l2and MgCl2that are used in the following examples were produced at the company Tetra Technologies, Inc. (25025 1-45 North, the 3rd Woodlands, Texas, 77380).

Table 1
Product nameVendor*Mass. the ratio of SiO2/Na2OSiO2, %Na2O %
Product STIXSO RRAnd3,2530,0which 9.22
Sodium silicate, EAnd3,2227,78,6
Sodium silicate, NAnd3.2228,78,9
Sodium silicate, 0And3,2229,59,15
Sodium silicate, grade 40B3,2229,29,1
Sodium silicate, grade 42B3,2230,09,3
Sodium silicate, ToAnd2,8831,711,0
Sodium silicate, MAnd2,5832.112,45
Sodium silicate, DAnd2,029,414,7

The test in the canadian standard device for determining the degree of grinding (LTR)

In the following examples (in particular, in examples 1 to 13 and 15 to 17) to estimate the draining effect is aktivnosti complex silicates of CA and/or Mg was used the test results to the canadian standard device for determining the degree of grinding (PSC). Test the drainage of the PSC in all cases, unless otherwise specified, was carried out on 1000 ml of a paper composition. The concentration of this paper composition was 0.3 wt.%, it consisted of 80 wt.% fibers and 20 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as filler by weight of the total dry paper composition. The fibers used in the composition of the paper composition was a mixture of the pulp of hardwood/softwood in the ratio 70/30. Fibers from deciduous wood was bleached technical cellulose St. Croix Northern Hardwood, manufactured at the company Ekman and Company (STE 4400, 200 S Biscayne Blvd., Miami, pc. Florida, 33130). Fibers from coniferous wood was bleached technical cellulose Georgianier Softwood, made on the company Rayonier (4470 Savannan HWY, Jessup, PCs, Georgia. The JCC was a product Albacar 5970 manufactured by Specialty Minerals (230 Columbia Street, Adams, PCs Minnesota, 01220).

The pH value of paper composition was equal to from 8.0 to 8.9. The temperature of the paper composition ranged from 21 to 25°C. the Fibers used in the composition of the paper composition was a mixture of the pulp of hardwood/softwood in the ratio 70/30. Test the drainage of the PSC conducted by mixing 1000 ml of a paper composition in a beaker of square section with rooms is based temperature (if not specified) and the rotation speed of the mixer 1200 rpm Paper composition comprised of silicate complex or reference samples, and optional additives.

In the following examples, before you add in the paper composition of silicate complex, sodium silicate or water this paper composition can be subjected to pre-treatment by supplementation. Next paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the rate of drainage.

Additives used in conducting tests on drainage, served as cationic starch, alum and flocculants. As cationic starch used the product Sta-Lok 600™ (obtained from the company A.E.Staley Manufacturing Company). By nature flocculants were either cationic or anionic. Cationic flocculant was a cationic modified polyacrylamide (CMPA), possessing a molecular weight of about 6000000 and cationic charge 10 mol %. CMPA served as product PC 8695, Novus 8910 or PC 8138 produced by the company Hercules Incorporated (Wilmington, pieces of Delaware).

Anionic flocculant was an anionic modified polyacrylamide (AMP), possessing a molecular weight of about 20000000 and anionic charge of about 30 mol %. The AMP was a product of RA 8130 produced by the company Hercules Incorporated (Wilmington, stdelivery).

Alum was a liquid is Ulfat aluminum, consisting of 48.5 wt.% dry solid Al2(SO4)3·14H2O (produced at the company General Chemical Corporation 90 East Halsey Road, Parsippany, new Jersey 07054).

The units used to determine the amount of additives in the examples were the number #/ton (lb/ton) in recalculation on weight of dry paper composition. The amount of starch and alum expressed in terms of dry product. The number of cationic and anionic flocculants expressed in terms of the main dry matter. The number of silicates of metals expressed in terms of dry weight SiO2or on the dry weight of sodium silicate.

The introduction of each additive, water-soluble complex silicates of metals, metal silicate and a comparative sample (e.g., bentonite) in the pulp produced in the following order: cationic starch, alum flocculant and water-soluble complex silicates of metals, or a metal silicate, or a comparative sample (e.g., bentonite).

The time of adding cationic starch and alum was 10 C. For flocculant time of mixing was either 10 or 60, as it is specified in the example. The time for mixing water-soluble complex silicates of metals, or metal silicate, or a comparative sample was Rav is th 10 C.

Test Britt jar retention

Test Britt jar retention was performed to assess the ability of complex silicates of Ca/Mg to promote the retention (in particular, example 14). Paper composition, which was used in the test for retention, the solids content was the same composition as used in the test drainage in the PSC, except that its concentration was 0.5 wt%. During the test, 500 ml of a paper composition was stirred device Britt jar and was treated with different additives in the same experimental conditions as in the test for drainage.

After processing the first 100 ml of waste water from the container were collected for analysis on the rate of retention.

Example 1

The sample for testing (test # 1, presented in the following table 2) were prepared by adding a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

A sample of the product Sodium Silicate (test # 2, presented in the following table 2) was prepared by diluting Sodium Silicate product On to the concentration of SiO20.3 wt.% by introducing liquid product Sodium Silicate in 98,98 g of deionized water. 2#/t of diluted Sodium Silicate product On was added to the pretreated paper composition. Paper composition has preliminarily who was treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

In this example, used the five complexes with CA silicate and five complexes with Mg silicate (test No. 3 through 12, are presented in the following table 2), which consisted of 0.3 wt.% SiO2and characterized by molar ratios of Ca/Si or Mg/Si, listed in table 2. Each of silicate complexes were prepared as follows.

For test No. 3, presented in table 2, complex silicate of CA were prepared by mixing 1,017 g Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g of the solution l containing 100 ppm million Mg equivalent. In pre-treated paper composition was added 2 #/t of silicate complex. Paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

For test No. 4 shown in table 2, the complexes with CA silicate was prepared by mixing 1,017 g Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g of a solution of CaCl2containing 150 ppm million Mg equivalent. In pre-treated paper composition was added 2 #/t of silicate complex. Paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

For test No. 5 shown in table 2, the complexes with CA silicate was prepared by mixing 1,017 g Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g of the solution l2containing 200 ppm million Mg EC is ivalent. In pre-treated paper composition was added 2 #/t of silicate complex. Paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

For test No. 6 shown in table 2, the complexes with CA silicate was prepared by mixing 1,017 g Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g of the solution l2containing 300 ppm million Mg equivalent. In pre-treated paper composition was added 2 #/t of silicate complex. Paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

For test No. 7 shown in table 2, the complexes with CA silicate was prepared by mixing 1,017 g Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g of a solution of CaCl2containing 400 ppm million Mg equivalent. In pre-treated paper composition was added 2 #/t of silicate complex. Paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

For test No. 8 shown in table 2, the complexes with CA silicate was prepared by mixing 1,017 g Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g of a solution of MgCl2containing 100 ppm million Mg equivalent. In pre-treated paper composition was added 2 #/t of silicate complex. Paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t Katie is nagtungo starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

For test No. 9 shown in table 2, the complexes with CA silicate was prepared by mixing 1,017 g Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g of a solution of MgCl2containing 200 ppm million Mg equivalent. In pre-treated paper composition was added 2 #/t of silicate complex. Paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

For test No. 10 shown in table 2, the complexes with CA silicate was prepared by mixing 1,017 g Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g of a solution of MgCl2containing 300 ppm million Mg equivalent. In pre-treated paper composition was added 2 #/t of silicate complex. Paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t Catino active starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

For test No. 11 shown in table 2, the complexes with CA silicate was prepared by mixing 1,017 g Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g of a solution of MgCl2containing 400 ppm million Mg equivalent. In pre-treated paper composition was added 2 #/t of silicate complex. Paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

For test No. 12 shown in table 2, the complexes with CA silicate was prepared by mixing 1,017 g Sodium Silicate On the 98,98 g of a solution of MgCl 2containing 500 ppm million Mg equivalent. In pre-treated paper composition was added 2 #/t of silicate complex. Paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

Next, the finished paper composition tests No. 1 through 12 carried in the device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The test results of the samples are summarized in the table below 2.

Table 2
Test # Identification sampleThe molar ratio M'/SiAdding silicate (#/t in the form of SiO2)CEC (ml)
1Control 0440
2Silicate Na02530
3Silicate CA0,0182613
4Silicate CA0,0272610
5Silicate CAbeing 0.0362590
6Silicate CA0,0542580
7Seeley is at CA 0,0722570
8Silicate Mg0,0212630
9Silicate Mg0,0422635
10Silicate Mg0,0632645
11Silicate Mg0,0842635

The data in table 2 show that the complexes of CA and Mg silicates, in which the values of the molar ratio of Ca/Si ranged from 0,018 to 0,072 or in which the values of the molar ratio Mg/Si ranged from 0,021 to 0,105, markedly improved drainage properties of the paper composition. In addition, the data in table 2 show that when the value of the molar ratio of Ca/Si in combination with the silicate Sa was equal to at least being 0.036, this silicate complex was formed precipitate, which was visible to the naked eye (in particular, in the cases of samples in test No. 5 through 7), and thus draining ability has been reduced.

The data in table 2 also show that the addition of the paper composition of the silicate Na contributes to the increase in the rate of drainage of this paper composition.

All solutions, including silicotitanate complexes of the present invention, was transparent RA is torami, with the exception of the solutions in test No. 5 and 7, which contained a small amount of precipitate, visible to the naked eye. Therefore, all silicate complexes formed in example 1 were water-soluble, excluding compositions in test No. 5 and 7, which contained a small amount of sediment.

Example 2

Control sample (test No. 1, presented in the following table 3) were prepared by adding a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

In this example included a sample (test No. 2, presented in the following table 3), containing the technical Supplement of the microparticles, promote drainage, bentonite. As the bentonite in this example, the used bentonite HS, which was supplied by Southern Clay Products, Inc. Bentonite was added to the paper composition, which was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). The number of added bentonite was 2#/ton, calculated on the weight of dry matter.

Also prepared sample of the product Na Silicate N (test No. 3, presented in the following table 3), not containing either CA or Mg ions. 2,01 g Na Silicate N was diluted 248 g of deionized water to a concentration of 0.3 wt.% and was continuously stirred for 1 min Immediately after the Le of this diluted silicate Na was administered in paper composition, which was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). The number of added product Na Silicate N was 2 #/ton, calculated on the weight of dry matter.

Seven silicate complexes with CA and four complex silicate of Mg (test No. 4 through 14, are presented in the following table 3), which consisted of 0.3 wt.% dry sodium silicate and characterized by molar ratio M'/Si, which are shown in table 3, were prepared as follows.

For test No. 4, presented in table 3, complex silicate of CA was prepared initially by the introduction 0,313 g of 2%aqueous solution l2in 247,68 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. This mixture was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the rate of drainage (number silicate complex was 2 #/ton, calculated on the dry weight of sodium silicate). Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, with the exception of CMPA (PC 8138), stirred for 10 North CMPA (P 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

For test No. 5 shown in table 3, complex silicate of CA was prepared initially by the introduction of 0.625 g of 2%aqueous solution of CaCl2in 247,37 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. This mixture was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, with the exception of CMPA (PC 8138), stirred for 10 North CMPA (PC 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

For test No. 6 shown in table 3, complex silicate of CA was prepared initially by the introduction of 1.25 g of 2%aqueous solution of CaCl2in 246,74 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. This mixture was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper HDMI which of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, with the exception of CMPA (PC 8138), mixed for 10 seconds. CMPA (PC 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

For test No. 7 shown in table 3, complex silicate of CA was prepared initially by the introduction of 1,875 g of 2%aqueous solution of CaCl2in 246,12 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. This mixture was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, with the exception of CMPA (PC 8138), stirred for 10 North CMPA (PC 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

For test No. 8 shown in table 3, complex silicate of CA was prepared initially by the introduction of 2.5 g of 2%aqueous solution l2in 245,49 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. This mixture was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper compo is iciu to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5

#/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, with the exception of CMPA (PC 8138), stirred for 10 North CMPA (PC 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

For test No. 9 shown in table 3, complex silicate of CA was prepared initially by the introduction of 3.75 g of 2%aqueous solution of CaCl2in 244,24 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. This mixture was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, with the exception of CMPA (PC 8138), mixed for 10 seconds. CMPA (PC 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

For test No. 10 shown in table 3, complex silicate of CA was prepared initially by the introduction of 5 g of 2%aqueous solution of CaCl2in 242,99 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. These sm is si continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 minute Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, with the exception of CMPA (PC 8138), stirred for 10 North CMPA (PC 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

For test No. 11 shown in table 3, the complex with the Mg silicate was prepared initially by the introduction of 2.5 g of 1%aqueous solution of MgCl2in 245,49 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. This mixture was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, with the exception of CMPA (PC 8138), stirred for 10 North CMPA (PC 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

For test No. 12 shown in table 3, the complex with the Mg silicate was prepared by first suggesting the m 5 g of 1%aqueous solution of MgCl 2in 242,99 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. This mixture was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, with the exception of CMPA (PC 8138), stirred for 10 North CMPA (PC 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

For test No. 13 shown in table 3, the complex with the Mg silicate was prepared initially by the introduction of 7.5 g of 1%aqueous solution of MgCl2in 240,49 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. This mixture was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, the claim is ucheniem CMPA (PC 8138), mixed for 10 seconds, CMPA (PC 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

For test No. 14 shown in table 3, the complex with the Mg silicate was prepared by initially introducing 10 g of 1%aqueous solution of MgCl2in 237,99 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate N. This mixture was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives in the following order: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Each additive, with the exception of CMPA (PC 8138), stirred for 10 North CMPA (PC 8138) were mixed for 60 sec.

Next, the finished paper composition tests No. 1 through bore 14 in the device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The test results of the samples are summarized in the table below 3.

Table 3
Test # Identification sampleThe molar ratio M'/SiAdding silicate (#/ton, calculated on the dry matter)CEC (ml)
1The control without additives0430
2Control - bentonite2670
3Na Silicate N02518
4Silicate CA0,0062540
5Silicate CA0,0122560
6Silicate CA0,0242590
7Silicate CA0,0352618
8Silicate CA0,0472643
9Silicate CA0,0712668
10Silicate CA0,0942653
11Silicate Mg0,0282570
12Silicate Mg0,0552615
13Silicate Mg0,0832645
14Silicate Mg0.110258

The data of table 3 clearly show that the complexes of CA and Mg silicates, in which the molar ratio ranged from 0,006 to 0.11 (test samples No. 3 through 14), has greatly improved the drainage properties of the paper composition. Similarly the rate of drainage was improved also add in the paper composition of sodium silicate or bentonite.

All solutions, including silicotitanate complexes of the present invention, was transparent solutions.

Example 3

Control sample (test No. 1, presented in the following table 4) were prepared by adding a paper composition, pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

In this example included a sample of the product Na Silicate (test # 2, presented in the following table 4). Before the introduction of paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695), product Na Silicate On diluted to 0.075 wt.% SiO2adding 0,254 g Na Silicate O K of 99.75 g of deionized water.

Four of complex silicates of Ca/Mg (test No. 3 and 6, are presented in the following table 4), which consisted of 0.075 wt.% SiO2and characterized by different molar ratio M'/Si that the criminal code is explained in table 4, was prepared as follows.

For test No. 3 complex was prepared by adding 0,254 g Na Silicate O K of 99.75 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and possessing rigidity 34 frequent./million Sa equivalent. Next 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours After this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

For test No. 4 complex was prepared by adding 0,254 g Na Silicate O K of 99.75 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and having a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent. Next 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours After this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

For test No. 5 complex was prepared by adding 0,254 g Na Silicate O K of 99.75 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and possessing rigidity 102 frequent./million Sa equivalent. Next 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition to the th pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours After this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

For test No. 6 complex was prepared by adding 0,254 g Na Silicate O K of 99.75 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and possessing rigidity 136 frequent./million Sa equivalent. Next 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours After this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

The results of the test samples in this example are summarized in the table below 4.

Table 4
Test # Identification sampleThe molar ratio M'/SiAdding silicate (#/t in the form of SiO2)CEC (ml)
1Control0435
2Na Silicate O02510
3/td> Silicate CA/Mg0,0682593
4Silicate CA/Mg0,1362613
5Silicate CA/Mg0,2042635
6Silicate CA/Mg0,2722473

Table 4 shows that the complexes of silicates of CA/Mg, which is the ratio of (CA+Mg)/Si ranged from 0,068 to 0,204, has greatly improved the drainage properties of the paper composition. In contrast, complexes of silicates of CA/Mg (as shown in the samples in test No. 6)where the value of the ratio (CA+Mg)/Si was 0,272, when applying the formed precipitate, resulting in not demonstrated a noticeable improvement in the drainage properties of the paper composition.

Table 4 shows also that the presence in the paper composition of sodium silicate increased the rate of drainage. All solutions, including silicotitanate complexes of the present invention, was transparent solutions, with the exception of the solution in test No. 6, which contained a precipitate visible to the naked eye. Therefore, all silicate complexes formed in example 3 were water-soluble, except the composition in test No. 6 (obladaushiy the rigidity 136 frequent./million Sa equivalent), which formed a precipitate.

Example 4

Samples for tests No. 3 and 6 (as they are presented in the table below, 5) this example were the same as the test samples No. 3 through 6 of example 3, except that the paper composition was treated not CMPA and AMP (RA 8130). In other words, before adding complex silicates of Ca/Mg in the paper composition successively introduced 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t of the SFA.

Also prepared sample of the product Na Silicate N (test # 2, presented in the following table 5), not containing either CA or Mg ions. Product Na Silicate N was diluted to 0.075 wt.% SiO2deionized water, and then introduced in a paper composition, which included 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t of AMP (RA 8130).

Prepared control sample (test No. 1, presented in the following table 5), which contained only a paper composition. This paper composition was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t of AMP (RA 8130).

Prepared paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The results are summarized in the table below 5.

Identification sample
Table 5
Test # The molar ratio of MVSiAdding silicate (#/t in the form of SiO2)CEC (ml)
1Control0519
2Na Silicate O02569
3Silicate CA/Mg0,0682574
4Silicate CA/Mg0,1362587
5Silicate CA/Mg0,2042604
6Silicate CA/Mg0,2722559

According to the data of table 5, when the paper composition was treated with anionic polymer together with silicates of CA/Mg was achieved improve drainage. Similarly the rate of drainage increased the add in the paper composition of sodium silicate.

Example 5

Control sample (test No. 1, presented in the following table 5) were prepared by adding a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

Nine samples of complex silicates of CA/Mg (test No. 2 through 10 are presented in table 6), which consisted of 0.3 wt.% SiO2is characterized by the values of the molar ratio (CA + Mg)/Si 0,034, was prepared as follows.

For test No. 2 complex was prepared by mixing 1 g of the product of Na Silicate STIXSO RR to 99.00 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and having a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours Then 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

For test No. 3 complex was prepared by mixing 1,083 g Na Silicate E in 98,92 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and having a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours Then 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

For test No. 4 complex was prepared by mixing 1,045 g Na Silicate N 98,95 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and having a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours Then 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus8910).

For test No. 5 complex was prepared by mixing 1,017 g Na Silicate in 98,98 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and having a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours Then 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

For test No. 6 complex was prepared by mixing of 1.027 g of the product of Na Silicate grade 40 in 98,97 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and having a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours Then 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910). For test No. 7 complex was prepared by mixing 1 g of the product of Na Silicate grade 42 to 99.00 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and having a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours Then 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

For test No. complex were prepared by mixing 0,946 g Na Silicate in 99,05 g of water, containing ions of Mg/Ca and having a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours Then 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

For test No. 9 complex was prepared by mixing 0,935 g Na M Silicate in 99,07 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and having a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours Then 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

For test No. 10 complex was prepared by mixing 1,020 g of the product of Na Silicate D 98,98 g of water containing ions of Mg/Ca and having a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 30 min, and then left to stand for 3 hours Then 2 #/t of such a complex was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

Next paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The result is summarized in table 6.

Table 6
Test

No.
The source of sodium silicate No..SiO2/Na2O in silicateCEC (ml)
1Control470
2Sodium Silicate STIXSO RR3,25663
3Sodium Silicate E3,22673
4Sodium Silicate N3,22668
5Sodium Silicate O3,22663
6Sodium Silicate grade 403,22655
7Sodium Silicate grade 423,22655
8Sodium Silicate To2,88640
9Sodium Silicate M2,58608
10Sodium Silicate D2,0580

According to the data of table 6, the silicates of sodium, which was characterized by the values of the mass ratio of SiO2/Na2O in the range from 2.0 to 3.25, formed an effective complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

Example 6

Used in this example, the complexes of silicates Ca/Mg was the same how complex silicates in example 5, except that instead of 1 #/p CMPA applied of 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130). In other words, a paper composition successively introduced 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, of 0.25 #/t AMP and 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg (in the form of SiO2).

Control sample in this example was the same as the sample in example 5, except that instead of 1 #/t CMPA applied of 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130).

Next, the treated paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The results are summarized in the table below 7.

Table 7
The source of sodium silicateSiO2/Na2O in silicateCEC (ml)
Control468
Sodium Silicate STIXSO RR3,25540
Sodium Silicate E3,22535
Sodium Silicate N3,22538
Sodium Silicate O3,22545
Sodium Silicate grade 403,22533
Sodium Silicate grade 423,22540
Sodium Silicate To2,88520
Sodium Silicate M2,58483
Sodium Silicate D2,0480

According to the data of table 7, the complex silicates of Ca/Mg, which was formed from the sodium silicates, characterized by the values of the mass ratio of SiO2/Na2O in the range from 2.0 to 3.25, improved performance drainage paper composition, processed AMP flocculant.

Example 7

After preparing a control sample (test No. 1, presented in the following table 8), it was placed in a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

Another control sample (test No. 2, presented in the following table 8) were prepared by adding in the paper composition of 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

Sample from 0.15% CaCl2(test No. 3, presented in the following table 8) were prepared by addition of 114.5 g of deionized water 0,452 g of concentrated solution l2(dry matter content which accounted for 38%, manufactured on the Tetra Technology). 0,15%solution l2at 2 #/ton was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the speed of drainage. Pre-treated paper composition was prepared by adding in this paper the composition of 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

The product sample Na Silicte N (test No. 4, presented in the following table 8), not containing either CA or Mg ions, was also prepared as follows. 0,803 g Na Silicate N was diluted 99,20 g deionized water to a concentration of 0.3 wt.% and was continuously stirred for 1 min Immediately after that 2 #/t of diluted silicate Na was administered in paper composition, which is pre-treated with 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

For test No. 5 through 8 are presented in the following table 8, was jointly prepared complexes with silicate CA. For these tests, the complexes with CA silicate was prepared by adding 20 g of 0.15%aqueous solution of CaCl2and 0,803 product Sodium Silicate N to 89.2 g of deionized water. The solution was continuously stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 min Immediately after this test № 5 8 2 #/t of silicate complex was added to the pretreated paper composition to determine the rate of drainage.

For test No. 5 pre-treated paper composition was prepared by adding to the paper composition of 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

For test No. 6 pre-treated paper composition was prepared by adding to a paper composition 5 #/t of alum, and then a 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

For test No. 7 pre-treated paper composition was prepared by adding in this paper composition 10 #/t cationactive the starch, and then of 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

For test No. 8 pre-treated paper composition was prepared by introduction in this paper the composition of the following additives: 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

Next paper prepared composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The results of the experiments of this example are summarized in below table 8.

Table 8
Test # Supplement No. 1Supplement No. 2Supplement No. 3Supplement No. 4CEC (ml)
1NoNoNoNo400
2NoNoof 0.5 #/t MPANo420
3NoNoof 0.5 #/t MPA2 #/t CaCl2413
4NoNoof 0.5 #/t MPA2 #/t of Na Silicate N420
5NoNoof 0.5 #/t MPA/td> 2 #/t Silicate Ca558
6No5 #/t of alumof 0.5 #/t MPA2 #/t Silicate Ca555
710 #/t cat. starchNoof 0.5 #/t MPA2 #/t Silicate Ca590
810#/t cat. starch5 #/t of alumof 0.5 #/t MPA2 #/t Silicate Ca650

As can be seen from table 8, the compositions in tests No. 3 and 4 (which are included respectively l2and the product Sodium Silicate N), drainage activity was not shown, whereas the complex with calcium silicate showed a noticeable drainage activity. The results in table 8 also show that the complex silicate Ca had optimal performance when a paper composition was added cationic starch, alum and cationic flocculant [CMPA (PC 8138)]. Complex silicate of CA showed improved drainage activity when introduced into the paper composition of at least one additive.

Example 8

In this example, the complex silicates of Ca/Mg, the concentration of SiO2which was 0.3 wt.%, and the value of the molar ratio (CA+Mg)/Si was equal 0,034, prepared by the reaction product of Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g of a solution of Ca/Mg, to the which had a hardness of 68 part./million Sa equivalent.

In the study of drainage complex silicates of Ca/Mg was compared with a number of samples, the preparation of which a paper composition separately added silicates of sodium ions and CA or Mg using l2and MgCl2without pre-mixing to obtain complexes with silicate of CA or Mg. The amount of silicate complexes and sodium silicate listed in the following table 9. Processing paper composition consisted of consecutive adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695), followed by the test additives, as presented in the following table 9.

The number of complex silicates of Ca/Mg was determined in terms of SiO2a product Sodium Silicate Oh, CaCl2and MgCl2defined in terms of dry solid substance of these materials.

Processed paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The results of the experiments of this example are listed in table 9.

td align="center"> 2
Table 9
Test # Supplements as a means of contributing drainage (SDS)CEC (ml)
1Control 1 without additives as SDS440
Control 2 - 2 #/t of Sodium Silicate O535
32 #/t of Sodium Silicate O+2 #/t CaCl2540
42 #/t of Sodium Silicate O+4 #/ton CaCl2545
52 #/t of Sodium Silicate 10+10 #/t CaCl2540
62 #/t of Sodium Silicate O+2 #/t MgCl2545
72 #/t of Sodium Silicate O+8 #/ton MgCl2540
82 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg635

According to the data of table 9, the complex silicates of Ca/Mg in test No. 8 to improve drainage surpassed the simple combination of sodium silicate and CA ions or Mg (without first obtaining complexes of silicates of CA or Mg) in test No. 3 through 7. Data in table 9 also show that a simple combination of sodium silicate and CA ions or Mg is essentially determined such as improving drainage, and the sodium silicate in test No. 2.

Example 9

Control sample (test No. 1, presented in the following table 10) were prepared by the sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The results of IP the trial of this control sample is presented in the following table 10.

In this example, used seven silicate complexes with CA (tests No. 2 through 8, are presented in the following table 10), the concentration of SiO2which was 0.3% in terms of dry weight, and the ratio of Ca/Si was equal 0,071. Each of these seven complexes with CA silicate was prepared with 22°by adding 3.75 g of 2%l2in 244,24 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate n

After flow test No. 2 reaction for about 0.5 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Immediately after this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

After flow test No. 3 reactie for about a 4.3 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Immediately after this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

After flow test No. 4 reaction within about 7.3 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10#/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Immediately after this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

After flow test No. 5 the reaction for approximately 15.5 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Immediately after this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

After flow test No. 6 reaction for about 30 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Immediately after this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

After passing the test # 7 reaction for about 39 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Immediately after this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

After flow test No. 8 reactions for approximately 59 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition to the th pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Immediately after this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

In this example used two complex silicate of CA (tests No. 9 and 10, are presented in the following table 10), the concentration of SiO2which was 0.3% in terms of dry weight, and the ratio of Ca/Si was equal 0,071. Each of these two complexes with CA silicate was prepared at 50°by adding 3.75 g of 2%CaCl2in 244,24 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate n

After passing the test No. 9 reaction for about 0.5 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Then the paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

After flow test No. 10 reaction for about 3 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Then the paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

In this example, used the five complexes with silicate is a (test No. 11 to 15, presented in the following table 10), the concentration of SiO2which was 0.3% in terms of dry weight, and the ratio of Ca/Si was equal 0,012. Each of these two complexes with CA silicate was prepared at 50°With the addition of 0.625 g 2%CaCl2in 247,37 g of deionized water and then adding deionized water 2,01 g Sodium Silicate n

After flow test No. 11 reaction for about 0.5 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Then the paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

After flow test No. 12 reaction within about 3.3 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Then the paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

After flow test No. 13 of the reaction for approximately 6,3 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Then the paper composition is transferred into the instrument PSC t is m, to determine the performance of the drainage.

After flow test No. 14 reaction for about 17 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Then the paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

After flow test No. 15 reaction for approximately 20,5 min 2 #/t of the complex with Sa was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Then the paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

The test results of the above samples is presented below.

td align="center"> 15,5
Table 10
Identification sampleThe reaction time of CA silicate (min)The amount of silicate CA (#/t)PSC

(ml)
10430
20,52665
34,32675
47,32675
52680
6302685
7392675
8592680
90,52635
103,02635
110,52550
123,32635
136,32665
14172680
1520,52675

As the results, summarized in table 10, when the molar ratio of Ca/Si was equal 0,071, complex silicate of CA quickly reached its maximum drainage activity soon after the beginning of the reaction. However, at lower values of the molar ratio of Ca/Si reaction period lengthened, even when the reaction temperature was raised to 50°C.

Example 10

Complexes of silicates Ca/Mg, which was used in test No. 2 through 4 and 6 were the same as they have been cooked together. The concentration of SiO2in these complexes silicates Ca/Mg was 0.3%, and the value of the molar soo is wearing (CA + Mg)/Si was equal 0,034. They were prepared by mixing 1,02 #/t of Sodium Silicate product Of 98,98 g of a solution of Ca/Mg, possessing rigidity 68 part./million Sa equivalent, for about 30 minutes, and then left to stand for about 3 hours

Specifically for this example, six samples (tests No. 1 through 6 are shown in the following table 11) were prepared as follows.

The sample for test No. 1 was prepared by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The test result of this control sample is presented in the following table 11.

In test # 2 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the sequential addition of this paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

In test # 3 4 #/ton of complex silicates of Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the sequential addition of this paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to define indicators and drainage.

In test # 4 6 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which is pre-processed by the sequential addition of this paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

The sample for test No. 5 was prepared by adding to a paper composition 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The test result of this control sample is presented in the following table 11.

In test # 6 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding in this paper composition 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

Table 11
Test # Cationactive-hydrated starch (#/ton product)Cationactive-tion MPA (#/t of the basic substance)Complexes of silicates Ca/Mg (#/t in the form of SiO2)CEC (ml)
1101No440
2 1012580
31014582
41016570
501No470
6012593

According to the data of table 11, the use of Ca/Mg demonstrates significant improvement of drainage, when in paper composition (a) contained only CMPA flocculant, and (b) CMPA flocculant and cationic starch.

Example 11

In this example, four sets of Ca/Mg (tests No. 1 through 4 are presented in table 12) were prepared as follows.

In test No. 1 complex silicates of Ca/Mg, the concentration of SiO2which was 0.3 wt.%, and the molar ratio of (CA+Mg)/Si was equal 0,034, prepared with 7°reaction of 1.02 g of the product Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g Ca/Mg solution possessing rigidity 68 part./million (CA equivalent). Immediately after the reaction proceeded for about 3 min, 2 #/t of the complex with Ca/Mg was administered in paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC so that is predelete indicators drainage.

In test No. 2 complex silicates of Ca/Mg, the concentration of SiO2which was 0.3 wt.%, and the molar ratio of (CA+Mg)/Si was equal 0,034, prepared with 15°reaction of 1.02 g of the product Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g Ca/Mg solution possessing rigidity 68 part./million (CA equivalent). Immediately after the reaction proceeded for about 3 min, 2 #/t of the complex with Ca/Mg was administered in paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

In test No. 3 complex silicates of Ca/Mg, the concentration of SiO2which was 0.3 wt.%, and the molar ratio of (CA+Mg)/Si was equal 0,034, prepared at 20°reaction of 1.02 g of the product Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g Ca/Mg solution possessing rigidity 68 part./million (CA equivalent). Immediately after the reaction proceeded for about 3 min, 2 #/t of the complex with Ca/Mg was administered in paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

In test No. 4 complex silicates of Ca/Mg, the concentration of SiO2which was 0.3 wt.%, and the mole is the amount ratio of (CA+Mg)/Si was equal 0,034, prepared at 50°reaction of 1.02 g of the product Sodium Silicate with 98,98 g Ca/Mg solution possessing rigidity 68 part./million (CA equivalent). Immediately after the reaction proceeded for about 3 min, 2 #/t of the complex with Ca/Mg was administered in paper composition, which is pre-treated by adding 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695). Further, this paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage.

The results of the experiments of this example are presented in the following table 12.

Table 12
Test # The reaction temperature (°)The number (#/t, SiO2)CEC (ml)
172538
2152540
3202555
4502605

As shown by the data in table 12, when the reaction temperature was increased, the drainage activity of complex silicates of Ca/Mg was increased.

Example 12

Complex silicates of Ca/Mg, which is used in this example was the same as in example 10. Specifically, the complex silicates of Ca/Mg, which the concentration of SiO2was 0.3 wt.%, and the value of the molar ratio (CA+Mg)/Si was equal 0,034, were prepared by mixing 1,02 #/t of Sodium Silicate product Of 98,98 g of a solution of Ca/Mg, possessing rigidity 68 part./million Sa equivalent, for about 30 min, and then the mixture was left to stand for about 3 hours

Samples for tests No. 1 through 12 are presented in table 13, were prepared as follows.

In test No. 1 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 7.7, added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

In test No. 2 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 7.7, pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910), was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 3 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 7.7, added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130).

In test No. 4 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 7.7, pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130), was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 5 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 8.7, added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

In test No. 6 in a boom is the author of the composition, the pH value of which was 8.7, pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910), was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 7 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 8.7, added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130).

In test No. 8 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 8.7, pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130), was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 9 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 9.6, was added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

In test No. 10 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 9.6, pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910), was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 11 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 9.6, was added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25#/t AMB(RA 8130).

In test No. 12 in paper composition, the pH value of which was 9.6, pre-processed by the introduction of 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130), was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

Further, these paper HDMI is the bore in the device of the PSC with the to determine the performance of the drainage. Results indicators of drainage were also summarized in the table below 13.

Table 13
Test

No.
pHFlocculant for the treatmentSilicates Ca/Mg (#/t, SiO2)PSC

(ml)
17,71 #/t CNA0470
27,71 #/t CNA2648
37,70,25 #/t AMB0485
47,70,25 #/t AMB2548
58,71 #/t CNA0468
68,71 #/t CNA2660
78,70,25 #/t AMB0468
88,70,25 #/t AMB2563
99.61 #/t CNA0460
109,61 #/t CNA2668
11/td> 9,60,25 #/t AMB0463
129,60.25 #/t AMB2553

According to the data of table 13, the addition of complex silicates of Ca/Mg in the paper composition, the pH value of which is from 7.7 to 9.6, significantly increases the rate of drainage.

Example 13

Complex silicates of Ca/Mg, which is used in this example was the same as the complex in example 10. Specifically, the complex silicates of Ca/Mg, at which the concentration of Si02was 0.3%, and the value of the molar ratio (CA+Mg)/Si was equal 0,034, were prepared by reaction of 1.02 #/t of Sodium Silicate product Of 98,98 g of a solution of Ca/Mg, possessing rigidity 68 part./million Sa equivalent.

Samples for tests No. 1 through 16, are presented in table 14 was prepared as follows.

In test No. 1 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 100 wt.% fiber and 0 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

In test No. 2 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 100 wt.% fiber and 0 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as the filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910). Later in this paper composition was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 3 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 100 wt.% fiber and 0 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130).

In test No. 4 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 100 wt.% fiber and 0 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130). Later in this paper composition was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 5 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 90 wt.% fibers and 10 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

In test No. 6 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 90 wt.% fibers and 10 wt.% about adenowo calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910). Later in this paper composition was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 7 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 90 wt.% fibers and 10 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130).

In test No. 8 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 90 wt.% fibers and 10 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130). Later in this paper composition was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 9 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 80 wt.% fibers and 20 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

In test No. 10 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 80 wt.% fibers and 20 wt.% najdennogo calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910). Later in this paper composition was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 11 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 80 wt.% fibers and 20 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130).

In test No. 12 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which consisted of 80 wt.% fibers and 20 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130). Later in this paper composition was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 13 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which included 65 wt.% fibers and 35 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910).

In test No. 14 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which included 65 wt.% fibers and 35 wt. precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (Novus 8910). Later in this paper composition was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 15 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which included 65 wt.% fibers and 35 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130).

In test No. 16 in 1000 ml of a paper composition, the concentration of which was 0.3 wt.% and which included 65 wt.% fibers and 35 wt.% precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) as a filler, calculated on the total weight of the dry paper composition, were added 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130). Later in this paper composition was added 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

Further, these paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The results are summarized in table 14.

tr>
Table 14
Test

No.
Filler content (%, calculated on the dry matter)Flocculant for the treatmentSilicates Ca/Mg (#/t

SiO2)
PSC

(ml)
101 #/t CNA0498
201 #/t CNA2648
300,25 #/t AMB0463
400.25 #/t AMB2510
5101 #/t CNA0460
6101 #/t CNA2653
7100,25 #/t AMB0463
8100,25 #/t AMB2540
9201 #/t CNA0453
10201 #/t CNA2653
11200.25 #/t AMB0463
12200,25 #/t AMB2540
13351 #/t CNA0433
14351 #/t CNA2665
15350,25 #/t AMB 0455
16350,25 #/t AMB2538

According to the data of table 14, the complexes of silicates Ca/Mg cause a significant improvement in drainage paper composition, the content of the filler in which either zero or up to 35 wt.%.

Example 14

Complex silicates of Ca/Mg, which is used in this example was the same as the complex in example 10. Specifically, the complex silicates of Ca/Mg, at which the concentration of SiO2was 0.3%, and the value of the molar ratio (CA+Mg)/Si was equal 0,034, were prepared by mixing 1,02 #/t of Sodium Silicate product Of 98,98 g of a solution of Ca/Mg, possessing rigidity 68 part./million Sa equivalent, for about 30 min, and then the mixture was left to stand for about 3 hours

In this example, the samples (tests No. 1 through 12 are presented in table 15) were referred for assessment of ability to hold detail in the instrument Britt Jar.

In test No. 1 assessment of capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695).

In test No. 2 assessment of capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695) and 2 #/t of complex silicate is in Ca/Mg.

In test No. 3 evaluation capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695) and 4 #/ton of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 4 assessment of the capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, 1 #/t CMPA (PC 8695) and 6 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 5 evaluation capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum.

In test No. 6 assessment of capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 7 assessment of capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 4 #/ton of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 8 evaluation of the capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 6 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 9 evaluation of the capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t kVA the CC and 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130).

In test No. 10 evaluation of the capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, of 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130) and 2 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 11 evaluation capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, of 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130) and 4 #/ton of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 12 evaluation capacity retention was carried out by sequential addition of a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, of 0.25 #/t AMB (RA 8130) and 6 #/t of complex silicates of Ca/Mg.

Further, these paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The results of the evaluation of the ability of retention are summarized in the table below 15.

Table 15
Test # Flocculant for the treatmentThe number of added silicate Ca/MgHolding things for the first pass
11 #/t CNANo59,06%
21 #/t CNA2 #/t in the form of SiO276,95%
31 #/t CNA 4 #/ton in the form of SiO284,67%

41 #/t CNA6 #/ton in the form of SiO283,85%
5NoNoof 27.94%
6No2 #/t in the form of SiO235,55%
7No4 #/ton in the form of SiO238,16%
8No6 #/ton in the form of SiO237,20%
90,25 #/t AMBNo40,18%
100,25 #/t AMB2 #/t in the form of SiO244,46%
110,25 #/t AMB4 #/ton in the form of SiO245,35%
120,25 #/t AMB6 #/ton in the form of SiO242,89%

According to the data of table 15, paper compositions, which were not treated with complex silicates of Ca/Mg, was characterized by reduced retention in comparison with paper compositions, which were processed by the complex silicates of Ca/Mg. Complex silicates of Ca/Mg improved retention in paper compositions, treated and not treated is related to the flocculant.

Example 15

Control sample (test No. 1, presented in the following table 16) were prepared by adding a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

In this example included a sample (test No. 2, presented in the following table 16) with the technical Supplement of the microparticles, promote drainage, bentonite. As the bentonite in this example, the used bentonite HS, which was made by the company Southern Clay Products, Inc. Bentonite was added to the paper composition, which was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

In test No. 3 complex silicates of Ca/Mg containing 0.3 wt.% SiO2, were prepared by mixing 1.04 g of the product Sodium Silicate N 98,96 g of fresh water, the hardness of which were frequent 124./million Sa equivalent, within about 2 to 3 minutes 2 #/t of this complex with Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which was pre-treated with a 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

In test No. 4 complex silicates of Ca/Mg containing 0.3 wt.% SiO2, were prepared by mixing 1.04 g of the product Sodium Silicate N 98,96 g of fresh water, the hardness of which were frequent 124./million Sa equivalent, within about 2 to 3 minutes 2 #/t of this complex with Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, the which was pre-treated with a 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

In test No. 5 0.50 g of 2%CaCl2added to its 98.45 g of fresh water, the hardness of which were frequent 124./million Sa equivalent. Next, 1.04 g of sodium silicate was mixed with fresh water for about 2 to 3 min with a production of complex silicates of Ca/Mg containing 0.3 wt.% SiO2. Then 2 #/t of such a complex with Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

In test No. 6 0.75 g of 2%l2added to being equal to 98.21 per g of fresh water, the hardness of which were frequent 124./million Sa equivalent. Next, 1.04 g of sodium silicate was mixed with fresh water for about 2 to 3 min with a production of complex silicates of Ca/Mg containing 0.3 wt.% SiO2. Then 2 #/t of such a complex with Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

In test No. 7 1.0 g 2%l2added to 97,96 g of fresh water, the hardness of which were frequent 124./million Sa equivalent. Next, 1.04 g of sodium silicate was mixed with fresh water for about 2 to 3 min with a production of complex silicates of Ca/Mg containing 0.3 wt.% SiO2. Then 2 #/t of such a complex with Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which before artelino was treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

In test No. 8 1.5 g 2%CaCl2added to 97,46 g of fresh water, the hardness of which were frequent 124./million Sa equivalent. Next, 1.04 g of sodium silicate was mixed with fresh water for about 2 to 3 min with a production of complex silicates of Ca/Mg containing 0.3 wt.% SiO2. Then 2 #/t of such a complex with Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

In test No. 9 2.0 g of 2%SiO2added to 96,96 g of fresh water, the hardness of which were frequent 124./million Sa equivalent. Next, 1.04 g of sodium silicate was mixed with fresh water for about 2 to 3 min with a production of complex silicates of Ca/Mg containing 0.3 wt.% SiO2. Then 2 #/t of such a complex with Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

Next, the treated paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. The test results of the samples in this example are presented in the following table 16.

Table 16
Test # Identification samplethe Molar ratio M'/Si Adding silicate (#/t in the form of SiO2)CEC (ml)
1Without additives 0436
2Bentonite02 (very rare on dry matter)645
3Silicate Ca/Mg0,0622610
4Silicate Ca/Mg0,0622631
5Silicate Ca/Mg0,082635
6Silicate Ca/Mg0,092643
7Silicate Ca/Mg0,0982657
8Silicate Ca/Mg0,1162675
9Silicate Ca/Mg0,1342679

According to the data of table 16, the complexes of silicates Ca/Mg bentonite has greatly improved drainage properties of the paper composition.

Example 16

This example consists of nine samples (tests No. 1 through 9, are presented in the following table 17), which were the same as samples for tests No. 1 through 9 in the above example 15, except for the m, after the formation of the complexes silicates Ca/Mg (test No. 3 through 9) was left to stand for about 2 hours before you add in the preprocessed paper composition.

Next paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. After testing, the drainage through turbidimetry NASN 2100AN was determined by the turbidity of these complex silicates of metals.

The results are summarized in the table below 17.

Table 17
Test # Identification sampleThe molar ratio

M'/Si
Turbidity (NTU)Adding silicate (#/t in the form of SiO2)CEC (ml)
1Without additives  0432
2Bentonite  2 (very rare on dry matter)645
3Silicate Ca/Mg0,0620,472681
4Silicate Ca/Mg0,0620,532677
5Silicate Ca/Mg0,08 1,182686
6Silicate Ca/Mg0,09was 2.762691
7Silicate Ca/Mg0,0984,822695
8Silicate Ca/Mg0,11618,72700
9Silicate Ca/Mg0,13456,52700

As shown in table 17, all complex silicates of metals that are used in this example was found to be highly effective for improving drainage. It is also shown that the increase in turbidity of the complex from 18.7 to 56,5 does not improve the performance of these systems.

Example 17

Control sample (test No. 1, presented in the following table 18) were prepared by adding a paper composition 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138).

Three complex silicates of Ca/Mg (test No. 2 through 4 are presented in the following table 18), containing 0.3% of SiO2, was prepared as follows.

In test No. 2 (sample A) 1.5 g 2%CaCl2added to 97,46 g of fresh water, the hardness of which were frequent 124./million Sa equivalent. Then 1.04 g of the product Sodium Silicate N was stirred with n the forest water for from about 2 to 3 min with a production of complex silicates of Ca/Mg, containing 0.3 wt.% SiO2. This complex with Ca/Mg was allowed to stand for 5 days. Then after 5 days 2 #/t of such a complex with Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Next paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. After testing, the drainage through turbidimeter HACH 2100AN was determined by the turbidity of these complexes silicates of Ca/Mg.

In test No. 3 (sample B) 1.5 g 2%CaCl2added to 97,46 g of fresh water, the hardness of which were frequent 124./million Sa equivalent. Then 1.04 g of the product Sodium Silicate N mixed with fresh water for about 50 minutes at a temperature of from 7 to 9°obtaining a complex silicates of Ca/Mg containing 0.3 wt.% SiO2. Later in the mixture containing the complex silicates of Ca/Mg, for 22 min was further added 0.5 g 2%CaCl2after which 2 #/t of such a complex with Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Next paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. After testing, the drainage through turbidimeter HACH 2100AN was determined by the turbidity of these complexes silicates is of yellow.

In test No. 4 complex with Ca/Mg (sample C) was prepared by adding 9° With 1.0 g of 2%aqueous solution l2in sample B, as described above (test No. 3) and stirring for 65 minutes and Then 2 #/t of such a complex with Ca/Mg was added to the paper composition, which was pre-treated with 10 #/t of cationic starch, 5 #/t of alum, and 0.5 #/t CMPA (PC 8138). Next paper composition was transferred to a device of the PSC in order to determine the performance of the drainage. After testing, the drainage through turbidimeter HACH 2100AN was determined by the turbidity of these complexes silicates of Ca/Mg.

The results of the experiments of this example are summarized in the table below 18.

Table 18
Test # Identification sampleThe molar ratio of M SiTurbidity (NTU)Adding silicate (#/t, SiO2)PSC

(ml)
1Without additives  0432
2A sample And0,11629,582696
3Sample B0,13430,352695
4brezec 0,170712455

As shown in table 18, when the turbidity of complex silicates of metals increased from about 30 to 71 NTU, their drainage properties deteriorated sharply.

The above examples show that by applying an aqueous solution comprising metal ions, such as ions of Mg2+and/or CA2+for dilution of sodium silicate in order to convert the sodium silicate in the active silicates of magnesium and/or calcium, significantly improved the performance of drainage and retention of paper composition.

In addition, the above examples show that the performance of drainage and retention of paper compositions were also improved by adding a paper composition of sodium silicate.

Moreover, the above examples show that the introduction of a paper composition at least one of additives selected from cationic starch, coagulant and flocculant, followed by the addition of water-soluble complex silicates of metals or sodium silicate improve drainage and retention and are cost-effective processes for the manufacture of paper and cardboard.

The previous examples can equally well be repeated with the replacement of those common and specified components, and/or performance of the services is at the basis of the present invention, which was used in these examples above. From the above descriptions, the specialist in the art can easily determine the essential characteristics of the present invention and to adapt to a variety of applications and conditions of use in accordance with the invention can make various changes and modifications without leaving the comfort of its nature and scope.

1. Aqueous composition comprising water and a water-soluble complex silicates of metals, in which a water-soluble complex silicates of metals corresponds to the following formula:

(1-u)M2O·WM O·xSiO2

where M represents a monovalent cation; M' denotes the ion of the divalent metal; x represents a number from about 2 to 4; y represents a number from about 0.005 to 0.4; and the value of y/x is from about 0.001 to 0.25 in.

2. The aqueous composition according to claim 1, in which the divalent metal comprises at least one of the representatives of a number of magnesium, calcium, zinc, copper, iron(II), manganese(II) and barium.

3. The aqueous composition according to claim 1, in which the divalent metal comprises one of metals such as magnesium and calcium.

4. The aqueous composition according to claim 1 or 2, in which the value of the molar ratio of SiO2and oxide monovalent cation from water-soluble complex silicates of metals is from about 2 to 20

5. The aqueous composition according to claim 1 or 2, in which the value of the molar ratio of SiO2and oxide monovalent cation from water-soluble complex silicates of metals is from about 3 to 5.

6. The aqueous composition according to claim 1 or 2, in which the value of the molar ratio of the divalent metal and silicon in water-soluble complex silicates of metals is from about 0.001 to 0.25 in.

7. The aqueous composition according to claim 1 or 2, in which the concentration of SiO2is from about 0.01 to 5 wt.%.

8. The aqueous composition according to claim 4, in which the value of the molar ratio of the divalent metal and silicon in water-soluble complex silicates of metals is from about 0.001 to 0.25 in.

9. The aqueous composition according to claim 1, in which M denotes an atom of sodium, potassium or lithium or ammonium.

10. The aqueous composition according to claim 1, in which M represents a sodium atom.

11. The aqueous composition according to claim 1, in which M' represents an atom of calcium or magnesium.

12. The aqueous composition according to claim 1, in which a water-soluble complex silicates of metals includes a water-soluble silicate, corresponding to the following formula:

(1-y)Na2O·WM O·xSi2

where M' denotes the ion of the divalent metal, representing a calcium or magnesium,

x denotes a number from about 2 to 4

the convoy is achet number from about 0.005 to 0.4,

the value of y/x is from about 0.001 to 0.25 in,

the value of x/(1-y) is from about 2 to 20, and

the concentration of SiO2in this aqueous composition is from about 0.01 to 5 wt.%.

13. The aqueous composition according to item 12, in which the value of y/x is from about 0.01 to 0.2, a value of x/(1-y) is from about 3 to 10, and the concentration of SiO2in this aqueous composition is from about 0.1 to 2 wt.%.

14. The method of preparation of the aqueous composition containing a water-soluble complex silicates of metals, including the Association of silicate with monovalent cation ions and divalent metals in the aquatic environment with obtaining water-soluble complex silicates of metals, where the value of the molar ratio of SiO2and oxide monovalent cation from water-soluble complex silicates of metals is from about 2 to 20.

15. The method according to 14, in which the silicate with a monovalent cation includes at least one of the following products: sodium silicate, potassium silicate, lithium silicate and ammonium silicate.

16. The method according to 14, in which the silicate with the monovalent cation is a sodium silicate.

17. The method according to clause 16, in which the value of the mass ratio of SiO2/Na2O in the sodium silicate is from about 2 to 4.

18. The method according to 14, in which the divalent ions m is for metal ions include at least one of the representatives of a number of magnesium, calcium, zinc, copper, iron(II), manganese(II) and barium.

19. The method according to 14, in which ions of divalent metal ions include at least one of magnesium and calcium.

20. The method according to 14, in which a water-soluble complex silicates of metals includes a water-soluble silicate, corresponding to the following formula:

(1-y)Na2O·WM O·xSiO2

where M' denotes the ion of the divalent metal, representing a calcium or magnesium,

x denotes a number from about 2 to 4

y denotes a number from about 0.005 to 0.4,

the value of y/x is from about 0.001 to 0.25 in,

the value of x/(1-y) is from about 2 to 20, and

the concentration of SiO2in the aqueous composition is from about 0.01 to 5 wt.%.

21. The method according to 14, in which a water-soluble complex silicates of metals is produced by adding silicate with a monovalent cation in an aqueous reagent composition comprising a sufficient amount of ions of bivalent metals for the formation of a water-soluble complex silicates of metals.

22. The method according to item 21, in which the ion source of divalent metals represents at least one of the following compounds: CaCl2, MgCl2, MgSO4, Sa(NO3)2, Mg(NO3)2, CaSO4and ZnSO4.

23. The method according to 14, in which doraswamy complex silicates of metals is produced by adding ions of bivalent metals in aqueous reagent composition, including a sufficient amount of silicate ions with monovalent cation for the formation of a water-soluble complex silicates of metals.



 

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