Hydraulic automatic stepless transmission

FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.

SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.

EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.

18 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to vehicles, in particular for vehicles with three-dimensional hydraulic drive.

Currently in the car, as at the dawn of the automotive industry, is widely used manual transmission. Recently, along with manual transmission, to automate the process of shifting, becoming increasingly widespread hydrodynamic transmission. However, all these transmissions have a high metal content in connection with the necessity of such units, as the clutch, transmission, drive shafts, main gear with the differential. In addition, these transmissions use a large number of gears. All this has led to the fact that the modern car is quite low efficiency, which ultimately leads to a large number of excessive fuel consumption, and that, ultimately, affects the environment.

Known volumetric hydraulic transmission including an adjustable pump, hydraulic motor, indicated by the hose with the pump, manual control pump flow, kinematically associated with a mechanism for regulating the fuel pump, hydraulic cylinder, the chokes and the distributor (SU 1054610 And 15.11.1983). However, the hydraulic transmission is very complex and cumbersome, which reduces its reliability and efficiency.

Closest to the proposed device is the technical nature, solved technical task and the total essential features for a hydraulic drive with throttle control, including pressure, drain and suction hydroline, unregulated hydraulic pump with hydraulic motor, hydraulic valve, adjustable chokes on - one in the pressure, and the other in the drain hydroline. However, the presence of two chokes in the pressure and drain the hose creates additional resistance to the passage of the working fluid, which leads to lower efficiency of the vehicle, and also complicates the design of the actuator due to the need for additional devices to control the throttles, which also leads to lower reliability of the transmission (SU 344191 And 07.07.1972).

Technical problem which the claimed invention is directed, with appropriate technical result is:

- ease vehicle control;

- simplification of the structure of the transmission;

- reduction of fuel consumption;

- weight reduction of transmission and consequently the vehicle;

- increasing the efficiency of the vehicle;

- reducing the cost of the vehicle;

- increase the reliability of the vehicle;

- increase engine life;

- improving the maintainability of transport among the STV.

The problem is solved as follows.

Hydraulic automatic continuously variable transmission includes kinematically associated with motor vehicle unregulated plate hydraulic pump, indicated by the pressure, the discharge and suction hose through the covering of the pressure and drain the hydroline hydraulic valve that performs the reverse function, with at least one unregulated reversible plate hydraulic motor, for transferring torque in at least one leading wheel of the vehicle, while the cavity suction and discharge hose is in communication with the cavity of the tank, in addition, the suction hydroline passes through covering its adjustable hydraulic throttle control lever is kinematically connected with the accelerator pedal of the vehicle.

The following features characterize the invention in particular cases, specific forms of performing transmission:

- mentioned hydraulic pump as a hydraulic motor, is made with the rotor having a single groove in which is located, at least one plate;

- rotor motor provided with two plates;

Jack mentioned plates is along the axis of the rotor, in which (in the connector) is one or more springs;

- spring is screw;

mentioned hydroline represent the piping and/or flexible hose;

- mentioned hydraulic valve made dip;

- hydraulic valve made crane;

- suction hydroline equipped with a heater and/or cooler;

- heater and/or cooler installed at the site between the hydraulic tank and hydraulic choke;

- heater and/or cooler installed near the tank;

the tank is equipped with a heater and/or cooler;

- suction hydroline equipped with a heater and pressure hydroline equipped with a cooler;

- the heater is installed close to the tank, and the cooler is installed near the pump;

- suction hydroline connected with the drain hydroline, together with pressure hydroline closed loop;

the transmission is equipped with two unregulated reversible plate motors for transmission to each of the torque to one or two leading wheels of the vehicle;

the transmission is equipped with three unregulated and reversible plate motors to transfer one of them the moment of rotation of the two driven wheels of the vehicle located on the same axis, and the other two of the motor and - other relevant driving wheels;

the transmission is equipped with four unregulated reversible plate motors for transmission to each of the torque corresponding to the leading wheel of the vehicle.

These characteristics are essential and interrelated with the formation of a stable set of essential features, sufficient to solve the task with obtaining appropriate technical result.

Used terms are given the following values:

“motor vehicle” - drive gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine;

- “suction hydroline” - hydroline low pressure passing from the tank to the pump;

- “pressure hydroline” - hydroline high pressure passing from the hydraulic pump to the hydraulic motor;

- “drain hydroline” - hydroline low pressure passing from the hydraulic motor to the hydraulic tank;

- the area from the hydraulic valve to the hydraulic motor case drain and pressure hydroline reversed, depending on the driving mode of the vehicle is “forward” or “back”;

- “tank” - hydroelastic, in the claimed invention under excessive pressure, i.e. above atmospheric;

- “the cooler” - deploom the config apparatus for cooling the working fluid in high temperature environments, can be both air and water;

“heater” is a heat exchanger for heating the working fluid at low temperatures;

“hydraulic valve” - reversing mechanism for changing the direction of flow of the working fluid, depending on the driving mode of the vehicle is “forward” or “back”in the claimed invention applied crane dip dispenser;

- hydraulic choke” - regulatory Gidropark to change the flow rate of the working fluid in the claimed invention is mainly used crane;

the “accelerator” pedal to control the speed of the vehicle engine.

The possibility of carrying out the invention described above, a set of features, as well as the possibility of realization of the purposes of the invention can be confirmed by the description of possible design of the device made in accordance with the invention, the essence of which is illustrated graphics, which depict the following :

Figure 1 - structural diagram of the declared transmission when the position of the hydraulic valve (reverse) forward, when the vehicle is moving forward.

Figure 2 is the same when the position of the hydraulic valve (reverse) is back when the vehicle is moving backward.

Figure 3 - structural diagram of the declared transmission (top view).

4 is a hydraulic diagram of the declared transmission.

5 is a diagram of the locations of the units on the vehicle.

Under the positions shown following:

1 - the engine of the vehicle;

2 - coupling (connection of the engine with the water pump);

3 - hydraulic pump;

4 - hydraulic motor;

5 - the wheel of the vehicle;

6 - pressure hydroline (high pressure);

7 - cooler;

8 - hydraulic valve (reversing mechanism);

9 - drain hydroline (low pressure);

10 - tank;

11 - suction hydroline (low pressure);

12 - heater;

13 - hydraulic choke;

14 - the accelerator pedal.

The shaded part in figure 1 and figure 2 presents the working fluid, and the arrows - movement during the rotation of the water pump counterclockwise. Also the arrows on figure 1 and figure 2 show the direction of rotation of the motor in the same direction as the hydraulic pump (counterclockwise) when the vehicle ahead (figure 1), and in the opposite direction (clockwise) when the vehicle is back (figure 2).

The essence of the proposed transmission (most preferred option) is as follows.

DWI is the motor 1 of the vehicle via the coupling 2 is connected with the hydraulic pump 3, employees for feeding the working fluid (oil) in the system with a view to its submission to the hydraulic motor 4 for rotating the wheels 5 of the vehicle. After the hydraulic pump 3, the working fluid passes through the pressure hydroline 6 through the cooler 7. Next, the working fluid passes through the hydraulic valve 8, which is open depending on the direction of movement of the vehicle (“forward” or “back”), and enters the hydraulic motor 4. The shaft of the motor 4 is connected to the shaft (axle) wheel 5 or installed directly on the wheel 5, passing torque. Then the working fluid passes through the hydraulic motor 4, rotating it, and then through the drain hydroline 9 enters the tank 10. From the tank 10, the working fluid passes through the suction hydroline 11 through the heater 12 and into the hydraulic orifice 13, which serves for dispensing working fluid in the hydraulic pump 3. Hydraulic choke 13 kinematically connected with the pedal 14 (5) of the accelerator (gas) engine 1 and is opened at least pressing, i.e. increasing the number of revolutions

engine 1, an accelerator pedal 14. Hydraulic choke 13 at idling of the engine 1 is completely closed, while the working fluid in the hydraulic pump 3 is not received, and the vehicle is standing still. As you press on the accelerator pedal 14, and therefore, increasing the number of turns on the " 1 occurs simultaneous opening of the hydraulic valve 13, the working fluid enters the hydraulic pump 3, is the clutch, i.e. the flow of operating fluid to the hydraulic motor 4, which transmits torque to the wheel 5 of the vehicle. As more pressing on the accelerator pedal 14 is opened, the hydraulic distributor 13, and thus an increase of the working fluid, i.e. with the increase in the working fluid and the number of revolutions of the engine 1 increases the speed of the vehicle.

In addition, it should be noted that:

- drain hydroline 9, the suction hydroline 11 and the tank 10 is communicated among themselves in the same place for the working fluid could, depending on the situation and differential pressure, to move directly from the drain of hydroline 9 in the suction hydroline 11, or first move in the tank 10, and then into the suction hydroline 11, or at the same time part of the tank 10, and the other part - in the suction hydroline 11;

- mentioned kinematic connection of the control lever adjustable hydraulic orifice 13 with the accelerator pedal 14 of the engine 1 transport sredstva can be made in the form of rods and/or levers;

- working fluid can be performed on mineral oil or synthetic base.

The present invention is industrially applicable as to the manufacturer of the population does not require special equipment and new technology.

Currently, the prototype of the claimed invention (HABTM)mounted on a basic production vehicle, the test results showed that the proposed design of transmission completely solves the technical problem of achieving appropriate technical result above. Transmission is simple in operation. It has high control range. When reaching the maximum speed of the prototype is the patency of the vehicle in substantial fuel savings (up to 1/3), which makes this car more environmentally friendly. High range control allows you to significantly increase the durability of the engine as it operates in the most optimal conditions. The total weight of the transmission 60 to 80 percent lighter than traditional. No gears make the car quiet, and the absence of cardan shafts avoids vibration of the car to increase its clearance. In the declared transmission there is no gear that increases the efficiency of the vehicle and reduces the weight of 60-80% at a low cost. The result is improved reliability, durability, maintainability transmission, reduces its cost. Due to the absence of the transmission, driveshafts, gearbox, transfer case, differentials and wheel R is Doctorow its weight is reduced by 5-7 times compared to traditional transmission all-wheel drive car. HABTM transmits on 2 or more wheels at any speed range in all road conditions. Absolute tightness of the transmission allows you to use it in the car amphibian. HABTM does not limit the power of the engine. HABTM allows the use of electronics almost instantly and smoothly to synchronize the adjustment of each drive wheel depending on the varying torque on the wheel. Almost HABTM allows you to replace the electronic unit synchronization of rotation of the wheels of the cars of Formula 1.

Described in this example and shown in the graphic materials design of transmission is not only possible to solve the above technical problem and does not preclude other options for its manufacture that contains a set of topics included in the independent claim.

1. Hydraulic automatic continuously variable transmission, including kinematically associated with motor vehicle unregulated plate hydraulic pump, indicated by the pressure, the discharge and suction hose through the covering of the pressure and drain the hydroline hydraulic valve that performs the reverse function, with at least one unregulated reversible plate hydraulic motor to transfer them m the ment of rotation of the at least one leading wheel of the vehicle, when this cavity suction and discharge hose is in communication with the cavity of the tank, in addition, the suction hydroline passes through covering its adjustable hydraulic throttle control lever is kinematically connected with the accelerator pedal of the vehicle.

2. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the said hydraulic pump as a hydraulic motor, is made with the rotor having a single groove in which is located, at least one plate.

3. Transmission according to claim 2, characterized in that the rotor of the motor is provided with two plates.

4. Transmission according to claim 3, characterized in that the connector mentioned plates is along the axis of the rotor, where the one or more springs.

5. Transmission according to claim 4, characterized in that the spring is made of a screw.

6. Transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the hydroline represent the piping and/or flexible hose.

7. Transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the said hydraulic valve is made off.

8. Transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the hydraulic valve is made of the crane.

9. Transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the suction hydroline equipped with a heater and/or cooler.

10. Transmission is according to claim 9, characterized in that the heater and/or cooler installed at the site between the hydraulic tank and hydraulic choke.

11. Transmission according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the heater and/or cooler installed near the tank.

12. Transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the tank is equipped with a heater and/or cooler.

13. Transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the suction hydroline equipped with a heater and pressure hydroline equipped with a cooler.

14. Transmission according to item 13, wherein the heater is installed close to the tank, and the cooler is installed near the pump.

15. Transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 14, characterized in that the suction hydroline connected with the drain hydroline.

16. Transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 15, characterized in that it has two unregulated reversible plate motors for transmission to each of the torque to one or two leading wheels of the vehicle.

17. Transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 15, characterized in that it is equipped with three unregulated reversible vane hydraulic motors, to send one of them the moment of rotation of the two driven wheels of the vehicle located on the same axis, and the other two motors - other suitable the m leading wheels.

18. Transmission according to any one of claims 1 to 15, characterized in that it is equipped with four unregulated reversible plate motors for transmission to each of the torque corresponding to the leading wheel of the vehicle.



 

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