Apparatus for grinding of organic substances

FIELD: fruit grinding equipment.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has rotating disk with grinding members and squeezing device with screw-type conveyor for feeding fruits to disk. Slot of adjustable width is arranged between squeezing device and disk. Grinding members are made in the form of detachably fixed planks. Planks are extending in radial directions and are provided with saw-shaped edges. Trough on end side of disk, in the vicinity of grinding plank, on at least one side thereof is adapted for discharge of ground organic substances, said trough being open at outer side of disk.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, provision for obtaining of desired structure of ground product and optimal output of apparatus.

20 cl, 15 dwg

 

The invention relates to a device for grinding organic substances, in particular for grinding fruit, which is rotating around its axis drive motor, which drives it in rotation, and on the front side of the disk are grinding elements, and means for supplying organic substances to the front side of the disk.

Machine drum-type cutting machine, in particular for cutting sugar beet slices, known from the patent US-A-4584919 (Bittner). It has multiple tabs located around the circumference of the drum at equal distances from each other and held essentially parallel to the axis of the drum. Between each pair of clamps mounted knife box, the cutting edge which runs essentially in the direction of the circumference.

For grinding fruit is already well-known different versions of drum mills of this type, for example Central Bucher-Guyer AG, Niederweningen, Switzerland. This drum mill includes the body of the drum, made in a single piece, around the entire circumference of which is at a small distance from each other is installed clamps for chopping knives. In the ready position, the drum such mill forms an essentially closed cavity with a hole passing through the axis from one side, through which the auger can be served to be their grinding the fruit.

Such drum mills have several disadvantages:

- fruit circulating at high speed in the drum, in particular apples, creating a large unbalanced force. All mill shakes and creates a lot of noise. Unbalanced forces affect negatively on the service life of used bearing drum;

despite changes in the distribution of the teeth of the knives can only very slightly affect the structure of the resulting fruit pulp. This structure, however, affects the output of fruit pulp/performance in the subsequent processes of pressing, which could not be improved during the optimization process;

- foreign body, gets together with fruit material, such as stones, creating a relatively large imbalance and severely damage the chipping knives;

- lumineuse device for fruits and mill drum rotating at the same speed. The mill is not operating at peak performance, as practically does not occur prior umiraniya. When too a small amount of fruit, the proportion of fines in the fruit pulp is very high. This adversely affects performance during subsequent pressing and leads to clogging of filters designed to separate solid and liquid fractions;

- the casing of the mill what about the drum with the necessary slots for the output of fruit pulp is costly in manufacturing.

In addition, the patent US-A-4683790 (Bittner) is already known cutting machine with a disk drive, in particular for cutting sugar beet slices. This machine includes a frame and a cutting disk support and drive. The cutting wheel has a flat surface and evenly distributed bandwidth holes for sliced product, which are preferably longitudinally in the radial direction. Admissions departments for the cutting knives are about the access holes.

The machine for cutting with known disk type cutter wheel is in most cases of a steel plate with rectangular bandwidth holes for the sliced product. In such disk mills found the following drawbacks:

- low performance, as it involved only part of the disk;

- minaudi auger, feed product, either absent or is moving at the same speed as the drive, and it turns out the undesirable effect of blockage;

- too much progress helix of the worm winaudio auger overload or blocking;

- function disk mill is poorly suited to the type of crushed material;

the product emerging from the cutting machine is not suitable as the compression of the material to squeeze the juice.

The invention aims to remedy these disadvantages of the local devices for grinding organic substances due to the new implementation.

According to the invention this task is solved by the device of the specified type, as follows: funds are available for submission of organic substances in the form of winaudio device with a drive engine, and a performance winaudio device and the performance of a rotating disk during the grinding regulated independently from each other.

Lumineuse device preferably includes a helical screw conveyor, the axis of which is essentially the continuation of the axis of the disk. Best way lumineuse device produces organic substances essentially the entire end surface of the disc through the cylindrical body, the output of which is located at some distance opposite end surface, and a cylindrical housing includes guide elements, which prevent the rotation of the supplied organic substances. While grinding elements positioned on the front side of the disk is made of several fortified with replaceable chopping planks with saw-tooth edges, taking place essentially in the radial direction and on the front side of the disk, right about chopping planks, passing in the radial direction at least on one side there is a groove, open on the outer edge of the disk and is designed to discharge the crushed bodies the organic substances.

Best to use the device due to the sensitive means in the form of sensors for determining the torque which is effective in bringing the rotation of the rotating disk, and also thanks connected with the sensor management tool for performance tuning winaudio device by an amount corresponding to the preset value of this torque.

Other options are shown in the claims.

Examples of carrying out the invention is described in more detail below and represented in the drawings, where

figure 1 - schematic representation of the cross-section grinding mill for fruits with the claimed device for grinding;

figure 2 is a cross section of a trench, having a rectangular profile and located on one side of the grinding element in a rotating disk grinding mill according to figure 1;

figure 3 - cross section of the trough on the two sides of the grinding element in a rotating disk grinding mill according to figure 1;

figure 4 is a cross section of a trench with a round profile, which is located on one side of the grinding element in a rotating disk grinding mill according to figure 1;

5 is a cross-section of the trench with an angled profile located on one side of the grinding element of u is continuous disk grinding mill according to figure 1;

6 is a cross section of the cylindrical casing body winaudio device for conveying product in a grinding mill according to figure 1;

Fig.7 is a view of a rotating disk grinding mill according to figure 1;

Fig. 8A, 8b, 8C - two radial longitudinal section and a radial cross section of a bearing of a rotating disk grinding mill according to figure 1 by means of spacer bolts in different positions on the axis;

Fig.9 - fragment replaceable wearing rings on the cylindrical housing winaudio feeder product according to figure 1 in cross section perpendicular to the axis of the body;

figure 10 - fragment according to Fig.9 cross-section parallel to the axis of the body;

11 is a radial cross-section of a fragment from moving along the axis of the wear ring on the cylindrical housing winaudio feeder product according to figure 1 to change the size of the grinding gap between the wear ring and the rotating disc grinding mill according to figure 1;

Fig - view in the radial direction on the item under 11 and

Fig diagram of an adjusting device with controls for grinding mill according to Fig 1 to select patterns grinded product.

As shown schematically shows a cross-section of the grinding mill for fruit is s with the stated chopping device according to Fig. 1, the grinding mill includes rotating around a horizontal axis 1 disk 2 together with the engine 3, intended to bring it (the disk) in action. On the front side of the disk 2, as shown more precisely in Fig. 7, in the radial direction has multiple grinding elements 4. A continuation of the axis 1 axis is the 5 spiral screw conveyor 6 winaudio device 7 for feeding organic substances for grinding. The helical screw conveyor b is located in the cylindrical housing 8, which has an inlet 9 and outlet 10, which is opposite to the face side of the disk 2. To actuate the helical screw conveyor 6 about housing 8 has an engine 11.

Disk 2, and a spiral screw conveyor 6 rotate advantageous way in the opposite direction. The speed of rotation of the disk 2 is significantly higher than the rotational speed of the screw of the screw conveyor 6. Disk 2 together with his motor 3 is installed on the panel with the flanges 12, and the connection of the latter with the casing 8 is detachable. Constructive node, consisting of the engine 3, the panels with the flanges 12 and disc 2, by means of the swivel unit 13 may deviate from the housing 8 and rotated to a vertical position axis 1. Due to this, the end face of the disk 2 with the grinding element and 4 is easily accessible for cleaning and replacement of parts. The output 10 of the body 8 is thrown forward, as shown by Fig. 1, and disk 2 is enclosed in an open one side of the annular channel 14, to which the bottom is attached to the hopper 15, which fall crushed organic substance.

For better removal of organic substances separated and pulverized using disk 2, the housing 8 at least in the area of the disk 2 forms with the plane of the disk acute angle. As can be seen more precisely in Fig. 1 and Fig. 6, inside the casing of the cylindrical body 8 are arranged parallel to the axis of four straps 16, which act as blockers of rotation of organic substances supplied screw screw conveyor 6.

These blockers rotation prevent or reduce joint rotation of the comminuted material and a helical screw conveyor 6. The goal is getting to the drive fruits, such as apples, in the form of an undifferentiated mass. Too much movement of apples relative to each other increases the proportion of fines in the crushed material. Crushed fruit pulp is discarded from disk 2 into the annular channel 14 of the housing 8. While the structure of the fruit pulp must endure shorter destruction. Due to the inclined position of the body 8 in the disk region 2 best way, the collision angle of fruit pulp is Radka 15-75° . Fruit pulp then bails out of the hopper 15 to the outside.

In addition to the slats 16 in Fig. 1 and 6 is visible at the output 10 of the body 8 is another block rotation 17 with the support plate 18. Grinding elements 4 are to improve the effect of grinding the edges like a saw blade, in which the inhibitor of rotation 17 is opposing teeth to remove fibers when working grinding mill. Between the disc 2 and the output 10 of the body 8 is grinding the slot 19. Grinding the crack 19 defines, together with the size of the step gear sawtooth edges grinding bars 4 and the rotation speed of the disk 2 is essentially the structure of the comminuted material.

As shown in detail figa, the size of the grinding gap 19 in the embodiment according to figure 1 can be changed during idle time of the device. For this purpose, the disk 2 is rigidly mounted on the shaft 20 with a clamping of the retaining ring 21 by means of spacer bolts 22 in a powered Chuck 23. Thanks to the introduction of at least two stud bolts 22 in the drilled holes at different depths in powered cartridge 23 can change the distance between the disk 2 and powered by the Chuck 23 and thereby the size of the grinding gap 19. Figs shows a cross-section according figa vertically relative to the shaft 20 along the line C-C. the section Plane figa given on figs along the line A-A. the cross section Plane fig.8b shown in figs along the line B-C. On 8b shows what is shown here in cross section drilled holes in powered cartridge 23 is inserted spacer bolts 22 according figa, but they (drilled holes) is made deeper in powered cartridge 23 than is shown in figa. Clamping of the retaining ring 21 acts from the center of the removable grinding strips 4 mounted in the radial direction on the front side of the disk 2 with locking tabs 24 and thus to the disk 2.

If the disk 2 is rotated by the rotary device 13, the grinding of the strap 4 can simply be changed by unscrewing the clamping of the retaining ring 21. As figure 1 shows, this is the best final position of the motor 3 is rotated 90°. Grinding of the strap 4 in this position can not fall out of disk 2 even in the absence of clamping of the retaining ring 21.

To rotate the motor 3 is released threaded connection or a fast shutter between the panel flanges 12 and the cylindrical body 8, and with the help of the swivel unit 13 located on both sides of the engine 3, the structural unit, which consists of the engine 3, the panels with the flanges 12, disc 2, is rotated. After passing the highest position 25 this is a structural node position 26. In this position 26 part of the swivel unit 13 is disconnected, the engine 3 is archivesa 90° up and in a rotated position again is fixed.

Figure 2 shows a cross section of one of the grinding strips 4 arranged in the radial direction on the front side of the disk 2 in accordance with figure 1. Due to the rotation of the disk 2 is made a chopping motion of the slats 4 in the direction of the arrow 30 down. In this part of the grinding strips 4, serving at a height of 31 on the front side of the disk 2, snatches part 32 of the fetus 33, which omineca helical screw conveyor 6. These parts 32 are displayed on the chute 34, having a rectangular profile and is located on one side in the direction of the arrow 30 before grinding plate 4 in the disk 2. The groove 34 is open at the circumference of the disk 2, so here part 32 can enter the annular channel 14 and the hopper for vyvalivaya 15. It is important that the pulp directly after separation from Apple as little as possible exposed to mechanical stress, so that its structure has not changed.

Under the process of “angrisani” here refers to a partially combined effect obtained by cutting and grinding. The goal is to “vygruzhennye” from the fruit of 33 part 32 had a possible large available surface, so that many cells of the fetus remained open. So, a large part of the cell SAP may be freely drain, and following this, the process of squeezing the juice and press the Oia “ingrisano” product easier.

Presented on figure 3 cross-section corresponds to the cross section of figure 2, however, according to figure 3 on both sides of the grinding of the strap 4 is located on one chute 35 and 36. This arrangement has the advantage that from the fruit of 33 according to Fig. 2 “wykrywanie” part 32 when the disk 2 is disposed in both directions of rotation. Grinding of the strap 4 can thus be applied on both sides. Grinding of the strap 4 is blunted always only where them according to the direction of movement 30 of the disk 2 is loaded. If one side is stupid, by changing the direction of rotation can double the service life of the grinding bars 4. Gutters up RUB 35.36 are rounded with a radius of 37. Due to this, stems and grains fruits 33 less stuck and zaselyaetsya in the grooves 35, 36.

Presented in figure 4 cross-section corresponds to that shown in figure 2, however, according to figure 4, the groove 34' has a completely rounded shape. This makes it possible better to avoid undesirable sticking or jamming of the fruit 33.

Depicted in figure 5 cross-section corresponds to the one presented in figure 2, however, according to figure 5, the chute 34" beveled thanks also prevents the entrapment of solids in the trough 34".

Figure 6 shows cross section a-a according to Fig 1 of the cylindrical body 8 to change ichauway mill perpendicular to the axis. Seen three of the four strips 16, which are installed as blockers of rotation along the length of the housing 8. In addition, the inhibitor of rotation 17 is shown with a support plate 18, which is held at the output 10 of the body 8 according to figure 1 in greater axial region. Lock rotation 17, with or without a counter relative to the grinding strips 4 teeth, performs two functions: it stops the fruits of 33 before chopping straps 4 by slowing down the movement of rolling with getting the best structure of the pulp, resets fiber, hanging on the chopping planks 4 and not reset. The structure of the fruit pulp becomes more uniform, and the power of the drive motor 3 and 11 is lossless and purposefully.

Fig.7 shows the end view of the rotary disk 2 according to figure 1 with the grinding straps 4 and immediately adjacent one side of the chute 34 for discharge of product. Grinding strips 4 are arranged radially, and they continue to be at the center of rotation 1 of disc 2. Even in which direction chopping planks 4 does not point to the center of rotation 1. The number of grinding bars 4 is advantageous manner from approximately 4 to 40.

Grinding of the strap 4 can also have different lengths. The trough 34 - if you look in the direction of rotation are in front of ismelda is concerned straps. Fruit pulp comes out of the chute 34 with a radial speed of 40 and circumferential speed 41 constituting the speed 42 with the rotation angle of the thread 43.

Figure 9 shows a portion of a replaceable wear ring 50 on the cylindrical housing 8 winaudio feeder product according to figure 1 in cross section perpendicular to the axis of the housing, figure 10 shows the same fragment in the cross section parallel to the axis of the housing. Both cross-sections pass through the mounting bolt 51, which enters through the wear ring 50 to the inside of the strap 16. Figure 10 also shows the continuation of the 8' of the housing 8 in the direction of the annular channel 14 according to figure 1.

As with some of the grinded material in the grinding mill is possible ingress of foreign bodies, the edge of the housing 8 about the grinding gap 19 according to Fig 1 is subjected to heavy wear. In this regard, we can replace the wear ring 50 on the housing 8 with a threaded connection 51. The wear ring 50 is made advantageous by way of high quality steel, sufficiently resistant to wear.

11 shows a radial cross-section of a fragment of moving along the axis of the wear ring 50' on the cylindrical housing 8 winaudio feeder product according to figure 1. The size of the grinding gap 19 can be adjusted during operation and avtomaticheskij. Fig shows a radial view in the direction of the arrows In under 11, and the section plane 11 on Fig indicated by the arrows C-C. the circumference of the wear ring 50' is located on the housing 8 and parallel to its axis of the slots 51 through which the wear ring 50' threaded bolts 52. Inner chamber of the housing 8 has an outer seal in the form of two O-rings 53, is inserted into the wear ring 50'.

The bolts 52 are, in addition, through passing obliquely slots 54 in the adjusting ring 55 is mounted outside the housing 8. The adjusting ring 55 has a flange 56 of the gear 57, which is driven by the gear 59 driven by a motor 58. The motor 58 mounted on the housing 8 by means of a flange 60. Depending on the direction of rotation of the motor 58 of the grinding gap 19 is increased or decreased.

Fig shows a scheme of the adjusting device with controls for grinding mill according to Fig 1 to select patterns of crushed material. The same elements are in figure 1 and Fig the same notations. To determine the true condition of the grinding mill at Fig presents the following sensors: sensor power drive 3 drive 2 with the signal wire 70, the sensor acceleration when the vibration of the grinding device with the signal wire 71, the motion sensor wear rings for measuring the grinding gap 19 with the signal wire 72 and the sensor power consumption of the drive screw 11 of the screw conveyor 6 with the signal wire 73.

Signal wires 70, 71, 72, 73 are connected, as shown Fig, with the regulator 75. Depending on the true state and from the predetermined wire 76 values, the controller 75 sets of grinding mill value of the speed of rotation of the drive 3 drive 2 - wire 77, the speed of rotation of the drive screw 11 of the screw conveyor 6 - wire 78 and adjusts the servo motor 58 for grinding slits 19 - wire 79.

Use this measurement and the adjustable parameters of the device for grinding organic substances performs the following functions of regulation and control:

- automatic adjustment of the torque of the drive disk 2. This sets the constant speed rotation of the disk 2. Torque of the drive is measured indirectly through the consumption of power by wire 70. This value measurements “torque” is maintained constant by changing the speed of rotation of the helical screw conveyor 6 in the form of a regulating variable. With increasing speed of the screw conveyor increases the demand torque of the drive disk;

- impact on the structure of p is odawa berry pulp. This structure is affected by adjustment during operation of the grinding mill of the following parameters: the speed of rotation of the disk 2, the size of the grinding gap 19 and the power consumption of the drive 3 drive 2.

In accordance with the task using the described device, the following benefits occur:

thanks to the abstraction of fruit pulp in the trough 34 of the disk 2 and the annular channel 14 of the housing 8 and its structure does not change or does not suffer from the effect of podpiranja. In the pulp of a certain proportion of fine fractions, which when pressed fruit clogged the filter and reduces the productivity of the press;

- due to the presence in the structure of the fruit pulp of different fractions from small to very large - grinding can be optimally aligned with the compressibility and fruit properties of the material. Very soft fruits can, thus, grind very coarsely and very firm fruit, very fine;

in contrast to the mentioned prior art mill with the proposed device for grinding works very quietly and with little vibration. This mill is very easy to make tight, if you need to process very wet products on or through excess pressure. Then there is no loss of juice and pressure. It is very useful to make the mill is sealed when the processing is to develop products in the presence of a volatile solvent;

- in the processing of fibrous products in most cases, the separated fibers are shaken off from teeth grinding bars 4. Fiber is not clogged in the depressions between the teeth. The milling capacity and structure of the fruit pulp remain unchanged;

- wear parts of the mill is very simple and inexpensive to manufacture. When the ingress of foreign bodies such as stones, boards, etc., minor damage.

Options describes the design and application of devices for grinding organic substances understandable specialist. So you can automatically continuously making the optimal structure of a comminuted product using a specified means of regulation and control for optimal performance and yield in the subsequent processes of pressing.

1. Device for grinding organic substances, in particular for grinding fruit, including rotating around its axis drive together with the engine to bring it into rotation, and on the front side of the disk are grinding elements, and means for supplying organic substances to the front side of the disc, and means for supplying organic substances made in the form of winaudio device with a drive engine and performance winaudio in which trojstva when odinani and performance of a rotating disk during the grinding regulated independently from each other, grinding elements, located on the end side of the disc, made in the form of multiple grinding bars that are fortified with replacement, are held in the radial direction and have a sawtooth edge on the front side of the disk right about chopping strap passing in the radial direction at least on one side there is a chute for discharge of the crushed organic substances, open at the outer edge of the disk.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that lumineuse device includes a helical screw conveyor, the axis of which is essentially a continuation of the axis of the disk.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that lumineuse device delivers organic substance, essentially, the entire end surface of the disc through the cylindrical body, the output of which is located against the end surface at some distance from it, and that the cylindrical body includes a guiding elements, blocking the movement of rotation filed organic substances.

4. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that at the end of the output cylindrical body winaudio device is replaceable wear ring.

5. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the distance between the end of the exit of the cylindrical body and the end surface of the disk is reguliruemym.

6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that there are regulatory tools that are designed to change the distance between the housing and the end surface by means of the engine during operation of the device.

7. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the distance between the end of the helical screw conveyor on the side of the disk, and the end surface of the disk is at least 50 mm

8. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the disc mounted on the drive shaft by means of a screw connection, and that the distance between the end of the cylindrical body at the outlet end side of the disc is adjustable by rotating the disc relative to the drive shaft.

9. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that at least one of the block guide elements in the housing winaudio device comes on an axis almost to the chopping planks on the disk and is included along their edges in engagement with the alternating system, as we saw, the teeth in the form of a scraper dumper.

10. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the height of the grinding strips against the end side of the drive can be adjusted by setting and fixing the grinding strips in the radial grooves of different depths.

11. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that the grinding plate in radial grooves vol is lnany with the opportunity to record and release that is installed in the center of the bolt.

12. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the disk together with his engine made with the possibility of removing from the body winaudio device to replace the grinding bars.

13. The device according to item 12, wherein the disk is rotated into its final position in which its front side is mostly horizontally toward the top.

14. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it has a movable supporting device that supports constructive node, consisting of a disk with a drive shaft and a drive motor, in the process of rotation at the center of gravity of the node.

15. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the housing is for receiving and draining crushed organic substances, which surrounds at least a rotating disk in the form of an open one side of the annular channel adjacent to the cylindrical housing winaudio device and, at least in the area of the disk for removal of organic substances, it forms with the plane of the disk acute angle.

16. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the drive motor rotating the disk can rotate the selection in two directions.

17. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that there are sensors that register the device to vibrate during operation and stop the actuator device when exceeding asked the th limit values of vibration.

18. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that there are sensitive elements for registration of torque, acting casting the rotation of the rotary disc, and the associated sensor means adjustment for performance tuning winaudio device by an amount corresponding to a given magnitude of this torque.

19. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that on both sides of the grinding strips made in accordance with the chute.

20. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the groove is rounded or beveled.



 

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