Method for heating of plants in hydroponic units of greenhouse

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves heating trays and useful volume of greenhouse, with trays being heated with hydroponic solution having initial temperature below 300C and final temperature of at least 150C, when said solution is discharged from trays; keeping air temperature of at least 40C in useful volume of greenhouse; isolating useful volume of greenhouse from remaining volume.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for heating plants in hydroponic units of greenhouse, convenient maintenance and reduced costs of materials.

2 cl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular, to methods of heating plants in hydroponic greenhouses.

Known methods of heating plants in hydroponic by heating tent greenhouse water heating and(or) by the hot-water heating soil of the greenhouse. When water heating tent greenhouse temperature of the heat carrier take no more than RS, and when water heating soil greenhouse - not more than 45°C.

These methods of heating the greenhouse plants require a large amount of energy due to the fact that the temperature under the roof of the greenhouse is high and reaches 20-25°that leads to large losses of heat through the protection of a greenhouse, which is proportional to the difference between internal and external temperatures (Greenhouses and greenhouses. Handbook edited Gil, Kiev, “Harvest”, 1993).

For the prototype accepted method of heating plants by additional heating trays, hydroponic installations heating elements, namely, that under each tray install the heating element. The heating elements are turned on or off via the control Cabinet automatically according to the readings of the temperature sensors (Patent RF №2045889, A 01 G 31/00, 1995, bull. No. 29).

The characteristics of the prototype, coinciding with the essential features of the claimed invention, the following.

The method of heating R is steni in hydroponic greenhouses is in the heating trays and useful volume of the greenhouse.

Barriers to obtaining the required technical result of the prototype, following.

To use the method on the prototype requires special equipment and its maintenance. The heating elements must be installed under each tray. You also need the control Cabinet, wiring to each unit from the power point, which increases material costs for installation and maintenance.

In hydroponic greenhouses primary heating mode temperature in the zone of plants 15-20°C. the Heating elements heat the trays with the root system of plants to 18-20°C. the main energy costs come from heating the greenhouse, which should compensate for heat loss through the fence greenhouses in proportion to the difference of the inner and outer temperatures.

The technical result from the use of the proposed method is the reduction of energy consumption for heating plants in hydroponic and the convenience of the service, the reduction of material costs.

The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the present invention is achieved as follows. Trays in hydroponic greenhouses heat continuously circulating through him hydroponic solution. The initial temperature of this solution will not exceed Iset 30° C and the final temperature at the discharge trays with not less than 15°C. in Addition, the useful volume of the support greenhouse air temperatures not lower than 4°C. the Useful volume of the greenhouse is separated from the rest of the volume.

The essential features of the claimed invention are as follows.

The method of heating plants in hydroponic greenhouses is in the heating trays and useful volume of the greenhouse, and the trays are heated continuously circulating through him hydroponic solution with an initial temperature not exceeding 30°and the final temperature at the discharge trays with not less than 15°C.

The air temperature in the useful volume of the greenhouse support not below 4°C. in Addition, the useful volume of the greenhouse is separated from the rest of the volume.

Unlike the prototype trays in the present method heat the hydroponic solution, which continuously circulates through the trays. The initial temperature of the solution does not exceed 30°and the final temperature at the discharge trays with not less than 15°C. in Addition, the useful volume of the greenhouse maintain the air temperature is not below 4°and the useful volume of the greenhouse is separated from the rest of the volume.

Heating trays by the present method is carried out continuously circulating through the trays hydroponic solution.

This allows you to warm root area and create a microclimate is not orestano in the area of plant growth, that reduces energy costs for heating.

For heating trays on the proposed method does not require additional heating device on each tray. In the present method is used as the working fluid hydroponic solution, which is heated by one of the heating apparatus. This creates convenience when servicing heating equipment and reduces material costs.

Hydroponic solution served in trays with temperature not exceeding 30°not to cause inhibition of the activity of the root system of the plants and to prevent the precipitation of the mineral nutrient salts. On the junction with tray temperature hydroponic solution should be not less than 15°because at lower temperatures the root system of most plants is poorly absorbs phosphorus.

Heating trays continuously circulating through him hydroponic solution creates convenience for maintenance hydroponic plants, as it allows to apply a sufficient amount of thermal energy and abandon time relay, shutters and pumps in the conventional system of hydroponics. Pumps in the conventional system hydroponics work intermittently, causing inrush load when running these pumps, and this leads to the failure of both pumps and relays time.

In useful about the heme greenhouses maintain the temperature below 4° With, but at the same time heated by the root system and the plant itself warm upward flow from the warm hydroponic solution and formed the microclimate in the immediate area of the plants, which reduces energy costs for heating. Take the lower temperature limit is determined by physiological processes in plants. At temperatures below 4°most plants are violated normal physiological processes in the leaves.

The useful volume of the greenhouse is separated from the rest of the volume (from the cold outside the area, for example, translucent film, thereby reducing the heated volume of the greenhouse, because heat only the surface layer of air with plants that reduces energy costs for heating plants.

Department of the useful volume of the greenhouse from the cold outside zone suppress convection and infiltration heat flow, reduce the heat losses of the greenhouse in the atmosphere, which prevents the additional cost of heating the greenhouse.

An example of the proposed method.

Hydroponic solution is heated by a heating apparatus to a temperature of not higher than 30°and continuously operating pump serving trays, while controlling the temperature of the hydroponic solution draining from the tray, preventing its reduction below 15°C.

Supply adjustment talonite is I (hydroponic solution) is performed with the gate valve on the suction pipe upstream of the pump increasing or decreasing the flow of fluid thereby regulate the temperature at the discharge not less than 15°C. more flow of coolant, the higher the temperature at the junction.

Over the trays of plants set transparent screen (for example, translucent film, which separates the useful volume of the greenhouse with plants from the cold outside the zone.

The heat hydroponic solution and heating system that heats the useful volume, separated from the outside volume of the greenhouse, and the screen reduces heat loss, as this is an optional inner fence.

Hydroponic solution directly heats the root zone of plants and convective and radiative flows heats the plant itself, forming in the root zone and in the zone of foliage plants climate with high temperature relative to the total temperature in the useful volume of the greenhouse.

At night supported by the main heating system the temperature in the useful volume of the greenhouse is not below 4°With, in the zone of plants due to heat hydroponic solution is formed, the temperature is not below 10°and the temperature in the roots of plants - not less than 15°, which positively affects the absorption by plants of nutrients to the root system and lower consumption of nutrients on the night of the stomach is s at low temperature foliage.

In the day time when the same mode of operation of the main heating system by solar radiation, the air temperature in the useful volume of the greenhouse rises to 10-15°to reduce heat hydroponic solution. At positive temperatures (at night above 4°in the daytime to 0° (C) main heating system can be turned off and the temperature can be maintained only by circulating the heated trays hydroponic solution. This mode of heating significantly reduces energy costs for heating greenhouses.

1. The method of heating plants in hydroponic greenhouses by heating trays and useful volume of the greenhouse, characterized in that the trays are heated continuously circulating through him hydroponic solution with an initial temperature not exceeding 30°and the final temperature at the discharge trays with not less than 15°With, in the useful volume of the greenhouse maintain the air temperature is not below 4°C.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the useful volume of the greenhouse is separated from the rest of the volume.



 

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